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Mongolia's foreign relations traditionally focus on its two large neighbors, Russia and the People's Republic of China. Mongolia is economically dependent on these countries; China receives 90% of Mongolia's exports by value and accounts for 60% of its foreign trade, while Russia supplies 90% of Mongolia's energy requirements.
Oct 06, 2021 · Mongolia joined the WTO in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes. Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices globally and new gold production. By late 2008, Mongolia was hit by the global financial crisis and Mongolia's real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009.
Mongolia, landlocked country in north-central Asia. Its remarkable variety of scenery consists largely of upland steppes, semideserts, and deserts, though in the west and north are forested high mountain ranges alternating with lake-dotted basins. The capital, Ulaanbaatar, is in the north-central part of the country.
Aug 03, 2021 · Mongolia is a landlocked country located between China and Russia. It is a vast emptiness that links land and sky, and is one of the last few places on the planet where nomadic life is still a living tradition. Mongolia may have various geopolitical, cultural and geographical meanings. Mongolia consists of historic Outer Mongolia.
- Parliamentary Democracy
- Togrog/Tugrik (MNT)
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- Mongolian Religion
Since 1990, Mongolia has had a multi-party parliamentary democracy. All citizens over the age of 18 can vote. The head of state is the President, but executive power is shared with the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister nominates the Cabinet, which is approved by the legislature. The legislative body is called the Great Hural, which is made up of 76 deputies. Mongolia has a civil law system that is based on the laws of Russia and continental Europe. The highest court is the Constitutional Court, which primarily hears questions of constitutional law.
Mongolia's populationrose above three million in the 2010s. An additional four million ethnic Mongols live in Inner Mongolia, which is part of China. Approximately 94 percent of the population of Mongolia are ethnic Mongols, mainly from the Khalkha clan. About nine percent of the ethnic Mongols come from the Durbet, Dariganga, and other clans. An estimated five percent of Mongolian citizens are members of Turkic peoples, primarily Kazakhs and Uzbeks. There are also tiny populations of other minorities, including Tuvans, Tungus, Chinese, and Russians, which number at less than one percent each.
Khalkha Mongol is the official language of Mongolia and the primary language of 90 percent of Mongolians. Other tongues used in Mongolia include different dialectsof Mongolian, Turkic languages (such as Kazakh, Tuvan, and Uzbek), and Russian. Khalkha is written with the Cyrillic alphabet. Russian is the most common foreign language spoken in Mongolia, although both English and Korean are used as well.
The vast majority of Mongolians, around 94 percent of the population, practice Tibetan Buddhism. The Gelugpa, or "Yellow Hat," school of Tibetan Buddhism gained prominence in Mongolia during the 16th century. Six percent of the Mongolian population are Sunni Muslim, mainly members of the Turkic minorities. Two percent of Mongolians are Shamanist, following the traditional belief system of the region. Mongolian Shamanists worship their ancestors and the clear blue sky. The total makeup of Mongolia's religions is above 100 percent because some Mongolians practice both Buddhism and Shamanism.
Mongolia is a land-locked country sandwiched between Russia and China. It covers an area of about 1,564,000 square kilometers, making it roughly the size of Alaska. Mongolia is known for its steppe lands. These are the dry, grassy plains that support the traditional Mongolian herding lifestyle. Some areas of Mongolia are mountainous, however, while others are desert. The highest point in Mongolia is Nayramadlin Orgil, at 4,374 meters (14,350 feet) tall. The lowest point is Hoh Nuur, at 518 meters (1,700 feet) tall.
Mongolia has a harsh continental climatewith very little rainfall and wide seasonal temperature variations. Winters are long and bitterly cold in Mongolia, with average temperatures in January hovering around -30 C (-22 F). Capital Ulaan Bataar is the coldest and windiest nation capital on Earth. Summers are short and hot, and most precipitation falls during the summer months. Rain and snowfall totals are only 20-35 cm (8-14 inches) per year in the north and 10-20 cm (4-8 inches) in the south. Nevertheless, freak snowstorms sometimes drop more than a meter (3 feet) of snow, burying livestock.
The economy of Mongolia depends upon mineral mining, livestock and animal products, and textiles. Minerals are a primary export, including copper, tin, gold, molybdenum, and tungsten. The currency of Mongolia is the tugrik.
Mongolia's nomadic people have at times hungered for goods from settled cultures — items such as fine metal-work, silk cloth, and weapons. To get these items, the Mongols would unite and raid surrounding peoples. The first great confederation was the Xiongnu, organized in 209 B.C. The Xiongnu were such a persistent threat to China's Qin Dynasty that the Chinese began work on a massive fortification: the Great Wall of China. In 89 A.D., the Chinese defeated the Northern Xiongnu at the Battle of Ikh Bayan. The Xiongnu fled west, eventually making their way to Europe. There, they became known as the Huns. Other tribes soon took their place. First the Gokturks, then the Uighurs, the Khitans, and the Jurchens gained ascendancy in the region. Mongolia's fractious tribes were united in 1206 A.D. by a warrior named Temujin, who became known as Genghis Khan. He and his successors conquered most of Asia, including the Middle East, and Russia. The Mongol Empire's strength waned after the overt...