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  1. Existential psychotherapies, an application of humanistic psychology, applies existential philosophy, which emphasizes the idea that humans have the freedom to make sense of their lives. They are free to define themselves and do whatever it is they want to do.

  2. Several social theorists and academics have strongly criticized structuralism or even dismissed it. French hermeneutic philosopher Paul Ricœur (1969) criticized Lévi-Strauss for overstepping the limits of validity of the structuralist approach, ending up in what Ricœur described as "a Kantianism without a transcendental subject ."

  3. Cees van Leeuwen, in Advances in Psychology, 1998. Constructivism and Gestalt Psychology. Constructivism, until recently, has been prevalent in perceptual psychology.In contrast with what Gestaltists believed, most cognitive psychologists assumed that perceptual structures reveal greater uniformity at the level of their components than at the level of wholes and that, for this reason, the ...

  4. Philosophy of Language. Those who use the term “philosophy of language” typically use it to refer to work within the field of Anglo-American analytical philosophy and its roots in German and Austrian philosophy of the early twentieth century. Many philosophers outside this tradition have views on the nature and use of language, and the ...