Subcategories. This category has the following 25 subcategories, out of 25 total. Middle Eastern people by ethnic or national origin (34 C) Middle Eastern people by religion (24 C) Egyptian people by political orientation (17 C)
The Middle East is widely and most famously known as the Cradle of civilization. The world's earliest civilizations, Mesopotamia ( Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia ), ancient Egypt and Kish in the Levant, all originated in the Fertile Crescent and Nile Valley regions of the ancient Near East.
Subcategories. This category has the following 17 subcategories, out of 17 total. Ethnic groups in the Middle East (4 C, 9 P)
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Islam started in Arabia, Arabic is the language of Islamic scripture, and most Arabs are Muslims. However, only about 20% of Muslims are Arabs. The first mention of Arabs appeared in the mid-9th century BCE, as a tribal people in Eastern and Southern Syria and the northern Arabian Peninsula.
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The linguistic and political denotation inherent in the term Arab is generally dominant over genealogical considerations. In Arab states, Standard Arabic is used by the government. Local vernacular languages are referred to as Darija (الدَّارِجَة "everyday/colloquial language") in the Maghreb or Aammiyya (لعَامِيَّة "common language") in the Mashreq. The majority of the vocabulary in these vernaculars is shared with Standard Arabic, but they also significantly borrow from other languages, such as Berber, French, Spanish and Italianin the Maghreb.
In the Arab world, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic (symptomatic of Arabic diglossia), serves as an official language in the Arab League states, and Arabic dialects are used as lingua franca. Various indigenous languages are also spoken, which predate the spread of the Arabic language. This contrasts with the situation in the wider Islamic world, where, in contiguous Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan, the Perso-Arabic script is used and Arabic is the primary liturgical language, but the tongue is not official at the state level or spoken as a vernacular. Arabs constitute around one quarter of the 1.5 billion Muslimsin the Islamic world.
The Arabs historically originate as a Central Semitic group in southern Levant and northern Arabian peninsula. Arab tribes and federations such as Nabataeans, Tanukhids, Salihids, Ghassanids, and numerous other groups were prevalent in southern Levant (Syrian Desert) and northern Arabia. Their expansion beyond Arabia and the Syrian desert is due to the Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries. Iraq was conquered in 633, Levant(modern Syria, Israel, Palestine, Jordan and Lebanon ) between...
Ottoman and colonial rule
The Arab Abbasid Caliphate fell to the Mongol invasions in the 13th century. Egypt, the Levant and Hejaz also came under the Turkish Mamluk Sultanate. By 1570, the Turkish Ottoman Empire controlled most of the Arab world. However, Morocco remained under the rule of the Zenata Wattasid dynasty, which was succeeded by the Saadi dynasty in the 16th to 17th centuries. The Ajuran Sultanatealso held sway in the southern part of the Horn region. The sentiment of Arab nationalism arose in the second...
Rise of Arab nationalism
The Arab League was formed in 1945 to represent the interests of the Arabs, and especially to pursue the political unification of the Arab world, a project known as Pan-Arabism.There were some short-lived attempts at such unification in the mid-20th century, notably the United Arab Republic of 1958 to 1961.The Arab League's main goal is to unify politically the Arab populations so defined. Its permanent headquarters are located in Cairo. However, it was moved temporarily to Tunis during the 1...
The Arab World stretches across more than 13,000,000 square kilometres (5,000,000 sq mi) of North Africa and the part of North-East Africa and South-West Asia. The eastern part of the Arab world is called the Mashriq. Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania are the Maghreb or Maghrib. The term "Arab" often connotes the Arabian Peninsula, but the larger (and more populous) part of the Arab World is North Africa. Its eight million square kilometers include two of the largest countries of the African continent, Algeria (2.4 million km2) in the center of the region and Sudan (1.9 million km2) in the southeast. Algeria is about three-quarters the size of India, or about one-and-a-half times the size of Alaska, the largest state in the United States. The largest country in the Arab Western Asia is Saudi Arabia (2 million km2). At the other extreme, the smallest autonomous mainland Arab country is Lebanon (10,452 km2), and the smallest island Arab country is Bahrain (665 km2). Nota...Baumann, Andrea (2006). Influences of culture on the styles of business behaviour between Western and Arab managers. Norderstedt, Germany: GRIN. ISBN 978-3-638-86642-2.Deng, Francis Mading (1995). War of visions: Conflict of identities in the Sudan. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. ISBN 0-8157-1794-6.Frishkopf, Michael (2010). "Introduction: Music and media in the Arab world and Music and media in the Arab world as music and media in the Arab world: A metadiscourse". In Frishkopf, Michael (ed.)...Hourani, Albert Habib (1991). A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, Mass.: Warner Books. ISBN 978-0-674-39565-7.Ajl, Max. Imperialism and Class in the Arab World (September 2016), Monthly ReviewAyalon, Amy (1987). Language and change in the Arab Middle East: the evolution of modern political discourse Studies in Middle Eastern history. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 978-0-19-504140-8.Hourani, Albert (1983). Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939. Rev., with a new preface. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press. x, 406 p. ISBN 0-521-27423-0pbk.Tausch, Arno. A Look at International Survey Data About Arab Opinion (31 January 2014). "A look at recent (2013) international survey data about Arab opinion," Middle East Review of International A...
- 13,132,327 km² (5,070,420 sq mi)
- Who Is An Arab
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There are three points which decide whether someone is considered Arab or not: 1. Political: whether they live in a country which is a member of the Arab League (or the Arab World); this definition covers more than 450 million people. 2. Linguistic: whether their main language is Arabic; this definition covers more than 423 million people. 3. Genealogical: whether they can trace their ancestry back to the people who first lived on the Arabian Peninsula. Minorities are the Kurds in some Arab countries. The Kurdish people are often considered Arab, but they are an Iranic ethnic group with their own Kurdish language and culture. The same goes for Berbers and Bedouins. There are many people who can be called Arabs by these points, but who do not think of themselves as Arab. Examples include modern Egyptians (Coptics) and the Syriacs (Aramaics/Assyrians). Although they live in countries like Syria or Egypt which is part of the Arab League and speak the official language-Arabic, they are...
In Islamic and Jewish tradition, Arabs are a Semitic people who trace their ancestry from Ishmael, a son of the ancient patriarch Abraham and Hagar. Medieval Arab genealogistsseparate the Arabs into two groups: the "original Arabs" of South Arabia, descending from Qahtan (identified with the biblical Joktan) and the "Arabized Arabs" (musta`ribah) of North Arabia, descending from Adnan who is descended from Ishmael.
Most Arabs today follow the religion of Islam, whose greatest prophet is Muhammad. Christianity makes up the largest religious minority - most of the Christians that do consider themselves Arabs belong to the Greek Orthodox Church with smaller numbers of Roman Catholics. While Coptic and MaroniteCatholic Christians are native Arabic-speakers, many reject the Arab pan-ethnicity, but are still considered Arab by outsider sources. There are some small communities practicing Judaism and polytheism (the worship of many gods). Yazidisare sometimes counted as Arabs.