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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › MostarMostar - Wikipedia

    Mostar is an important tourist destination in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Mostar Airport serves the city as well as the railway and bus stations which connect it to a number of national and international destinations. Mostar's old town is an important tourist destination with the Stari Most being its most recognizable feature.

  2. hr.wikipedia.org › wiki › MostarMostar – Wikipedija

    Mostar ima umjerenu sredozemnu klimu s blažim, ali hladnim zimama (uz malo ili nimalo snijega), te u vrućim ljetima temperature u hladu mogu iznositi i do 45°C. Mostar je bio najtopliji grad u bivšoj Jugoslaviji, a danas u Bosni i Hercegovini, te je uz Atenu grad s najviše sunčanih dana u godini. Snijeg u Mostaru je rijedak.

    • Background
    • April 1992 – June 1992 Siege
    • June 1993 – April 1994 Siege
    • Casualties, Demographic Shift, and Destruction
    • Reconstruction
    • Prosecution

    In 1990 and 1991, Serbs in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina had proclaimed a number of "Serbian Autonomous Regions". Serbs used the well equipped Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) in defending these territories. As early as September or October 1990, the JNA had begun arming Bosnian Serbs and organizing them into militias. By March 1991, the JNA had distributed an estimated 51,900 firearms to Serb paramilitaries and 23,298 firearms to Serbian Democratic Party (SDS). The Croatian government began arming Croats in the Herzegovina region in 1991 and in the start of 1992, expecting that the Serbs would spread the war into Bosnia and Herzegovina. It also helped arm the Bosniak community. From July 1991 to January 1992, the JNA and Serb paramilitaries used Bosnian territory to wage attacks on Croatia. During the war in Croatia, Bosnian president Alija Izetbegovićgave a televised proclamation of neutrality, stating that "this is not our war", and the Sarajevo government wasn't taking defen...

    Prelude

    In April fighting started at several locations in Herzegovina. The JNA's 2nd Military District, commanded by Colonel General Milutin Kukanjac, deployed elements of the 5th Banja Luka Corps and the 9th Knin Corps to the Kupres region, capturing the town from the Croatian Army (HV) and the HVO jointly defending the area in the 1992 Battle of Kupres on 7 April and threatening Livno and Tomislavgrad to the southwest. The 4th Military District of the JNA, commanded by General Pavle Strugar, employ...

    Siege

    JNA artillery attacks on Mostar suburbs started on 6 April and the city was from there on periodically shelled. Over the following week the JNA gradually established control over large portions of the city. On 9 April the JNA forces repelled an attack by the Croat forces, now as part of the HVO, on the Mostar military airfield. Bosnian Serb Territorial Defence Force captured two nearby hydroelectric power plants on the Neretva River on 11 April. On 19 April 1992, General Momčilo Perišić, the...

    Aftermath

    Mostar was heavily damaged by JNA shelling during the siege. Amongst the destroyed or severely damaged buildings were the Catholic Cathedral of Mary, Mother of the Church, the Franciscan Church and Monastery, the Bishop's Palace (with a library collection of over 50,000 books), 12 out of 14 mosques, the historical museum, archives, and number of other cultural institutions. All of the city's bridges were destroyed, leaving only the Stari Most bridge as the remaining river crossing. In mid-Jun...

    Prelude

    Although originally on friendly terms, relations between the two allies had begun to deteriorate by the latter half of 1992. The Croatian government played a "double game" in Bosnia and Herzegovina and "a military solution required Bosnia as an ally, but a diplomatic solution required Bosnia as a victim". Tuđman's Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) party held important positions in the Bosnian government including the premiership and the ministry of defence, but despite this carried out a separa...

    9 May attack

    Fighting started in the early hours of 9 May 1993. Both the east and west side of Mostar came under artillery fire. However, the evidence remains very divided with respect to how the attack of 9 May 1993 started. On the eve of 9 May, both the HVO and the ARBiH were preparing for a potential attack. Observers of the international community all stated that the HVO had started the attack on 9 May 1993. The attack sparked outrage at the UN. UNPROFOR Commander General Lars-Eric Wahlgren called it...

    Escalation of the conflict

    The main combat locations on 9 May were the HVO-held Tihomir Mišić barracks and the ARBiH headquarters in western Mostar in the basement of a building complex referred to as Vranica. The building was heavily shelled on 9 May and HVO seized it the next day. 10 Bosniak POWs from the building were later killed. Fierce street battles were fought in the following days. On 13 May, HVO commander Milivoj Petković and ARBiH commander Sefer Halilovićsigned a ceasefire agreement. However, battles in the...

    The siege resulted in the deaths of about 2,000 individuals.According to a report by Ewa Tabeau, which was used by the ICTY, a minimum of 539 persons died in East Mostar from May 1993 until the end of the conflict. That number doesn't include 484 deaths that had an unknown place of death, but occurred during the siege. Of the 539 deaths, 49.5% were of civilians and 50.5% were of combatants. Before the war, the Mostar municipality had a population of 43,037 Croats, 43,856 Bosniaks, 23,846 Serbs and 12,768 Yugoslavs. Mostar West, Mostar Southwest and Mostar South had a relative Croat majority, Mostar North and Mostar Old City had a relative Bosniak majority and Mostar Southeast had an absolute Bosniak majority. According to 1997 data, the municipalities that in 1991 had a Croat relative majority became all Croat and municipalities that had a Bosniak majority became all Bosniak. Due to displacement of people from other towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war, east Mostar had ove...

    After the end of the war, plans were raised to reconstruct the bridge. The World Bank, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the World Monuments Fund formed a coalition to oversee the reconstruction of the Stari Most and the historic city centre of Mostar. Additional funding was provided by Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey, Croatia and the Council of Europe Development Bank, as well as the Bosnian government. In October 1998, UNESCO established an international committee of experts to oversee the design and reconstruction work. It was decided to build a bridge as similar as possible to the original, using the same technology and materials. The bridge was re-built with local materials by Er-Bu Construction Corp, a Turkish company, using Ottoman construction techniques. Tenelia stone from local quarries was used and Hungarian armydivers recovered stones from the original bridge from the river below. Reconstructi...

    The HVO leadership, Jadranko Prlić, Bruno Stojić, Milivoj Petković, Valentin Ćorić, Berislav Pušić and Slobodan Praljak, were convicted in 2013 in a first-instance verdict by the ICTY in relation to war crimes during the Bosnian War. In the verdict, the Chamber found that during the HVO's presence in Mostar, thousands of Bosnian Muslims and other non-Croats were expelled from the western part of the city and forced into the eastern part. ARBiH commander Sefer Halilović was indicted by the ICTY for war crimes committed during the Operation Neretva '93 and was found not guilty. In 2007, the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina convicted eight former soldiers of the ARBiH for crimes against Croat POWs in Mostar.Four former members of the HVO were convicted in 2011 for crimes against Bosniaks in the Vojno prison. In 2014 a trial against five former ARBiH soldiers started for crimes against Croats in the village of Potoci near Mostar.

    • April 1992 – June 1992, June 1993 – April 1994
    • HVHVOARBiH victory (1992), Military stalemate (1994), Ethnic makeup of east and west Mostar homogenized, Widespread destruction of Mostar's cultural heritage
  3. bs.wikipedia.org › wiki › MostarMostar - Wikipedia

    • Historija
    • Administracija
    • Geografija
    • Klima
    • Privreda
    • Stanovništvo
    • Kultura
    • Sport
    • Saobraćaj
    • Turizam

    Prethistorijsko doba

    Šire područje današnjeg Mostara bilo je naseljeno još u prethistorijskom vremenu, što potvrđuju brojna nalazišta (više od 150) iz neolitika, bakarnog, bronzanog i željeznog doba. Među njima su naseljene pećine, grobovi, oružje, predrimski novac i slično. Uz stočarstvo i zemljoradnju, u željeznom dobu razvija se i trgovina s okolnim središtima.

    Rimsko doba

    U doba ilirske samostalnosti ovo područje naseljavalo je ilirsko pleme Daorsi. Njihova teritorija obuhvatala je krajeve uz lijevu obalu Neretve, od Bijelog polja kod Mostara do Gabele i Metkovića na jugu. Plemenski centar Daorsa nalazio se na Gradini u Ošanjićima (Daorson). Nakon rimskog osvajanja ovaj prostor pripao je rimskoj koloniji Naroni (današnji Vid kod Metkovića) i postao sastavni dio rimske provincije Dalmacije. U to doba nastaju i ceste u dolini Neretve, od kojih je najvažnija Naro...

    Srednji vijek

    Novo razdoblje nastaje padom Rimskog carstva i doseljenjem Slavena. Tokom ranog srednjeg vijeka područje Mostara pripadalo je župi Večerić u oblasti (Hum). Unatoč vrhovnoj vlasti Franaka, ovi krajevi imali su određen stepen samostalnosti, posebno za vrijeme kneza Mihaila Viševića (910–950). Područjem su jedno vrijeme vladali Nemanjići, zatim bosanski ban, a tokom 14. i 15. stoljeća sve su snažniji humski knezovi. Jedan od njih, Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, koji je stolovao u Blagaju pored Mostara,...

    Gradom Mostarom upravlja Gradska uprava sa dva čelna čovjeka: gradonačelnikom i predsjednikom Gradskog vijeća. Mostar je "grad slučaj" s obzirom na to da je neuspjeh da se domaći političari i stručnjaci dogovore o administrativnom uređenju grada doveo do toga da odluku o tome donese tadašnji visoki predstavnik međunarodne zajednice u BiH Paddy Ashdown. Ti dokumenti poznati su pod nazivom "Novi statut Grada Mostara", koji od 2004. godine definira Mostar kao jedinstvenu gradsku cjelinu bez podjele na općine koje su dotad postojale (Zapad, Sjever, Jugozapad, Stari grad, Jug i Jugoistok). Umjesto navedenih općina postoje tzv. gradska područja, koja predstavljaju izborne jedinice u Gradu Mostaru.

    Mostar se nalazi na jugu Bosne i Hercegovine, tačnije, u centru Hercegovine. Gradsko područje (Mostar i njegova okolina) geografski se može opisati kao čvorište sjeverne, zapadne i istočne Hercegovine. Kroz centar grada protječe Neretva, pa je Mostar poznat i pod nadimkom "grad na Neretvi". Najpoznatija brda oko mostarske kotline jesu Hum, Stolac, Fortica, Žrovnica, Planinica i Brkanovo brdo. Dvije najpoznatije planine u blizini Mostara jesu Velež i Prenj. Mostar je, kao i većina hercegovačkih gradova, veoma krševit.

    Uopćeno govoreći, Mostar ima izmjenjenu sredozemnu klimu sa blažim, ali hladnim zimama (sa malo ili nimalo snijega) te veoma vrućim ljetima, kada temperature u hladu znaju iznositi i preko 40 °C. Najviša ikad zabilježena temperatura u Mostaru izmjerena je 31. jula 1901, a iznosila je 46,2 °C.Zbog toga je Mostar bio jedan od najtoplijih gradova u bivšoj Jugoslaviji, a danas u Bosni i Hercegovini. Najveći dio padavina bilježi se u hladnijem dijelu godine, dok su ljeta sušnija. Godišnje se prosječno bilježi 2 290 sunčanih sati, najviše u BiH. Značajniji snijeg je rijetka pojava, iako rekordni snježni pokrivač iznosi 86 cm (zabilježen u februraru 2012.). Blaga klima čini Mostar pogodnim za uzgajanje različitih vrsta voća i mediteranskog raslinja poput smokava, šipaka i maslina.

    Prije posljednjeg rata Mostar je bio jedan od jačih privrednih središta bivše Jugoslavije (Aluminijski kombinat, "Soko", "Hepok" kasnije "Apro", Mostarska vinarija, Fabrika duhana Mostar, hidroelektrane na Neretvi, "Unis", rudnik mrkog uglja itd). Ratna razaranja uništila su privredu Mostara, pogotovo u njegovom istočnom dijelu. Turizamje jedna od najrazvijenijih grana privrede u Mostaru, naročito nakon što je stara gradska jezgra primljena na listu UNESCO-a.

    Nacionalni sastav stanovništva - grad Mostar

    1. 1 Modalitet Muslimani se danas označava kao modalitet Bošnjaci.

    Književnost

    U Mostaru je 1896. godine, na inicijativu Alekse Šantiće, Jovana Dučića i Atanasija Šole, osnovan književni časopis Zora, koji je bez prekida izlazio do 1901. godine.

    Kulturne institucije

    U Mostaru se nalaze:

    Kulturni događaji

    1. Mostarsko ljeto, gdje se ističu Šantićeve večeri poezije, Mostarski ljetni festival te Festival horova / ansambala Bosne i Hercegovine 2. Mostarsko proljećeznačajna je kulturna manifestacija, koju organizira Matica Hrvatska Mostar i koja se održava svake godine tokom proljeća i ljeta 3. Festival komedije Bosne i Hercegovine Mostarska liska, koji je pokrenulo Narodno pozorište u Mostaru 1991, a inicijator je bio režiser Ahmet Obradović

    Najpoznatiji sport u Mostaru jest nogomet. U najveće uspjehe mostarskih nogometnih klubova spadaju dvije titule Veleža u kupu bivše Jugoslavije (Kup maršala Tita 1981. i 1986) te titule prvaka Bosne i Hercegovine koje je osvojio Zrinjski (2005, 2009, 2014, 2016), uz jedan osvojen Kup Bosne i Hercegovine (također Zrinjski 2008). Osim nogometa, u Mostaru je najpoznatiji ekstremni sport skokovi sa Starog mosta u Neretvu. Ovi skokovi i najpoznatiji mostarski skok, lasta, predstavljaju, osim Starog mosta, FK Veleža i igranja tavle, najpoznatiji dio mostarske tradicije. Takmičenja u skokovima organiziraju se tradicionalno svake godine krajem jula, a organizator je Klub skakača "Mostari". Važnost ovog takmičenja pokazuje i to da ga obavezno prenosi državna televizija ili neka od najjačih komercijalnih televizija u zemlji, a ovi skokovi slove za jedne od najvažnijih sportskih događaja bh. današnjice. Jedan od sportova koji je dosta popularan u Mostaru jest i karate. U gradu djeluje više kar...

    Najznačajnija saobraćajnica koja prolazi kroz Mostar jest magistralni put M17. Mostar ima dvije autobuske i jednu željezničku stanicu. Javni autobuski saobraćaj u Mostaru obavlja preduzeće Mostar-bus, koje radi pod Gradskom upravom. Mostar također ima međunarodni aerodrom, koji se nalazi u naselju Ortiješ.

    Mostar je jedan od najvećih urbanih turističkih centara u Bosni i Hercegovini. U njegove najpoznatije znamenitosti spadaju: 1. Stari grad - historijska četvrt sa Starim mostom i nizom ostalih sadržaja iz bogate historije grada 2. Karađoz-begova džamija 3. Franjevačka crkva, s najvišim zvonikom u Bosni i Hercegovini 4. Bišćevića sokak, s poznatom Turskom kućom 5. Historijsko naselje Brankovac, s kućama i avlijama starih mostarskih porodica, građeno u osmanlijskom stilu 6. Staro naselje Blagaj s Vrelom Bune, čuvenom Blagajskom tekijom, te starim gradom osnivača Hercegovine, hercega Stjepana Kosače 7. Park prirode Ruište na planini Prenj, poznat po endemskoj vrsti munike, kao i endemskoj vrsti bosanskog ljiljana 8. Rezervat prirode Diva Grabovica, sa gotovo netaknutom prirodom 9. Mostarsko blato, park prirode zapadno od Mostara 10. Kuća Alekse Šantića, velikana bh. pjesništva 11. Muzej Hercegovine 12. Partizansko groblje u Mostaru

  4. sco.wikipedia.org › wiki › MostarMostar - Wikipedia

    Mostar is a ceety an municipality in Bosnie an Herzegovinae, the lairgest an ane o the maist important ceeties in the Herzegovinae region an the centre o the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton o the Federation. Mostar is situatit on the Neretva river an is the fift-lairgest ceety in the kintra.

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  6. fi.wikipedia.org › wiki › MostarMostar – Wikipedia

    • Historia
    • Talous
    • Väestö
    • Koulutus

    Nykyinen Mostar on ollut aikanaan vain kahden linnoitetun tornin suojaama puinen silta Neretvajoen yli alueella, joka oli osa Pyhän Savan herttuakuntaa (nyk. Hertsegovina). Herttuakunnan keskus ei tuolloin ollut Mostar, vaan läheinen Blagaj. Historiallisissa lähteissä paikka mainitaan ensimmäisen kerran vuonna 1452, mutta siihen viitataan vain vapaasti kääntäen linnoituksina Neretvajoen sillalla (do castelli al ponte de Neretua). Osmanit valtasivat Pyhän Savan herttuakunnan alueen vuonna 1467 tai 1468. Ensimmäinen maininta nimestä Mostar on muodossa Mosdar turkkilaisessa lähteessä vuodelta 1468 tai 1469. Nimi on johdettu serbokroatian sanasta most eli silta. Paikkaan viitataan samassa tekstissä myös nimellä Köprülü Hisar ja siellä mainitaan asuvan 16 kristittyä perhettä. Osmanien valtakunnassa Mostar oli aluksi hallinnollisesti osa Fočan qada Hertsegovinan (Hersek Ili) sancakissa ja se käsitti vain Neretvan vasemman rannan. Paikka alkoi kasvaa huomattavasti 1500-luvulta eteenpäin, j...

    Jugoslavian aikana Mostar oli tärkeä taloudellinen keskus, jossa oli muun muassa alumiini-, tupakka- ja lentokoneteollisuutta. Suuri alumiinitehdas toimii edelleen. Tehdas avattiin vuonna 1976 ja alumiinia tuotetaan lähistöllä kaivetusta bauksiitista. Energiaa saadaan lähistön vesivoimalasta. Maataloudella on toinen tärkeä talouden osa-alue. Alueella tuotetaan esimerkiksi viiniä, hunajaa, hedelmiä ja kasviksia. Nykyisin suuri merkitys on myös turismilla.

    Bosnia-Hertsegovinan vuoden 2013 väestönlaskennan mukaan Mostarin asukasluku oli 105 797. Heistä kroaatteja oli 51 216, bosniakkeja 46 752 ja serbejä 4 421. Muihin ryhmiin kuului 1 910 henkilöä. Uskonnolliselta taustaltaan katolilaisia oli 50 146, muslimeja 46 058 ja ortodokseja 4 274. Ateisteja oli 1 670 ja agnostikkoja 742. Muihin ryhmiin kuului 1 174 henkilöä.Etnisten ryhmien puolesta Mostar on jakautunut voimakkaasti kroaattien asuttamaan osaan Neretvan länsipuolella ja bosniakkien asuttamaan itäosaan.

    Mostarin yliopisto on perustettu vuonna 1977.Kaupungin koulujärjestelmä on jakautunut monen muun toiminnan tapaan etnisten ryhmien perusteella kahtia. Samassa koulussa käyvät kroaatit ja bosniakit käyvät eri tunneilla, sekä oppivat eri opetussuunnitelmien mukaan.

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