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  1. Augustan Society, Inc.

    augustansociety.org › cpage

    Apr 21, 2017 · Descendants of Ireland. ... Matilda of Flanders b.c. 1031 ... III von Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor b. 21 September 1415, Innsbruck, Tyrol d. 19 August 1493, Linz ...

  2. Exposing the Sorcerers: the Habsburgs – The TRUTH SOURCE

    thetruthsource.org › exposing-the-sorcerers-part-ii

    King of Germany. (King of – Romans) Rudolf was the son of Albert IV, Count of Habsburg. Rudolf came from 14 generations of nobility and wealth. He had 11 children with Gertrude of Hohenburg: 1c1g Matilda – mother of Louis IV, H. Roman Emperor in 1328-. 2c1g Albert I, King of Germany (1255-1308) called Albrecht.

  3. Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Emporer
    • Roman Empire and Byzantine Emperors
    • Ottoman Empire
    • Holy Roman Empire
    • Austrian Empire
    • Emperors of Europe
    • Emperors in The Americas
    • Persia
    • Indian Subcontinent
    • Africa
    • East Asian Tradition

    Classical Antiquity

    When Republican Rome turned into a de facto monarchy in the second half of the 1st century BC, at first there was no name for the title of the new type of monarch. Ancient Romans abhorred the name Rex ("king"), and it was critical to the political order to maintain the forms and pretenses of republican rule. Julius Caesar had been Dictator, an acknowledged and traditional office in Republican Rome. Caesar was not the first to hold it, but following his assassination the term was abhorred in R...

    Ottoman rulers held several titles denoting their Imperial status. These included:[citation needed] Sultan, Khan, Sovereign of the Imperial House of Osman, Sultan of Sultans, Khan of Khans, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe, Protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem, Emperor of The Three Cities of Constantinople, Adrianopole and Bursa as well as many other cities and countries.[citation needed] After the Ottoman capture of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman sultans began to style themselves Kaysar-i Rum(Emperor of the Romans) as they asserted themselves to be the heirs to the Roman Empire by right of conquest. The title was of such importance to them that it led them to eliminate the various Byzantine successor states – and therefore rival claimants – over the next eight years. Though the term "emperor" was rarely used by Westerners of the Ottoman sultan, it was generally accepted by Westerners that he had imperial...

    The Emperor of the Romans' title was a reflection of the translatio imperii (transfer of rule) principle that regarded the Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, despite the continued existence of the Roman Empire in the east, hence the problem of two emperors. From the time of Otto the Great onward, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia became the Holy Roman Empire. The prince-electors elected one of their peers as King of the Romans and King of Italy before being crowned by the Pope. The Emperor could also pursue the election of his heir (usually a son) as King, who would then succeed him after his death. This junior King then bore the title of Roman King (King of the Romans). Although technically already ruling, after the election he would be crowned as emperor by the Pope. The last emperor to be crowned by the pope was Charles V; all emperors after him were technically emperors-elect, but were universally re...

    The first Austrian Emperor was the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. In the face of aggressions by Napoleon, Francis feared for the future of the Holy Roman Empire. He wished to maintain his and his family's Imperial status in the event that the Holy Roman Empire should be dissolved, as it indeed was in 1806 when an Austrian-led army suffered a humiliating defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz. After which, the victorious Napoleon proceeded to dismantle the old Reich by severing a good portion from the empire and turning it into a separate Confederation of the Rhine. With the size of his imperial realm significantly reduced, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor became Francis I, Emperor of Austria. The new imperial title may have sounded less prestigious than the old one, but Francis' dynasty continued to rule from Austria and a Habsburg monarch was still an emperor (Kaiser), and not just merely a king (König), in name. The title lasted just a little over one century until 1918, but it was...

    Byzantium's close cultural and political interaction with its Balkan neighbors Bulgaria and Serbia, and with Russia (Kievan Rus', then Muscovy) led to the adoption of Byzantine imperial traditions in all of these countries.

    Pre-Columbian traditions

    The Aztec and Inca traditions are unrelated to one another. Both were conquered under the reign of King Charles I of Spain who was simultaneously emperor-elect of the Holy Roman Empire during the fall of the Aztecs and fully emperor during the fall of the Incas. Incidentally by being king of Spain, he was also Roman (Byzantine) emperor in pretence through Andreas Palaiologos. The translations of their titles were provided by the Spanish.

    In Persia, from the time of Darius the Great, Persian rulers used the title "King of Kings" (Shahanshah in Persian) since they had dominion over peoples from the borders of India to the borders of Greece and Egypt. Alexander probably crowned himself shahanshah after conquering Persia[citation needed], bringing the phrase basileus ton basileon to Greek. It is also known that Tigranes the Great, king of Armenia, was named as the king of kings when he made his empire after defeating the Parthians. Georgian title "mephet'mephe" has the same meaning. The last shahanshah (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) was ousted in 1979 following the Iranian Revolution. Shahanshah is usually translated as king of kings or simply king for ancient rulers of the Achaemenid, Arsacid, and Sassanid dynasties, and often shortened to shah for rulers since the Safaviddynasty in the 16th century. Iranian rulers were typically regarded in the West as emperors.

    The Sanskrit word for emperor is Samrāj or Samraat or Chakravartin. This word has been used as an epithet of various Vedic deities, like Varuna, and has been attested in the Rig-Veda. Chakravarti refers to the king of kings. A Chakravartiis not only a sovereign ruler but also has feudatories. Typically, in the later Vedic age, a Hindu high king (Maharaja) was only called Samraaṭ after performing the Vedic Rajasuya sacrifice, enabling him by religious tradition to claim superiority over the other kings and princes. Another word for emperor is sārvabhaumā. The title of Samraaṭ has been used by many rulers of the Indian subcontinent as claimed by the Hindu mythologies. In proper history, most historians call Chandragupta Maurya the first samraaṭ (emperor) of the Indian subcontinent, because of the huge empire he ruled. The most famous emperor was his grandson Ashoka the Great. Other dynasties that are considered imperial by historians are the Kushanas, Guptas, Vijayanagara, Kakatiya, H...

    Ethiopia

    From 1270 the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia used the title Nəgusä Nägäst, literally "King of Kings". The use of the king of kings style began a millennium earlier in this region, however, with the title being used by the Kings of Aksum, beginning with Sembrouthesin the 3rd century. Another title used by this dynasty was Itegue Zetopia. Itegue translates as Empress, and was used by the only reigning Empress, Zauditu, along with the official title Negiste Negest("Queen of Kings"). In 1936, the...

    Central African Empire

    In 1976, President Jean-Bédel Bokassa of the Central African Republic, proclaimed the country to be an autocratic Central African Empire, and made himself Emperor as Bokassa I. The expenses of his coronation ceremony actually bankrupted the country. He was overthrown three years later and the republic was restored.

    The rulers of China and (once Westerners became aware of the role) Japan were always accepted in the West as emperors, and referred to as such. The claims of other East Asian monarchies to the title may have been accepted for diplomatic purposes, but it was not necessarily used in more general contexts.

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  5. European Heraldry :: Early Royal

    europeanheraldry.org › england › royal

    Matilda (c. 1102 – 1167) Queen of England (disputed) from 1141 to 1148. Married firstly Henry V (1081 or 1086– 1125) King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor and secondly Geoffrey V (1113 – 1151) Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine. See House of Anjou (Plantagenet) Sons of Saint Adela of Normandy:

  6. If Empress Matilda’s husband had been alive when King Henry I ...

    www.quora.com › If-Empress-Matilda-s-husband-had

    Answered May 27, 2021 · Author has 3.3K answers and 1.7M answer views Answer: yes and no. Matilda would very likely have had imperial backing for her claim. Whether Emperor Henry (too many Henrys around!) would want to be recognised as King alongside her is not so clear.

  7. Ottonian dynasty - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Ottonian_Emperors

    Former collegiate church of St. Servatius in Quedlinburg, founded in 936 by King Otto I, at the request of his mother Queen Matilda, in honour of her late husband, Otto's father, King Henry the Fowler, and as his memorial Otto I, Duke of Saxony upon the death of his father in 936, was elected king within a few weeks.

  8. Salian dynasty - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Salian_emperor

    Ottonian dynasty. Followed by. Süpplingenburg dynasty. The Salian dynasty or Salic dynasty ( German: Salier) was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages. The dynasty provided four kings of Germany (1024–1125), all of whom went on to be crowned Holy Roman emperors (1027–1125). After the death of the last Ottonian emperor in 1024, the Kingdom of ...

  9. House of Welf - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › House_of_Guelph

    The House of Welf is the older branch of the House of Este, a dynasty whose earliest known members lived in Lombardy in the late 9th/early 10th century, sometimes called Welf-Este. The first member was Welf I, Duke of Bavaria , also known as Welf IV.

  10. European Heraldry :: Kingdom of Naples 1282–1516

    europeanheraldry.org › italy › naples-and-sicily
    • 1266-1390
    • 1389-1399
    • 1399-1435
    • 1435–1442
    • 1442-1501, 1504–1516
    • 1501-1504
    • 1504–1516
    • Branches and Cadets of The House of Anjou

    Charles I of Anjou

    1. Charles I of Anjou (1227 –1285) Founder of the House of Anjou. Count of Provence (1246–85) and Forcalquier (1246–48, 1256–85), Count of Anjou and Maine (1246–85), King of Sicily (1266–82), King of Naples (1266–1285), Prince of Achaea (1278–85), King of Albania (1272-1285), and King of Jerusalem (1277-1285 by purchase). Youngest son of Louis VIII, King of France.Married firstly Beatrice of Provence (c. 1229 –1267) Sovereign Countess of Provence and Forcalquier (1245-1267) daughter of Ramon...

    Charles II the Lame (1254 – 1309) King of Naples

    1. Charles II the Lame (1254 – 1309) King of Naples, Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1285–1309), Prince of Achaea (1285–1289), and Count of Anjou and Maine (1285–1290), Titular King of Albania and King of Jerusalem. Married Mary of Hungary (c. 1257 – 1323) daughter of Stephen V, King of Hungary

    Robert I the Wise (1275 – 1343) King of Naples

    1. Robert I the Wise (1275 – 1343) King of Naples, titular King of Jerusalem and Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1309-1343). Married firstly Yolanda of Aragon (1273 – 1302) daughter of Peter III, King of Aragon and secondly Sancia of Majorca (c. 1285 – 1345) daughter of James II, King of Majorca

    Louis I

    1. Louis I (1339 – 1384) Count of Maine, Duke of Anjou, Duke of Touraine, titular King of Naples (1382-1384), son of John II, King of France. Adopted by Joanna I.Married Marie of Blois (1345-1404) daughter of Charles, Duke of Brittany.

    Louis II

    1. Louis II (1377 – 1417) Duke of Anjou and Count of Provence, King of Naples (1389–1399), titular King of Naples (1384–1389, 1399-1417).Married Yolande of Aragon (1384 – 1442) titular queen regnant of Aragon, daughter of John I, King of Aragon.

    Louis III

    1. Louis III (1403 – 1434) Duke of Anjou and Count of Provence, titular King of Naples from (1417-1426)

    Ladislaus the Magnanimous (1377 – 1414) King of Naples

    1. Ladislaus the Magnanimous (1377 – 1414) King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem and Sicily, titular Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1386–1390, 1399-1414) and titular King of Hungary (1390–1414).Married firstly Costanza Chiaramonte (c. 1377 – 1423) daughter of Manfredi III Chiaramonte, Count of Modica and Malta (annulled 1392), secondly Mary of Lusignan (1381 - 1404) daughter of James I, King of Cyprus and thirdly Mary of Enghien (1370 – 1446) Countess of Lecce (1384-1446) daughter...

    Joanna II

    1. Joanna II (1371 – 1435) Queen of Naples (1414-1435). Married firstly William (c. 1370 –1406) Duke of Austria and secondly James II (1370 – 1438) Count of Bourbon-La Marche

    René of Anjou

    1. René of Anjou (1409–1480) Count of Piedmont, Duke of Bar (1430–80), Duke of Lorraine (1431–53), Duke of Anjou, Count of Provence (1434–80), King of Naples (1435–1442; titular 1442–80), titular King of Jerusalem (1438–80) and Aragon including Sicily, Majorca and Corsica (1466–70).Married firstly Isabella (1400 – 28 February 1453) was suo jure Duchess of Lorraine (1431-1453) daughter of Charles II, Duke of Lorraine and secondly Jeanne de Laval (1433 – 1498) daughter of Guy XIV de Laval, Coun...

    Alfonso I the Magnanimous (1396 – 1458) King of Naples

    1. Alfonso I the Magnanimous (1396 – 1458) King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia (as Alfonso III), Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica (as Alfonso II), Sicily (as Alfonso I) and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso IV) from 1416, and King of Naples (as Alfonso I) from 1442. Knight of the Order of the Dragon. Knight of the Order of the Garter. Adopted by Joanna II in 1421 as heir. Married Maria of Castile (1401 – 1458) daughter of Henry III, King of Castile

    Ferdinand I (1423 – 1494) King of Naples from 1458 to 1494

    1. Ferdinand I (1423 – 1494) King of Naples from 1458 to 1494. Illegitimate son of Alfonso I. Knight of the Order of the Garter. Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Married firstly Isabella of Clermont (c. 1424 – 1465) Sovereign Princess of Taranto, daughter of Tristan de Clermont, Count of Copertino and secondly Joanna of Aragon (1455 – 1517) daughter of John II, King of Aragon.

    Alfonso II (1448 – 1495) King of Naples from 1494 to 1495

    1. Alfonso II (1448 – 1495) King of Naples from 1494 to 1495. Knight of the Order of the Garter. Married Ippolita Maria Sforza (1446 – 1484) daughter of Francesco I Sforza, Duke of Milan.

    Louis III (XII) (1462 – 1515) King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504

    1. Louis III (XII) (1462 – 1515) King of France from 1498 to 1515 (as Louis XII) and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504 (as Louis III). Married firstly Saint Joan of France (1464 – 1505) daughter of Louis XI, King of France (annulled 1498), secondly Anne of Brittany) (1477 – 1514) Duchess of Brittany daughter of Francis II, Duke of Brittany and thirdly Mary Tudor (1496 – 1533) daughter of Henry VII, King of England.

    Ferdinand III (II) the Catholic (1452 – 1516) King of Naples from 1504 to 1516.

    1. Ferdinand III (II) the Catholic (1452 – 1516) King of Aragon from 1479 to 1516, King of Navarre from 1512 to 1516, King of Castile and León from 1474 to 1516, King of Naples from 1504 to 1516. Married firstly Isabella I (1451 – 1504) Queen Regnant of Castile and León, daughter of John II, King of Castile and León and secondly Germaine of Foix (1488 – 1536) daughter of John of Foix, Viscount of Narbonne

    Joanna “the Mad”

    1. Joanna “the Mad” (1479–1555) Queen Regnant of Castile from 1504 to 1516 and Queen Regnant of Aragon in 1516. Married Philip I, also known as Philip the Handsome (1478–1506) the son of the Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and crowned King of Castile in 1506.Through his mother Mary of Burgundy he inherited the greater part of the Burgundian state the Burgundian Netherlands and through his wife Joanna the Mad he briefly succeeded to the kingdom of Castile.

    Charles Martel

    1. Charles Martel (1271 – 1295) titular King of Hungary (1290–1295) Married Klementia of Habsburg (d. 1295) daughter of Rudolph I, Holy Roman Emperor. See Hungary 2. Robert I the Wise (1275 – 1343) King of Naples. See above

    Philip I (1278 – 1331) Prince of Achaea and Taranto, Despot of Romania, Lord of Durazzo, titular Emperor of Constantinople.

    1. Philip I (1278 – 1331) Prince of Achaea and Taranto, Despot of Romania, Lord of Durazzo, titular Emperor of Constantinople. Married firstly Thamar Angelina Komnene, daughter of Nikephoros I Komnenos Doukas, Despot of Epirus and secondly Catherine of Valois (1303 – 1346) Latin Empress of Constantinople (1307–1346) daughter of Charles, Count of Valois and Catherine of Courtenay, Latin Empress of Constantinople. See below

    Raymond Berengar (1282–1307) Count of Andria and Count of Provence and Prince of Piedmont

    1. Raymond Berengar (1282–1307) Count of Andria and Count of Provence and Prince of Piedmont.Married Margaret of Clermont (1289–1309) daughter of Robert, Count of Clermont.

  11. Mary I of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Mary_I_of_England

    Mary was—excluding the disputed reigns of Jane and the Empress Matilda—the first queen regnant of England. In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556. After Mary's death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor, Elizabeth I

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