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  1. Matilda of Habsburg (473 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article Matilda of Habsburg or Melchilde (1253 in Rheinfelden – 23 December 1304 in Munich, Bavaria) was, by marriage, a duchess of Bavaria.

  2. In 1554, Mary married the future King Felipe II of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556. He was the eldest son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who is also Carlos I of Spain, and Eleanore of Portugal. Felipe’s father arranged this marriage to 37-year-old Queen Mary I of England, Charles’ maternal first ...

    • Reign
    • Cultural Pursuits
    • Administration
    • Latter Years and Death
    • Appraisal of Reign
    • Physical Description
    • Marriage and Descendants
    • See Also

    In 1290, Denis began to pursue the systematic centralisation of royal power by imposing judicial reforms, instituting the Portuguese language as the official language of the court, creating the first university in Portugal, and ridding the military orders in the country of foreign influences. His policies encouraged economic development with the creation of numerous towns and trade fairs. He advanced the interests of the Portuguese merchants, and set up by mutual agreement a fund called the Bolsa de Comércio, the first documented form of marine insurance in Europe, approved on 10 May 1293. Always concerned with development of the country's infrastructure, he encouraged the discovery and exploitation of sulphur, silver, tin and ironmines and organised the export of excess production of agricultural crops, salt, and salted fish to England, Flanders, and France. Denis signed the first Portuguese commercial agreement with England in 1308, and secured a contract in 1317 for the services...

    During Denis' reign, Lisbon became one of Europe's centres of culture and learning. The first university in Portugal, then called the Estudo Geral (General Study), was founded with his signing of the document Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis in Leiria on 3 March 1290. Lectures in the arts, civil law, canon law, and medicine were given, and on 15 February 1309, the king granted the university a charter, the Magna Charta Privilegiorum. The university was moved between Lisbon and Coimbra several times, and finally installed permanently in Coimbra in 1537 by order of King John III. As a devotee of the arts and sciences, Denis studied literature and wrote several books on topics ranging from government administration to hunting, science and poetry, as well as ordering the translation of many literary works into Galician-Portuguese (Portuguese had not yet fully evolved into a distinct language), among them the works attributed to his grandfather Alfonso X. He patronised troubadours, and wrot...

    As heir-apparent to the throne, Infante (Prince) Denis was summoned by his father Afonso III to share governmental responsibilities. The country was again in conflict with the Catholic Church at the time, Afonso having been excommunicated in 1277, and only being absolved in 1279 when he acceded to Rome's demands on his deathbed.Consequently, the church was favorably inclined to reach an agreement with the new monarch upon his accession to the throne. In 1284, however, Denis emulated the example of his grandfather and father, and launched a new series of inquiries to investigate the expropriation of royal property, to the detriment of the church. The next year he took further steps against ecclesiastical power when he promulgated amortisation laws.These prohibited the church and religious orders from buying lands, and required that they sell or forfeit any they had purchased since the start of his reign. Several years later he issued another decree forbidding them to inherit the esta...

    The latter part of Denis' generally peaceful reign was nevertheless marked by internal conflicts. The contenders were his two sons: Afonso, the legitimate heir, and Afonso Sanches, his bastard son, who quarreled frequently among themselves for royal favour. At the time of Denis' death in 1325 he had placed Portugalon an equal footing with the other Iberian Kingdoms. Afonso, born in Lisbon, was the rightful heir to the Portuguese throne. However, he was not Denis' favourite son, the old king preferring Afonso Sanches, his illegitimate son by Aldonça Rodrigues Talha.The notorious rivalry between the half brothers led to civil war several times. Elizabeth would serve as intermediary between her husband and Afonso during the civil war of 1322–1324. The Infante Afonso greatly resented the king, whom he accused of favoring Afonso Sanches. Denis had little popular support in the war because of the many privileges he had granted to the nobles in the last years of his reign, while the infant...

    Bearing in mind the many centuries that separate Denis from the present, an impression of his personality can be gathered from the historical record: he was determined, even obstinate, in his attempts to systematically centralise the government and consolidate royal power. For example, his launching of general inquiries (Inquirições gerais) at a remarkably accelerated pace to investigate land ownership and identify cases where abuses were committed. Denis revealed early on his ability as an effective strategist in the pursuit of his goals, and as an innovator of proactive legislative policy. With the benefit of a posterioriscrutiny, it is clear that his administrative decisions were not made randomly or without consideration of his ideal of a well-governed nation. The wide range of his policies is indicated by a few examples: the concomitant creation of new towns and trade fairs, the fortification of the country's borders and the increasing dependence of the military orders on the r...

    The historical sources of King Denis's time, as well as later authors, failed to provide any detailed physical description of the monarch. The information we have today comes from an accidental opening of his tomb during a restoration in 1938. It was discovered that the legend of a figure of towering height was not an accurate one as he was only about 1.65 metres (5 feet 5 inches) tall. Denis made his will when he was 61 and died at age 63. He apparently enjoyed excellent health throughout his life, as he traveled frequently, got involved in wars from an early age and at age 60 still hunted. He died with complete dentition,a rarity for the time, something that even today continues to be fairly unusual. A distinctive feature of his physiognomy revealed by examination of the body was that his hair and beard were auburn. This is a curious fact, as he was the first of the Portuguese royal line up to that time to have that hair color. This genetic trait could have been passed on the mate...

    Denis' only wife was Isabel or Elizabeth of Aragon, daughter of Peter III of Aragon. They married in 1288 and she bore him a son and a daughter. Like other monarchs of the time, he had several illegitimate children as well.

  3. After he was crowned Emperor in 1433, Emperor Sigismund, who was also King of Hungary, used a black double-headed eagle, which like the Gnostic Ouroboros serpent biting its tale employed for the emblem of his Order of the Dragon, is a common alchemical symbol.

  4. A few months ­after Frederick’s accession, in October 1740, the death of Emperor Charles VI left the Habsburg dynasty vulnerable, for the heir to the throne was female, Maria Theresa. Though Charles had sought to secure her succession to the Habsburg hereditary lands through the so-­called Pragmatic Sanction, opposition could be anticipated ...

  5. Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225. 1346 relations.

  6. It was, nonetheless, perhaps the most remarkable enterprise of the age of sail, an epic which for the first time revealed the immensity of the Pacific. 1521 saw another round in the Italian wars (1494–1559), this time sparked by French fears of a Habsburg-dominated Europe after the election of Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor.