The Mediterranean Sea is the body of water that separates Europe, Africa, and Asia. The Mediterranean Sea is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a narrow passage called the Strait of Gibraltar. The sea is almost completely surrounded by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Middle East. It covers ...
The Mediterranean Sea covers an area of about 2,500,000 km 2 (970,000 sq mi), representing 0.7% of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar—the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa—is only 14 km (9 mi) wide.
Mediterranean region. The Mediterranean region is the region surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. This includes places from Europe and Africa and Asia. Most of the region has a Mediterranean climate with warm to hot dry summers and cool to mild wet winters. Plants that grow there are short trees and shrubs which survive the yearly drought during ...
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- Use of The Term in Roman Times
- Use by Italian Nationalists
- Use by Mussolini and The Italian Fascists
- Use of The Term Today
The term mare nostrum was used in the first place by Romans to refer to the Tyrrhenian Sea. This was after they had taken over the countries around it. These were Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. It happened during the Punic Wars with Carthage. When they controlled Hispania they expanded the term to the whole western Mediterranean. By 30 BC, the Romans had taken over the countries around the Mediterranean from the Iberian Peninsula to Egypt. So they started to use the name mare nostrum for the whole Mediterranean Sea. They used other names as well, such as Mare Internum("The Internal Sea"). However, they did not use the name "Mediterranean" (Middle Sea), as this name came later.
In the 1880's some Italians became interested in nationalism. Other European countries had made colonies in Africa (called the "Scramble for Africa"). They wanted Italy to have African colonies too. The term mare nostrum was used again by the Italian poet Emilio Lipi
The term was again used by Benito Mussolini for use in fascist propaganda. He used it in the same way that Adolf Hitler used the word lebensraum (German for "living space"). It meant they wanted to take over other countries to have more for themselves. Mussolini wanted Italy to be great like the Roman Empire. He believed that Italy was the most powerful Mediterranean country after World War I. He said that "the twentieth century will be a century of Italian power". Mussolini built up a powerful navyso he could control the Mediterranean Sea. When World War II started, Italy already controlled the north and south shores of the middle part of the Mediterranean. The western part was controlled by Spain and France. The eastern part by Greece, Turkey and the British Empire. In 1940 the fall of France removed the main threat from the west. At the same time Italy invaded Greece and Egypt and attacked the island of Malta. Mussolini talked about making the Mediterranean "an Italian lake". The...
The name "Mare Nostrum" was chosen for a conference by the Society for Mediterranean Law and Culture. It was held in June 2012 at the University of Cagliari in Sardinia.What they meant by the term was the full diversity of Mediterranean cultures, especially for exchanges and cooperation among Mediterranean nations. After a 2013 shipwreck near Lampedusa when many migrants from Africa had to be rescued. The Italian government increased its patrolling of the Mediterranean Sea. It called this "Operation Mare Nostrum", which was a military and humanitarian operation to rescue the migrants and arrest the traffickers of immigrants.
1. Lowe, C.J. (2002). Italian Foreign Policy 1870-1940. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-27372-2 2. Tellegen-Couperus, Olga (1993). Short History of Roman Law. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07251-4 3. Talbert, R., M. E. Downs, M. Joann McDaniel, B. Z. Lund, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. Places: 1043 (Internum Mare). Pleiades. Retrieved 1 July 2015
Aegean Sea. / 39°N 25°E / 39; 25. The Aegean Sea is part of the Mediterranean Sea. It is between Greece and Anatolia. It is connected (attached) in the north to the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus. The large islands of Rhodes and Crete mark the south end.
- Major Surface Actions of The Campaign
- Major Axis and Allied Amphibious Operations
For the most part, the campaign was fought between the forces of the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina), supported by other Axis naval forces, and the forces of the British Royal Navy, supported by other Alliednaval forces. Each side had three overall goals in this battle. The first was to attack the supply lines of the other side. The second was to keep open its own supply lines, the Axis to their own armies in North Africa and the Allies to supply the island of Malta. The third was to destroy the ability of the opposing navy to wage war at sea. Outside of the Pacific ocean, the Mediterranean saw the largest conventional naval warfare during the war. In particular, Allied forces struggled to supply and retain the key naval and air base of Malta.
The Axis forces in this campaign were:- 1. Italian Navy, Air Force and Army 2. German Navy (u-boat force), Air Force and Army The Allied forces in this campaign were:- 1. British Navy, Air Force and Army 2. Australian Navy, Air Force and Army 3. New Zealand Navy, Air Force and Army 4. Greek Navy, Air Force and Army 5. French (at the beginning; later they were neutral) 6. United States (at the end)
On 10 June 1940, Italy declared war on Britain and France. On the following day, Italian bombers attacked Malta on what was to be the first of many raids. The first clash between the rival fleets, the Battle of Calabria, took place on 9 July 1940, just four weeks after the start of hostilities. This was inconclusive (neither side won), and was followed by a series of small ship actions (the battle of the Esperoconvoy, battle of Cape Spada) during the autumn. In spring 1940 the British Royal navy attacked at Mers el Kebir (Algeria) the French navy of Vichy, sinking two battleships and other minor ships. In November, the RN mounted an aerial attack on the Italian fleet in Tarantoharbour, crippling three capital ships and changing the balance of power in the Mediterranean. Three months later the fleets clashed again at the Battle of Cape Matapan. This was a major Allied victory; three Italian cruisers were sunk, and a battleship damaged in a two-day battle ending in a night action. Fol...28 June 1940, Battle of the Espero Convoy. Italian convoy attacked, destroyer Esperosunk.9 July 1940, Battle of Calabria. Inconclusive fleet action.19 July 1940, Battle of Cape Spada. Cruiser action, Bartolomeo Colleonisunk.12 October 1940, Battle of Cape Passero.
The following are the major amphibious operationsstaged during the Battle of the Mediterranean: 1. 25 February 1941, Allied assault on Kastelorizo. 2. 20 May 1941, start of the Battle of Crete, the Axis invasion of Crete. 3. 19 September 1942, Allied assault on Tobruk. 4. 3 November 1942 Italian landing in Corsica, and occupation of the island. 5. 8 November 1942, start of Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of Vichy-controlled Morocco and Algeria. 6. 9 July 1943, start of Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily. 7. 3 September 1943, start of the Allied invasion of Italy. 8. 8 September 1943, start of the Dodecanese Campaign, the failed Allied attempt to invade the Dodecanese Islands. 9. 9 September 1943, start of the Allied Salerno landings in Italy. 10. 22 January 1944, start of Operation Shingle, the Allied landings at Anzioin Italy. 11. 15 August 1944, start of Operation Dragoon, the Allied landings in southern France.Eric Groves: Sea Battles in Close-Up Vol II (1993). ISBN 0-7110-2118-X
- 10 June 1940 – 2 May 1945
- Mediterranean Sea
- Allied victory