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  1. Modern Hebrew - Wikipedia

    Modern Hebrew, also known as Israeli Hebrew (Hebrew: עברית חדשה ‎, ʿivrít ḥadašá[h], [ivˈʁit χadaˈʃa], lit. "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew ( עברית ‎ Ivrit ), is the standard form of the Hebrew language spoken today.

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    • L1: 5 million (2014), (L1+L2: 9 m; L2: 4 m)
  2. List of Hebrew dictionaries - Wikipedia

    he:מילון בן-יהודה, the first modern Hebrew dictionary, compiled by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, whose first volumes were published in 1908. he:מילון ההווה , compiled by two members of the Academy of the Hebrew Language , edited in the present tense method, published in 1995, and reprinted in 2007.

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  4. Modern Hebrew verbs - Wikipedia

    (ʔ)al/ shmot hapo'al) in Modern Hebrew are formed by adding the prefix -ל, meaning "to, for". Older forms of Hebrew did not always add the prefix, and instead changed the vowels accordingly; but this is largely obsolete in modern usage. The passive binyans pu'al and huf'al do not have infinitives.

  5. Hebrew language - Wikipedia

    A Committee of the Hebrew Language was established. After the establishment of Israel, it became the Academy of the Hebrew Language. The results of Ben-Yehuda's lexicographical work were published in a dictionary (The Complete Dictionary of Ancient and Modern Hebrew). The seeds of Ben-Yehuda's work fell on fertile ground, and by the beginning ...

  6. Talk:Modern Hebrew verbs - Wikipedia

    The syntax of Modern Hebrew sentences follows that of the middle period rather than the Biblical. Modern Hebrew lacks the infinitive absolute form and the geminate conjugations entirely, although both are abundantly attested in Biblical Hebrew. The pronunciation of Biblical Hebrew today, more often than not, follows modern convention.

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    • Background
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    • Classification
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    • Phonology
    • Morphology
    • Syntax
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    • Bibliography

    The most com­mon schol­arly term for the lan­guage is "Mod­ern He­brew" (עברית חדשה‎ ʿivrít ħadašá[h]). Most peo­ple refer to it sim­ply as He­brew (עברית‎ Ivrit). The term "Mod­ern He­brew" has been de­scribed as "some­what problematic" as it im­plies un­am­bigu­ous pe­ri­odiza­tion from Bib­li­cal He­brew. Haiim B. Rosén (he) sup­ported the now widely used term "Is­raeli He­brew" on the basis that it "rep­re­sented the non-chrono­log­i­cal na­ture of Hebrew". In 1999, Is­raeli lin­guist Ghil'ad Zuck­er­mann pro­posed the term "Is­raeli" to rep­re­sent the mul­ti­ple ori­gins of the language.:325

    One can di­vide the his­tory of the He­brew lan­guage into four major periods: 1. Biblical Hebrew, until about the 3rd century BCE; the language of most of the Hebrew Bible 2. Mishnaic Hebrew, the language of the Mishnah and Talmud 3. Medieval Hebrew, from about the 6th to the 13th century CE 4. Modern Hebrew, the language of the modern State of Israel. Jew­ish con­tem­po­rary sources de­scribe He­brew flour­ish­ing as a spo­ken lan­guage in the king­doms of Is­rael and Judah, dur­ing about 1200 to 586 BCE. Schol­ars de­bate the de­gree to which He­brew re­mained a spo­ken ver­nac­u­lar fol­low­ing the Baby­lon­ian cap­tiv­ity, when Old Ara­maicbe­came the pre­dom­i­nant in­ter­na­tional lan­guage in the re­gion. He­brew died out as a ver­nac­u­lar lan­guage some­where be­tween 200 and 400 CE, de­clin­ing after the Bar Kokhba re­volt of 132–136 CE, which dev­as­tated the pop­u­la­tion of Judea. After the exile He­brew be­came re­stricted to litur­gi­caluse.

    He­brew had been spo­ken at var­i­ous times and for a num­ber of pur­poses through­out the Di­as­pora, and dur­ing the Old Yishuv it had de­vel­oped into a spo­ken lin­gua franca among the Jews of Pales­tine. Eliezer Ben-Yehuda then led a re­vival of the He­brew lan­guage as a mother tongue in the late 19th cen­tury and early 20th cen­tury. Mod­ern He­brew used Bib­li­cal He­brew mor­phemes, Mish­naic spelling, and Sephardic pro­nun­ci­a­tion. Many id­ioms and calques were made from Yid­dish. Its ac­cep­tance by the early Jew­ish im­mi­grants to Ot­toman Pales­tine was pri­mar­ily due to sup­port from the or­gan­i­sa­tions of Ed­mond James de Roth­schild in the 1880s and the of­fi­cial sta­tus it re­ceived in the 1922 con­sti­tu­tion of the British Man­date for Pales­tine. Jews from Arab lands in­tro­duced many loan­words from Ara­bic (e.g. na'ana, za­atar, mish­mish, kus­bara, ḥilba, lu­biya, hum­mus, gezer, rayḥan, etc.). The words gerev (sing.) / gar­bayim (pl.) are now ap­plied...

    Mod­ern He­brew is clas­si­fied as an Afroasi­atic lan­guage of the Se­mitic fam­ily and the Canaan­ite branch of the North-West se­mitic subgroup. While Mod­ern He­brew is largely based on Mish­naic and Bib­li­cal He­brew as well as Sephardi and Ashke­nazi litur­gi­cal and lit­er­ary tra­di­tion from the Me­dieval and Haskalah eras and re­tains its Se­mitic char­ac­ter in its mor­phol­ogy and in much of its syntax[page needed], the con­sen­sus among schol­ars is that Mod­ern He­brew rep­re­sents a fun­da­men­tally new lin­guis­tic sys­tem, not di­rectly con­tin­u­ing any pre­vi­ous lin­guis­tic state, being a koiné lan­guage based on his­tor­i­cal lay­ers of He­brew, as well as in­cor­po­rat­ing for­eign el­e­ments, mainly those in­tro­duced dur­ing the most crit­i­cal re­vival pe­riod be­tween 1880 and 1920, as well as new el­e­ments cre­ated by speak­ers through nat­ural lin­guis­tic evolution. A mi­nor­ity of schol­ars argue that the re­vived lan­guage had been so in­flu­enced b...

    Mod­ern He­brew is writ­ten from right to left using the He­brew al­pha­bet, which is an abjad, or con­so­nant-only script of 22 let­ters based on the "square" let­ter form, known as Ashu­rit (As­syr­ian), which was de­vel­oped from the Ara­maic script. A cur­sive script is used in hand­writ­ing. When nec­es­sary, vow­els are in­di­cated by di­a­critic marks above or below the let­ters known as Nikkud, or by use of Ma­tres lec­tio­nis, which are con­so­nan­tal let­ters used as vow­els. Fur­ther di­a­crit­ics like Dagesh and Sin and Shin dots are used to in­di­cate vari­a­tions in the pro­nun­ci­a­tion of the con­so­nants (e.g. bet/vet, shin/sin). The let­ters "צ׳", "ג׳", "ז׳", each mod­i­fied with a Geresh, rep­re­sent the con­so­nants [t͡ʃ], [d͡ʒ], [ʒ]. [t͡ʃ] may also be writ­ten as "תש". [w]is rep­re­sented in­ter­change­ably by a sim­ple vav "ו", non-stan­dard dou­ble vav "וו" and some­times by non-stan­dard geresh mod­i­fied vav "ו׳".

    Mod­ern He­brew has fewer phonemes than Bib­li­cal He­brew but it has de­vel­oped its own phono­log­i­cal com­plex­ity. Is­raeli He­brew has 25 to 27 con­so­nants and 8 to 10 vow­els, de­pend­ing on the speaker and the analy­sis. The fol­low­ing table lists the con­so­nant phonemes of Is­raeli He­brew in IPAtran­scrip­tion: 1. 1 In modern Hebrew /ħ/ for ח has been absorbed by /x~χ/ that was traditionally only for fricative כ, though some older Mizrahispeakers still separate these. 2. 2 The glottal consonants are mostly elided in unstressed syllables, and sometimes also in stressed syllables as well, but are pronounced in careful or formal speech. In modern Hebrew /ʕ/ for ע has been absorbed by /ʔ/ that was traditionally only for א, though some older Mizrahispeakers still separate these. 3. 3 Commonly transcribed /r/. This is usually pronounced as a uvular fricative or approximant [ʁ] or velar fricative [ɣ], and sometimes as a uvular or alveolar trill, depending on the background of...

    Mod­ern He­brew mor­phol­ogy (for­ma­tion, struc­ture, and in­ter­re­la­tion­ship of words in a lan­guage) is es­sen­tially Semitic. Mod­ern He­brew show­cases much of the in­flec­tional mor­phol­ogy of the clas­si­cal upon which it was based. In the for­ma­tion of new words, all verbs and the ma­jor­ity of nouns and ad­jec­tives are formed by the clas­si­cally Se­mitic de­vices of tri­con­so­nan­tal roots (shoresh) with af­fixed pat­terns (mishkal). Mish­naic at­tribu­tive pat­terns are often used to cre­ate nouns, and Clas­si­cal pat­terns are often used to cre­ate ad­jec­tives. Blended words are cre­ated by merg­ing two bound stems or parts of words.

    The syn­tax of Mod­ern He­brew is mainly Mishnaic,while also show­ing the in­flu­ence of dif­fer­ent con­tact lan­guages to which its speak­ers have been ex­posed over the past cen­tury.

    Mod­ern He­brew has ex­panded its vo­cab­u­lary ef­fec­tively to meet the needs of ca­sual ver­nac­u­lar, of sci­ence and tech­nol­ogy, of jour­nal­ism and belles-let­tres. Ac­cord­ing to Ghil'ad Zuck­er­mann:

    Choueka, Yaakov (1997). Rav-Milim: A comprehensive dictionary of Modern Hebrew. Tel Aviv: CET. ISBN 965-448-323-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
    Ben-Ḥayyim, Ze'ev (1992). The Struggle for a Language. Jerusalem: The Academy of the Hebrew Language.
    Dekel, Nurit (2014). Colloquial Israeli Hebrew: A Corpus-based Survey. De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-037725-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
    Gila Freedman Cohen; Carmia Shoval (2011). Easing Into Modern Hebrew Grammar: A User-friendly Reference and Exercise Book. Magnes Press. ISBN 978-965-493-601-9.
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