- Modern physics is a branch of physics which deals with the post-Newtonian concepts in the world of physics. It is based on the two major breakthroughs of the twentieth century: Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. Modern physics often involves an advance description of nature through new theories which were different from the classical descriptions and involves elements of quantum mechanics and Einsteinian relativity.
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Oct 21, 2021 ·  Baggott, J. (2014) Farewell to Reality: How Modern Physics Has Betrayed the Search for Scientific Truth. Pegasus Books.  Hossenfelder, S. (2020) Lost in Math: How Beauty Leads Physics Astray. Basic Books.  Odling-Smee, L. (2007) The lab that asked the wrong questions. Nature 446:10.
- Geographic Distribution
- Writing System
- Literary Pashto
A national language of Afghanistan, Pashto is primarily spoken in the east, south, and southwest, but also in some northern and western parts of the country. The exact number of speakers is unavailable, but different estimates show that Pashto is the mother tongue of 45–60% of the total population of Afghanistan. In Pakistan, Pashto is spoken by 15% of its population, mainly in the northwestern province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and northern districts of Balochistan province. It is also spoken in parts of Mianwali and Attock districts of the Punjab province, areas of Gilgit-Baltistan and in Islamabad. Pashto speakers are found in other major cities of Pakistan, most notably Karachi, Sindh,which may have the largest Pashtun population of any city in the world. Other communities of Pashto speakers are found in India, Tajikistan, and northeastern Iran (primarily in South Khorasan Province to the east of Qaen, near the Afghan border). In India most ethnic Pashtun (Pathan) peoples speak the...
Some linguists have argued that Pashto is descended from Avestan or a variety very similar to it, while others have attempted to place it closer to Bactrian. However, neither position is universally agreed upon. What scholars do agree on is the fact that Pashto is an Eastern Iranian language sharing characteristics with Eastern Middle Iranian languages such as Bactrian, Khwarezmian and Sogdian. Strabo, who lived between 64 BC and 24 CE, explains that the tribes inhabiting the lands west of the Indus River were part of Ariana. This was around the time when the area inhabited by the Pashtuns was governed by the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. From the 3rd century CE onward, they are mostly referred to by the name Afghan (Abgan). Abdul Hai Habibi believed that the earliest modern Pashto work dates back to Amir Kror Suri of the early Ghurid period in the 8th century, and they use the writings found in Pata Khazana. Pə́ṭa Xazāná (پټه خزانه) is a Pashto manuscript claimed to be written by Mohamma...
Pashto is a subject–object–verb (SOV) language with split ergativity. In Pashto, this means that the verb agrees with the subject in transitive and intransitive sentences in non-past, non-completed clauses, but when a completed action is reported in any of the past tenses, the verb agrees with the subject if it is intransitive, but with the object if it is transitive. Verbs are inflected for present, simple past, past progressive, present perfect, and past perfect tenses. There is also an inflection for the subjunctive mood. Nouns and adjectives are inflected for two genders (masculine and feminine), two numbers (singular and plural), and four cases (direct, oblique, ablative, and vocative). The possessor precedes the possessed in the genitive construction, and adjectives come before the nounsthey modify. Unlike most other Indo-Iranian languages, Pashto uses all three types of adpositions—prepositions, postpositions, and circumpositions.
1. Phonemes that have been borrowed, thus non-native to Pashto, are color coded. The phonemes /q/ and /f/ tend to be replaced by [k] and [p] respectively.[Note 3] 2. /ɽ/ is voiced back-alveolar retroflex flap.MacKenzie states: "In distinction, from the alveolar trill r and from the dental (or alveolar) lateral l, it is basically a retroflexed lateral flap." 3. The retroflex fricatives /ʂ, ʐ/ and palatal fricatives /ç, ʝ/ represent dialectally different pronunciations of the same sound, not se...
In Pashto, most of the native elements of the lexicon are related to other Eastern Iranian languages. As noted by Josef Elfenbein, "Loanwords have been traced in Pashto as far back as the third century B.C., and include words from Greek and probably Old Persian". For instance, Georg Morgenstierne notes the Pashto word مېچن mečә́n i.e. a hand-mill as being derived from the Ancient Greek word μηχανή (mēkhanḗ, i.e. a device). Post-7th century borrowings came primarily from Persian language and Hindi-Urdu, with Arabic words being borrowed through Persian, but sometimes directly. Modern speech borrows words from English, French, and German. However, a remarkably large number of words are unique to Pashto. Here is an exemplary list of Pure Pashto and borrowings: Due to the incursion of Persian and Persianized-Arabic in modern speech, linguistic purismof Pashto is advocated to prevent its own vocabulary from dying out.
Pashto employs the Pashto alphabet, a modified form of the Perso-Arabic alphabet or Arabic script. In the 16th century, Bayazid Pir Roshanintroduced 13 new letters to the Pashto alphabet. The alphabet was further modified over the years. The Pashto alphabet consists of 45 to 46 letters and 4 diacritic marks. Latin Pashto is also used. In Latin transliteration, stress is represented by the following markers over vowels: ә́, á, ā́, ú, ó, í and é. The following table (read from left to right) gives the letters' isolated forms, along with possible Latin equivalents and typical IPA values:
Pashto dialects are divided into two varieties, the "soft" southern variety Paṣ̌tō, and the "hard" northern variety Pax̌tō (Pakhtu). Each variety is further divided into a number of dialects. The southern dialect of Wanetsiis the most distinctive Pashto dialect. 1. Southern variety 1. 1.1. Abdaili or Kandahar dialect (or South Westerndialect) 1.2. Kakar dialect (or South Easterndialect) 1.3. Shiranidialect 1.4. Mandokheldialect 1.5. Marwat-Bettanidialect 1.6. Southern Karlani group 1.1. 1.1.1. Khattakdialect 1.1.2. Wazirwoladialect 1.1.1. 18.104.22.168. Dawarwoladialect 22.214.171.124. Masidwoladialect 1.1.1. Banisi (Banu)dialect 2. Northern variety 1. 1.1. Central Ghilji dialect (or North Westerndialect) 1.2. Yusapzai and Momand dialect (or North Easterndialect) 1.3. Northern Karlani group 1.1. 1.1.1. Wardakdialect 1.1.2. Taniwoladialect 1.1.3. Mangal tribedialect 1.1.4. Khostidialect 1.1.5. Zadrandialect 1.1.6. Bangash-Orakzai-Turi-Zazidialect 1.1.7. Afrididialect 1.1.8. Khogyanidialect 3.Tare...
Standard Pashto or Literary Pashto is the standardized variety of Pashto which serves as a literary register of Pashto, and is based on the North Western dialect, spoken in the central Ghilji region, including the Afghan capital Kabul and some surrounding region. Literary Pashto's vocabulary, however, also derives from Southern Pashto. It is the generally understandable standard. Thi literary variety of Pashto used in Afghan media. Literary Pashto has been developed by Radio Television Afghanistan and Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan in Kabul.
Pashto-speakers have long had a tradition of oral literature, including proverbs, stories, and poems. Written Pashto literature saw a rise in development in the 17th century mostly due to poets like Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689), who, along with Rahman Baba (1650–1715), is widely regarded as among the greatest Pashto poets. From the time of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722–1772), Pashto has been the language of the court. The first Pashto teaching text was written during the period of Ahmad Shah Durrani by Pir Mohammad Kakar with the title of Maʿrifat al-Afghānī ("The Knowledge of Afghani [Pashto]"). After that, the first grammar book of Pashto verbs was written in 1805 under the title of Riyāż al-Maḥabbah ("Training in Affection") through the patronage of Nawab Mahabat Khan, son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, chief of the Barech. Nawabullah Yar Khan, another son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, in 1808 wrote a book of Pashto words entitled ʿAjāyib al-Lughāt("Wonders of Languages").
List of colors: List of colors borrowed from neighbouring languages: 1. نارنجي nārәnjí - orange [from Persian] 2. ګلابي gulābí - pink [from Hindustani, originally Persian] 3. نيلي nilí - indigo [from Persian, ultimately Sanskrit]]
Pashtuns use the Vikrami calendar:
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