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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › MontenegroMontenegro - Wikipedia

    Montenegro was a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program and then became an official candidate for full membership in the alliance. Montenegro applied for a Membership Action Plan on 5 November 2008, which was granted in December 2009. Montenegro is also a member of Adriatic Charter.

  2. History of Montenegro. The history of Montenegro begins in the Early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. In the 9th century, there were three principalities on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north.

  3. Montenegro (meaning Black Mountain) is a country in Southeastern Europe. It is on the Adriatic Sea, between Albania (to the South) and Croatia to the North. Inland (to the East and South-East) it also has a common border with Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina . The country came to exist when its people decided to split from the country Serbia ...

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    The culture of Montenegro is as pluralistic and diverse as its history and geographical position would suggest. Montenegro's culture has drawn influences mainly from Ancient Rome, Christianity, Islam, the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Venice, Austria-Hungary, and Yugoslavia.

    A very important dimension of Montenegrin culture is the ethical ideal of "Čojstvo" and "Junaštvo", roughly translated as "Humanity and Courage", an ancient Montenegrin code of honor. Another result of its centuries long warrior history, it is the unwritten code of ...

    Montenegrin society is still very conservative. According to the 2011 census, the vast majority of more than 96% of Montenegrin residents declare themselves as members of some religious organization. While Eastern Orthodox Christianity is the dominant religious denomination in Mo

    The Slava is exclusive custom of the Serbian Orthodox Church believers, each family has one patron saint that they venerate on their feast day. The Serbian Orthodox Church uses the traditional Julian calendar, as per which Christmas Day falls currently on January 7 of the Gregori

    The traditional folk dance is a circle dance called kolo, which is common among Montenegrins, Serbs and Macedonians. It is a collective dance, where a group of people hold each other by the hands or around the waist dancing, forming a circle, semicircle or spiral. It is called Or

    Montenegrins' long-standing history of struggle for freedom and independence is invariably linked with strong traditions of oral epic poetry. Traditionally, they are delivered to the audience accompanied by the music produced by a gusle, a one-string instrument played by the stor

    There are many Montenegrin names unique to the Montenegrin people which display the distinct culture of the Montenegrins. For an extensive list see: Montenegrin given names.

    Montenegro has a number of significant cultural and historical sites, including heritage sites from the pre-Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque periods. The Montenegrin coastal region is especially well known for its religious monuments, mostly related to Venetian architecture, including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon, the basilica of St. Luke, Our Lady of the Rock, the Savina Monastery, and others. The ancient city of Cattaro is listed on the UNESCO World Heritage list, even as a perfect example of

    Although there are works written at least 800 years ago, the most important representatives are writers who lived in 19th and 20th century and wrote mainly in Serbian. The first literary works written in the region are ten centuries old, and the first Montenegrin book was printed

    The painters from Montenegro gave a great contribution to the affirmation of the Montenegrin culture in the world. Leaving to the other parts of the world, they took their Montenegrin soul and heritage with them, and passed it down to others through their artworks. The last 15 years saw the opening of the Faculty of the Fine Arts in Cetinje, bringing up a whole new wave of talent. Some of the most prominent painters from Montenegro includes: Milo Milunović, Petar Lubarda, Dado Đurić ...

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    Le nom monténégrin ou serbo-croate du Monténégro, Crna Gora, peut se traduire littéralement par « Montagne Noire » ou « Mont-Noir », en référence aux forêts sombres qui recouvraient autrefois les Alpes dinariques. Le nom du pays, dans la plupart des langues d'Europe occidentale, dont en français, en italien, en allemand, en roumain (Muntenegru) et en anglais, est tiré du terme vénitien monte negro, qui a la même signification et remonte probablement à l'époque de la domination de Venise sur la région, au Moyen Âge. D'autres langues, notamment celles parlées aux environs immédiats, ont adopté leur propre traduction de l'expression : c'est ainsi le cas de l'albanais (Mali i Zi), du grec (Μαυροβούνιο, Mavrovoúnio), du turc (Karadağ), du russe (Черногория, Tchernogoria), de l'islandais (Svartfjallaland, c'est-à-dire « pays de la montagne noire »), du letton (Melnkalne, « le pays des montagnes noires ») ou même de l'arabe (الجبل الأسود, al-jabal ul-'aswad, « la montagne noire »). Les lan...

    Le Monténégro a une longue histoire de plusieurs siècles en tant que possession ottomane, duché semi-indépendant, puis principauté autonome, puis en tant que royaume indépendant en 1910, avant qu'il ne rejoigne le futur royaume de Yougoslavie en 1918. Au cours de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, il est séparé de la Serbie et occupé par l'Italie qui en fait un gouvernorat. Après la fin de la guerre en Yougoslavie, le nouveau régime communiste le transforme en république socialiste du Monténégro, l'une des républiques fédérées de la république fédérative socialiste de Yougoslavie. Devenu un des deux États constitutifs de la république fédérale de Yougoslavie en 1992, il fait partie, après la dissolution de celle-ci en 2003, de la communauté d’États de Serbie-et-Monténégro, instaurée de façon transitoire. Dans la soirée du 3 juin 2006, le Parlement du Monténégro proclame officiellement l’indépendance du pays et la dissolution de la communauté de Serbie-et-Monténégro[6], conformément au vœu...

    Le Monténégro est situé dans les Balkans. Son territoire a, de façon approximative, la forme d'un losange ; il est bordé au nord-est par la Serbie, à l'est par le Kosovo, au sud-sud-est par l'Albanie, au sud-ouest par la mer Adriatique, à l'ouest-sud-ouest par la Croatie et au nord-ouest par la Bosnie-Herzégovine. Le territoire monténégrin s'étend depuis les hautes montagnes à la frontière avec la Serbie et l'Albanie — une partie des karsts de l'ouest de la péninsule balkanique — jusqu'à une étroite plaine côtière de deux à six kilomètres de large. Cette plaine s'interrompt abruptement au nord, à l'endroit où le mont Lovćen et l'Orjen plongent dans les bouches de Kotor. Ainsi, bien que disposant d'un large débouché sur la mer, le pays ne dispose pas de port important en raison d'un littoral très accidenté. La région karstique du Monténégro se situe à environ 1 000 m d'altitude, certaines parties montant à près de 2 000 m, comme le mont Orjen (1 894 m), point culminant des chaînes ca...

    La population du Monténégro est estimée à 622 359 habitants en 2018[2] et sa densité de 45 hab./km2.

    Le Monténégro se proclame en 1991 « État écologique » et inscrit cette définition dans le premier article de sa Constitution en 1992[13]. Pourtant, les constructions d'hôtels luxueux détruisent le littoral et les forêts sans respecter le patrimoine. Le tourisme de masse et le développement économique détériorent le pays[14], à l'instar du saccage de la réserve naturelle d'Ada Bojana[15]. Aucun système de recyclage ne permet de trier les déchets, des décharges sauvages s'accumulent dans le pays. Le droit de vote est accordé aux Monténégrins résidant dans le pays depuis plus de deux ans de façon continue. Cela interdit le droit de vote à la diaspora monténégrine, qui compte 800 000 personnes, rien qu'en Serbie, alors que le Monténégro est peuplé d'un peu moins de 700 000 habitants. Le 12 juillet 2011, le Parlement du Monténégro a adopté la loi sur le statut de la dynastie Petrović Njegoš. Le chef de la maison royale actuelle, le prince Nikola, s’est vu allouer un revenu équivalent à c...

    Produit intérieur brut (PPA) : 9,638 milliards de dollars en 2015[20]
    PIB/habitant (PPA) : 16 016 dollars en 2015[21]
    Taux de croissance : 5,5 % (2006)
    Taux de chômage : 22 % (2017)[22]

    Lieux culturels

    Les villes de Cetinje et de Podgorica sont particulièrement riches en musées et galeries d'art. Nommons, par exemple, le musée national du Monténégroainsi que l'Institut de la République pour la préservation du patrimoine culturel, à Cetinje. Podgorica abrite quant à elle le Centre d'art moderne et le musée de Podgorica. Dans chacune de ces deux villes se trouvent respectivement le Théâtre royal « Zetski dom » et le Théâtre national monténégrin.

    Musique

    La musique monténégrine est comme toutes les autres musiques de la région fortement imprégnée par l'influence de la musique ottomane. Malgré une présence attestée dès le Moyen Âge, il paraît important de souligner que la musique du Monténégro a quelque peu périclité durant la longue lutte contre les Ottomans, les populations étant trop préoccupées par leur survie pour se consacrer à des activités purement culturelles. En revanche, la musique monténégrine fut par la suite influencée par les tr...

    Peinture

    En émigrant souvent à l'étranger, comme Dadoen France, les peintres monténégrins ont joué un rôle majeur dans la diffusion de la culture monténégrine à travers le monde. 1. Dado 2. Petar Lubarda 3. Milo Milunović

    La Radio Televizija Crne Goreest la société publique de radio et de télévision du Monténégro. Il existe de nombreuses chaines de télévisions privées diffusant sur l'ensemble du pays. Les principales stations privées sont : 1. RTV Atlas (en), depuis Podgorica ; 2. TV Vijesti, depuis Podgorica ; 3. Pink M, depuis Budva et Podgorica ; 4. Prva Crnogorska televizija, depuis Podgorica ; 5. NTV Montena, depuis Podgorica ; 6. MBC, depuis Podgorica.

    Après l'indépendance, les fédérations sportives nationales monténégrines ont été fondées, dont la Fédération du Monténégro de football. L'équipe nationale de football joue à domicile au Podgorica City Stadium. D'une capacité de 24 000 places, il s'agit de l'unique stade monténégrin répondant aux normes de la FIFA pour la tenue de matchs internationaux. Elsad Zverotićest le premier buteur de la sélection. En water-polo, l'équipe nationale masculine remporte le championnat d'Europe de 2008 et la Ligue mondiale de 2009. Côté club, le Vaterpolo klub Primorac gagne l'Euroligue en 2009[23] et le Vaterpolo Akademija Cattaro le trophée LEN en 2010[24]. Le troisième sport de prédilection des Monténégrins est le basket-ball. Durant les années 1990 et jusque dans les années 2000, le KK Budućnost Podgoricaremporta de nombreuses victoires aux niveaux yougoslave et européen. Le handball, en particulier le handball féminin est aussi devenu extrêmement populaire. L'équipe qui représente le Monténég...

    Articles connexes

    1. Liste de villes du Monténégro 2. Liste des villes jumelées du Monténégro 3. Forces armées monténégrines 4. Maison Petrović-Njegoš

    Liens externes

    1. Notices d'autorité : 1.1. Fichier d’autorité international virtuel 1.2. Bibliothèque du Congrès 1.3. Gemeinsame Normdatei 1.4. Bibliothèque nationale de la Diète 1.5. Bibliothèque nationale d’Israël 1.6. Bibliothèque nationale de Suède 1.7. Bibliothèque nationale tchèque 1.8. WorldCat Id 1.9. WorldCat 2. Notices dans des dictionnaires ou encyclopédies généralistes : 2.1. Brockhaus Enzyklopädie[archive] 2.2. Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse[archive] 2.3. Dizionario di Storia[archive] 2....

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    • Proposed National Flag and Anthem For The State Union

    The official name of the country was the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (Савезна Република Југославија / Savezna Republika Jugoslavija), or "FR Yugoslavia" for short. The name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made up of jug ('yug') (with the 'j' pronounced like an English 'y') and slavija. The Slavic word jug means 'south', while slavija ('Slavia") denotes a 'land of the Slavs'. Thus, a translation of "Jugoslavija" would be 'South-Slavia' or 'South Slav Land'. This is because the initial idea of 'Yugoslavia,' was a state of Southern Slavs which could protect themselves from foreign empires. The native name of Yugoslavia remained the same in all South Slavic languages, spoken within the country.[clarification needed]

    After the collapse of SFR Yugoslavia in the 1990s, the two Serb majority republics, Serbia and Montenegro, agreed to remain as Yugoslavia, and established a new Constitution in 1992, which established the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as essential rump state, consisting majority of Serbs. The new state abandoned Communist legacy: the Red Star was removed from the national flag, and the Communist Coat of Arms was replaced by a new Coat of Arms representing Serbia and Montenegro. The new state also established the office of the president, held by a single person, initially appointed with the consent of the republics of Serbia and Montenegro until 1997 after which the president was democratically elected. The President of Yugoslavia acted alongside the Presidents of the republics of Serbia and Montenegro. Initially, all three offices were dominated by allies of Slobodan Milosevic and his Socialist Party of Serbia.

    The Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia, representing FR Yugoslavia (1992–2003) was composed of two chambers: the Council of Citizens and the Council of Republics. Whereas the Council of Citizens served as an ordinary assembly, representing the people of FR Yugoslavia, the Council of Republics was made equally by representatives from the federation's constituent republics, to ensure federal equality between Serbia and Montenegro. The first president from 1992 to 1993 was Dobrica Ćosić, a former communist Yugoslav partisan during World War II and later one of the fringe contributors of the controversial Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Despite being head of the country, Ćosić was forced out of office in 1993 due to his opposition to Serbian President Slobodan Milošević. Ćosić was replaced by Zoran Lilić who served from 1993 to 1997, and then followed by Milošević becoming Yugoslav President in 1997 after his last legal term as Serbian president ended in 1997. FR Yug...

    The Armed Forces of Yugoslavia (Serbian: Војска Југославије/Vojska Jugoslavije, ВЈ/VJ) included ground forces with internal and border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces, and civil defense. It was established from the remnants of the Yugoslav National Army (JNA), the military of SFR Yugoslavia. Several Bosnian Serb units of the VJ were transferred over to the Republika Srpska, during the course of the Bosnian War, leaving only units directly from Serbia and Montenegro in the armed forces. The VJ saw military action during the Yugoslav Wars, including the Siege of Dubrovnik and the Battle of Vukovar, as well as the Kosovo War, and played combat roles during ethnic insurgencies. Following the Kosovo War, the VJ was forced to evacuate Kosovo, and in 2003 it was renamed the ''Armed Forces of Serbia and Montenegro.'' Following the dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro, units from each army were assigned to the independent republics of Serbia and Montenegro,...

    FR Yugoslavia was composed of four principal political units, consisting of two Republics, and two subordinate Autonomous Provinces, as following: 1. The Republic of Serbia (capital: Belgrade), including Central Serbia; 1.1. Kosovo and Metohija – Autonomous province within Serbia (capital: Pristina). Under United Nations administration from June 1999 under the terms of the Kumanovo Agreement. 1.2. Vojvodina, Autonomous province within Serbia (capital: Novi Sad). 2. The Republic of Montenegro (capital: Podgorica).

    Serbia and Montenegro had an area of 102,350 square kilometres (39,518 sq mi), with 199 kilometres (124 mi) of coastline. The terrain of the two republics is extremely varied, with much of Serbia comprising plains and low hills (except in the more mountainous region of Kosovo and Metohija) and much of Montenegro consisting of high mountains. Serbia is entirely landlocked, with the coastline belonging to Montenegro. The climate is similarly varied. The north has a continental climate (cold winters and hot summers); the central region has a combination of a continental and Mediterranean climate; the southern region had an Adriatic climatealong the coast, with inland regions experiencing hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland. Belgrade, with its population of 1,574,050, is the largest city in the two nations: and the only one of significant size. The country's other principal cities were Novi Sad, Niš, Kragujevac, Podgorica, Subotica, Pristi...

    FR Yugoslavia had more demographic variety than most other European countries. According to the 1992 census, the Federal Republic had 10,394,026 inhabitants. The three largest named nationalities were Serbs (6,504,048 inhabitants, or 62.6%), Albanians (1,714,768 inhabitants, or 16.5%) and Montenegrins (519,766 inhabitants, or 5%). The country also had significant populations of Hungarians, ethnic Yugoslavs, ethnic Muslims, Roma, Croats, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Romanians, Vlachs and others (under 1%). Most of the ethnic diversity was situated in the provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina, where smaller numbers of other minority groups could be found. The large Albanian population was chiefly concentrated in Kosovo, with smaller populations in the Preševo Valley, and in the Ulcinj municipality in Montenegro. The Muslims (Slavic Muslims, including Bosniaks) population lived mostly in the federal border region (mainly Novi Pazar in Serbia, and Rožajein Montenegro). It is important to note t...

    The state suffered significantly economically due to the breakup of Yugoslavia and mismanagement of the economy, and an extended period of economic sanctions. In the early 1990s, the FRY suffered from hyperinflation of the Yugoslav dinar. By the mid-1990s, the FRY had overcome the inflation. Further damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry caused by the Kosovo War left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. Since the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government has implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the International Monetary Fund in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate with other world nations by rejoining the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia...

    Serbia, and in particular the valley of the Morava is often described as "the crossroads between the East and the West" – one of the primary reasons for its turbulent history. The valley is by far the easiest land route from continental Europe to Greece and Asia Minor. Major international highways going through Serbia were E75 and E70. E763/E761was the most important route connecting Serbia with Montenegro. The Danube, an important international waterway, flowed through Serbia. The Port of Barwas the largest seaport located in Montenegro.

    After the formation of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, the Yugoslav tricolour was to be replaced by a new compromise flag. Article 23 of the Law for the implementation of the Constitutional Charter stated that a law specifying the new flag was to be passed within 60 days of the first session of the new joint parliament. Among the flag proposals, the popular choice was a flag with a shade of blue in between the Serbian tricolor and the Montenegrin tricolor of 1993 through 2004. The color shade Pantone 300C was perceived as the best choice.However the parliament failed to vote on the proposal within the legal time-frame and the flag was not adopted. In 2004, Montenegro adopted a radically different flag, as its independence-leaning government sought to distance itself from Serbia. Proposals for a compromise flag were dropped after this and the Union of Serbia and Montenegro never adopted a flag. A similar fate befell the country's state anthem and coat-of-arms to be; the abo...

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