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      • The modern era includes the early period, called the early modern period, which lasted from c. 1500 to around c. 1800 (most often 1815). Particular facets of early modernity include: The Rise of the Ottoman Empire The Reformation and Counter Reformation
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_modern_period
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  2. Early modern period - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_modern_period

    The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age (c. 1400-1500), known as the Middle Ages, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c. 1800) and is variously demarcated by historians as ...

  3. The Modern Period | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com/.../modern-period
    • Independence
    • Restoration and Romanization in Hispanic America
    • The Church's Struggle with Liberalism
    • Modernization
    • General Statistics
    • Bibliography

    The Wars of Independence produced internal cleavages within the ranks of the clergy. The upper clergy (which consisted of six archbishops, thirty-one bishops, and other dignitaries), most of whom were Spanish, remained loyal to the king, whereas large sectors of the lower clergy, most of whom were creoles, supported the insurgent movement. When independence was finally achieved, most of the bishops and many priests and religious were obliged to return to Spain. The church also contributed much of its wealth, sometimes unwillingly, to both sides. In spite of these difficulties, the church as a whole came out of the wars relatively intact. In Mexico, Miguel Hidalgo, José María Morelos, and other priests who fought and died for the independence of their country were considered patriots and heroes. Liberal clergymen such as Francisco Javier de Luna Pizarro in Peru and Deán Gregorio Funes in Argentina helped to write the constitutions of their respective nations and played important role...

    The major post-Independence crisis, however, concerned the episcopal vacancies. The new republican governments attempted to assume control over the church by creating a national patronage in place of the old Patronato Real, or royal patronage. But the Holy See refused to recognize these claims of the new governments. As a result, most dioceses of Spanish America remained vacant for lengthy periods. Finally, the different governments and the Holy Seeentered into formal agreements (concordats) or arrived at informal arrangements by which the state could name bishops, who in turn would have to be approved by Rome. By the middle of the 1830s, the episcopacy had been restored in most countries of Spanish America. In the process, however, the Latin American church also became "romanized." If before the church was principally a Spanish church, now it became a Roman church, reorganized and centralized under the pope. Although all the new bishops were Latin Americans, Rome preferred men who...

    After 1850 the liberals enacted more laws to curb the church's influence in society and to transfer its wealth and lands to the state or to private hands. The church reacted by organizing the laity into associations such as the Catholic Union and by publishing periodicals defending its positions. The church also sought out the protection of conservative caudillos and parties, a factor that further alienated it from the progressive middle classes. The persecution against the church was especially severe in Mexico as a result of the Reform Laws and the liberal struggle for power in the Reform Wars (1857–1860) and in Ecuador under the Eloy Alfaro Delgado regime at the turn of the century. In the midst of the struggle with liberalism, the church suffered another, more serious crisis. Beginning in the middle of the nineteenth century, the number of vocations to the priesthood declined considerably, especially in countries with a small middle class or with a large indigenous population. T...

    Although the Latin American church in general continued to be very conservative in the post-World War II period, frequently legitimizing anti-Communist dictatorships, it was nonetheless influenced by the same tendencies and intellectual currents that had begun to affect the church in the developed world. In response to the priest shortage, Pope Pius XII and his successor, John XXIII, called for missionaries from Europe and the United Statesto work in Latin America. Hundreds of priests, nuns, brothers, and lay volunteers from the Western democracies flocked to Latin America in the late 1950s and early 1960s, bringing with them progressive attitudes and plans for development projects. The Maryknoll Fathers and Sisters, the best-known American missionary society, had already arrived in Latin America in 1942. Certain churchmen were especially influential in awakening other Catholics to the need for change. José María Cardinal Caro, the archbishop of Santiago (1939–1958), fostered many s...

    The percentage of Catholics in Latin America averages between 80 percent and 90 percent. In most countries, however, only about 10 percent of Catholics regularly attend church services. In 2004 there were 792 Catholic dioceses in Latin America, with 40,277 diocesan priests, 124,685 female religious, and 42,293 male religious (of whom 23,885 were priests). The average number of Catholics per priest is approximately 7,750. At one extreme is Panama (1 to every 4,542), at the other Honduras (1 to every 13,884). See alsoAlfaro Delgado, José Eloy; Aristide, Jean-Bertrand; Belaúnde, Víctor Andrés; Boff, Leonardo; Calles, Plutarco Elías; Câmara, Hélder; Cardenal, Ernesto; Catholic Action; Chile, Political Parties: National Phalanx; Conference of Latin American Bishops (CELAM); D'Escoto Brockmann, Miguel; Feijó, Diogo Antônio; Figueiredo, Jackson de; Frei Montalva, Eduardo; Freire, Paulo; Fresno Larraín, Juan Francisco; Funes, Gregorio; Guadalupe, Virgin of; Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Hidalgo y Cos...

    Berryman, Phillip. The Religious Roots of Rebellion: Christians in Central American Revolutions. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1984. Burdick, John, and W. E. Hewitt. The Church at the Grassroots in Latin America: Perspectives on Thirty Years of Activism. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000. Cleary, Edward L. Crisis and Change: The Church in Latin America Today. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1985. Dussel, Enrique. A History of the Church in Latin America: Colonialism to Liberation (1492–1979). Translated and revised by Alan Neely. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1981. Kirk, John M. Between God and the Party: Religion and Politics in Revolutionary Cuba. Tampa: University of South Florida Press, 1989. Klaiber, Jeffrey L. The Church in Peru, 1821–1985: A Social History. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1992. Lernoux, Penny. Cry of the People: U.S. Involvement in the Rise of Fascism, Torture, and Murder and the Persecution of the Catholic Church in Latin America. Garden City, NY: Do...

    • The Modern Revolution: Crash Course Big History #8
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    • Class8|| Chapter1|| History|| The Modern Period|| NCERT || Ratna Sagar.
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    • Early Modern Period Intro Part 1
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  4. The Modern Period | Public Speaking - Lumen Learning

    courses.lumenlearning.com/.../the-modern-period
    • The Epistemological Tradition
    • The Belles Lettres Movement
    • The Elocutionary Movement

    George Campbell (1719–1796) and Richard Whately (1758–1859) exemplify the best of the epistemological tradition. Campbell authoredThe Philosophy of Rhetoric (1776). He drew on Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian as well as faculty psychology and empiricism (experience of the senses) of his times. Faculty psychology attempted to explain human behavior in terms of the five faculties of the mind—understanding, memory, imagination, passion, and will—and Campbell’s definition of rhetoric was directed to these faculties. Campbell distinguished three types of evidence—mathematical axioms, derived through reasoning; consciousness, or the result of sensory stimulation; and common sense, an intuitive sense shared by virtually all humans. As one may bring himself to believe almost anything he is inclined to believe, it makes all the difference whether we begin or end with the inquiry, “What is truth?” ~ Richard Whately Richard Whately publishedElements of Rhetoricin 1828. His view of rhetoric wa...

    The second direction rhetoric took in the modern period is known as the belles lettre movement; the term, in French, literally means “fine or beautiful letters.” This is a departure from both the rationalists and elocutionists because this form of literature valued the aesthetic qualities of writing rather than any informative value it may have. The scope of what was considered to be rhetoric broadened to include all of the fine arts of the period, poetry, music, drama, gardening and architecture, along with oral discourse, writing and criticism. Hugh Blair is best known for his advocacy of the belletristic movement. He was a Presbyterian preacher and occupied the Chair of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres at the University of Edinburgh. He had a number of publications, but his most well-known was theLectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, which was based on his lectures.Lecturesis important because it drew on the works of Cicero and Quintilian and combined them with the modern works of...

    Theelocutionary movement, the third rhetorical trend of the modern period, reached its height in the mid- eighteenth century. Before the Elocutionary Movement most scholars of rhetoric quickly assimilated the Latin elocutio (style) with the English word elocution. However, by the eighteenth century scholars more accurately began to regard elocution as the Latin pronunciato(delivery). This change in association gave rise to the Elocutionary Movement, a movement that focused primarily on delivery. Although there are many theorists associated with the Elocutionary Movement, the most widely publicized is Thomas Sheridan. Sheridan was an Irish actor and educator of elocution. He wanted to reform the educational system of Britain to correct the serious neglect of rhetorical delivery-elocution. This belief not only involved the voice, but also incorporated the entire person with facial expressions, gesture, posture and movement. He steps on stage and draws the sword of rhetoric, and when h...

  5. The Modern Period | Boundless Art History

    courses.lumenlearning.com/.../the-modern-period

    The Meiji period (September 1868 through July 1912) represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudalism to its modern form. During this period, western style painting (Yōga) was officially promoted by the government, which sent promising young artists abroad for studies and ...

  6. Modern World History: Modern Period, Contemporary History ...

    www.toppr.com/.../world-history/modern-world-history
    • Division of Modern History
    • Contemporary History
    • Impact on The Modern World
    • More About Modern World History
    • Solved Examples For You

    We can divide the modern history into three main periods i.e. the early modern period, the late modern period and the contemporary history.

    The contemporary history includes the span of historical events starting from 1945. These events are most relevant to the present time and scenario. Many historians describe the early modern period as the time frame between 1500 and 1800. This period mainly follows the Late Middle Ages period. Further, it is marked by the initial European colonies, beginnings of recognizable nation-states as well as the rise of strong centralized governments.

    In the Ottoman Empire and Africa, the Muslim expansion took place in East and North Africa. However, in West Africa, several native nations existed. The civilizations of Southeast Asia and the Indian Empires played a pivotal role in the spice trade. In the Indian subcontinent, the presence of Great MughalEmpire was strong. Moreover, the archipelagic empires, the Sultanate of Malacca and later the Sultanate of Johor, exercised power over the southern areas. In the Asian subcontinent, different Japanese shogunates and the Chinese dynasties held power. The Edo period from 1600 to 1868 in Japan is regarded as the early modern period. On the other hand, in Korea, the period from the rising of Joseon Dynasty to the enthronement of King Gojong is referred to as the early modern period. In the Americas, Native Americans started a huge and distinct civilization which included the Aztec Empire and alliance, the Inca civilization, the Mayan Empire and cities, and the Chibcha Confederation. How...

    The religious trends of this period witnessed the rise of the Muslim community and the Muslim world. Christians and Christendom saw the end of the Crusades. Religious Unity under the Roman Church came to an end. Moreover, in this period, the Inquisitions and Protestant reformations also took place. Also during the early modern period, people witnessed the age of discovery and trade. This happened as a result of the collective effort of the Western European nations. Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and France went on a colonial expansion. These nations took possession of lands and set up colonies in Africa, southern Asia, and North and South America. Turkey went on to colonize Southeastern Europe, and parts of the West Asia and North Africa. Russian on the other hand, took possession in Eastern Europe, Asia, and North America.

    Question: Describe the Industrial Revolution in brief Answer: No one knows the exact date of the Industrial Revolution. Eric Hobsbawm was of the view that the Industrial Revolution broke out in the 1780s. However, one could not feel the effect of revolution till the 1830s or 1840s. On the other hand, T.S. Ashton believed that the Industrial Revolution roughly occurred between 1760 and 1830. The major changes witnessed in the centuries before the 19th were mainly associated with the ideas, religion or military conquest, and technological advancements. However, all these things had a very little impact on the material wealth of the ordinary people. A merger of the first Industrial Revolution and the Second Industrial Revolution took place in 1850. This happened as a result of the technological and economic progress that took place because of the development of steam-powered ships and railways. The launch of the internal combustion engine and the electric power generation followed it....

  7. Modern period in the English Literature | Famous modernist ...

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    • Introduction to Modern Period
    • Key Points to Remember About Modern Period
    • Transition from The Victorian Period to The Modern Period
    • Literature of The Modern Period
    • The Pillars of Modernism
    • Conclusion

    Modern period in the English literature begins with the 20th century and remain till 1965. The period saw an abrupt break away from the old ways of interacting with the world. In all the previous periods experimentation and individualism were highly discouraged but With the onset of the modern period both these things became virtues. There were many cultural shocks with the beginning of modernism. The blow of the modern age were the World War 1 and 2. These wars began in the year 1914 and last till 1919 and 1939 to 1945 respectively. Aftermath of the world wars was traumatic for everyone. The horror of the world war 1 was evident on the face of every citizen. Feeling of uncertainty was spread and no one knew where the world was heading into.

    Advancement of the social science and natural science in the later half of the 19th century and early decades of the 20th century. Gains in material wealth with the rapid development and industrialization. The difference between aristocrats and clergy increased more. English literature of the modern age started with the initiation of the 20th century. The prominent feature of the literature during the modern age was that it opposed the general attitude towards life as shown in Victorian literature. People started to regard victorian age as a hypocritical age, having superficial and mean ideals. Hypocrisy of victorian period generated a rebellious attitude in the writers of modern literature. Things that were considered as beautiful and honourable during victorian age was considered as ugly by the writers of modern period. Sense of questioning was absent in the mind of the people from the victorian age. During Victorian times, people adhere to the voice of the people who were in powe...

    Changes in the literature

    There were various changes took place in the field of literature also during the modern period. The imaginative writing, verses, structure of the verses of Victorian period became obsolete. Writers work started losing the magic they used to have in previous age. Victorian writers were becoming rancid and their works were failing to evoke the spirit of the readers. Art has to be renewed in order to revitalize the readers. But victorian art works were lacking the surprising elements and freshne...

    Declination of sentiments and values

    Modern world people were more into independence, they don’t want to bind by the parental authority,whereas Victorians believed in maintaining the home life, they consider themselves a family person more. Moreover, the feeling of love was getting limited to sex in modern times, love had become less of a romance and more like a greed. Such things portray the decline in the values, emotions and feelings in the people of modern period. Literary work also portray the similar life style. If writers...

    Age of machinery

    There is no doubt that machinery has dominated the modern people’s life. Modern period is also known as the age of machinery. People had become too materialistic brought by the machinery. There is no doubt that the advent of machinery made life comfortable for modern man. Living become quite easy and production of goods were also accelerated. But they downward side of mechanical life was that man has mechanical like a clock, using all his energy not according to his/her own will rather accord...

    Literary trends

    The trend of modernism emerged after the end of the First World War. They includes: -Stream of consciousness -Surrealism -Cubism -Dadaism -Futurism -Expressionism -Imagism -Symbolism

    David Herbert Lawrence (1885-1930) – Sons and Lovers
    James Joyce (1882- 1941) Ulysses
    Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888- 1965) Murder in the Cathedral
    George Bernard Shaw (1856- 1950) Mrs. Warrant’ Profession

    To conclude everything in short I would say there are many more things which you should know about the Modern period and literature development of this era. The more you will study the works of this modernist literature the more you will admire it. There are some literary theories or concepts which you may not understand easily. In such cases you can getinstant assignment helpand learn things in an easier way.

  8. Human history - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_history

    In the linear, global, historiographical approach, modern history (the "modern period," the "modern era," "modern times") is the history of the period following post-classical history (in Europe known as the "Middle Ages"), spanning from about 1500 to the present.

  9. Early Modern Period - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

    www.sciencedirect.com/.../early-modern-period

    Geography's ‘early modern period’ is thought to have begun with the Renaissance in the 1600s and ended with the formalization of geography as a school and university discipline in the late nineteenth century.

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