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  1. Hebrew alphabet - Wikipedia › wiki › Hebrew_alphabet

    The Hebrew alphabet (Hebrew: אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי ‎, Alefbet ivri), known variously by scholars as the Ktav Ashuri, Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language and other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Judeo-Spanish, Judeo-Arabic, and Judeo-Persian.

  2. The Hebrew Alphabet (Aleph-Bet) - Jewish Virtual Library › the-hebrew-alphabet
    • Phonology
    • Origin
    • Usage
    • Style
    • Example

    Like most early Semitic alphabetic writing systems, the alef-bet has no vowels. People who are fluent in the language do not need vowels to read Hebrew, and most things written in Hebrew in Israel are written without vowels.

    However, as Hebrew literacy declined, particularly after the Romans expelled the Jews from Israel, the Rabbis realized the need for aids to pronunciation, so they developed a system of dots and dashes known as nikkudim (points). These dots and dashes are written above or below the letter, in ways that do not alter the spacing of the line. Text containing these markings is referred to as \\"pointed\\" text.

    The dot that appears in the center of some letters is called a dagesh. With most letters, the dagesh does not significantly affect pronunciation. With the letters Bet, Kaf and Pe, however, the dagesh indicates that the letter should be pronounced with its hard sound (the first sound) rather than the soft sound (the second sound). In Ashkenazic pronunciation (the pronunciation used by many Orthodox Jews and by older Jews), Tav also has a soft sound, and is pronounced as an \\"s\\" when it does not have a dagesh. Vav, usually a consonant pronounced as a \\"v,\\" is sometimes a vowel pronounced \\"oo\\" (u) or \\"oh\\" (o). When it is pronounced \\"oo\\", pointed texts have a dagesh. When it is pronounced \\"oh\\", pointed texts have a dot on top. Shin is pronounced \\"sh\\" when it has a dot over the right branch and \\"s\\" when it has a dot over the left branch.

    The style of writing illustrated above is the one most commonly seen in Hebrew books. It is referred to as block print or sometimes Assyrian text. For sacred documents, such as Torah scrolls or the scrolls inside tefillin and mezuzot, there is a special writing style with \\"crowns\\" (crows-foot-like marks coming up from the upper points) on many of the letters. This style of writing is known as STA\\"M (an abbreviation for \\"Sifrei Torah, Tefillin and Mezuzot,\\" which is where you will see that style of writing. There is another style used for handwriting, in much the same way that cursive is used for the Roman (English) alphabet. This modern script style is illustrated below, at right. Another style is used in certain texts to distinguish the body of the text from commentary upon the text. This style is known as Rashi Script, in honor of Rashi, the greatest commentator on the Torah and the Talmud. The alefbet at left is an example of Rashi Script

    Each letter in the alefbet has a numerical value. These values can be used to write numbers, as the Romans used some of their letters (I, V, X, L, C, M) to represent numbers. Alef through Yod have the values 1 through 10. Yod through Qof have the values 10 through 100, counting by 10s. Qof through Tav have the values 100 through 400, counting by 100s. Final letters have the same value as their non-final counterparts. The number 11 would be rendered Yod-Alef, the number 12 would be Yod-Bet, the number 21 would be Kaf-Alef, the word Torah (Tav-Vav-Resh-He) has the numerical value 611, etc. The only significant oddity in this pattern is the number 15, which if rendered as 10+5 would be a name of G-d, so it is normally written Tet-Vav (9+6). The order of the letters is irrelevant to their value; letters are simply added to determine the total numerical value. The number 11 could be written as Yod-Alef, Alef-Yod, Heh-Vav, Dalet-Dalet-Gimmel or many other combinations of letters.

  3. Modern Hebrew - Wikipedia › wiki › Modern_Hebrew

    Modern Hebrew is written from right to left using the Hebrew alphabet, which is an abjad, or consonant-only script of 22 letters based on the "square" letter form, known as Ashurit (Assyrian), which was developed from the Aramaic script. A cursive script is used in handwriting.

    • Israel
    • L1: 5 million (2014), (L1+L2: 9 m; L2: 4 m)
  4. The Hebrew Alphabet - The Hebrew Letters - Essentials › jewish › The-Hebrew-Alphabet

    The Hebrew alphabet, the holy language of the Bible, is used for biblical Hebrew, Modern Hebrew, Jewish Aramaic, Yiddish, and Ladino. It consists of 22 letters, all consonants, none of which are lowercase. Each letter has its own sound and numerical value.

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  6. History of the Hebrew alphabet - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_the_Hebrew_alphabet

    "Paleo-Hebrew alphabet" is the modern term (coined by Solomon Birnbaum in 1954) used for the script otherwise known as the Phoenician alphabet when used to write Hebrew, or when found in the context of the ancient Israelite kingdoms.

  7. The Aleph Bet (Hebrew Alphabet) with Modern Hebrew Pronunciations Below is a table of the Hebrew letters and vowels (nikudot) along with their names and how to pronounce them in modern Hebrew.

  8. Hebrew alphabet | writing system | Britannica › topic › Hebrew-alphabet

    Hebrew alphabet, either of two distinct Semitic alphabets—the Early Hebrew and the Classical, or Square, Hebrew. Early Hebrew was the alphabet used by the Jewish nation in the period before the Babylonian Exile —i.e., prior to the 6th century bce —although some inscriptions in this alphabet may be of a later date.

  9. History of the Hebrew Alphabet | AHRC › alphabet › history-of-the

    The early Hebrew (Semitic) alphabet was used by many Semitic peoples of the ancient Near East, including the Canaanites, Moabites, Arameans, Phoenicians, Amonites and the Hebrews. This alphabet existed between the 20th and 12th centuries B.C.

  10. Square Aramaic alphabet (Hebrew) ~ Learn Aramaic › 2012 › 04

    Apr 18, 2012 · The modern Hebrew alphabet is modeled upon the Imperial Aramaic alphabet,which was used for writing Aramaic by the Persian Empire.For this and practical reasons nowadays the Modern Hebrew alphabet is used for writing Aramaic literature.

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