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  1. Alexander Fleming - Wikipedia › wiki › Alexander_Fleming
    • Early Life and Education
    • Scientific Contributions
    • Personal Life
    • Death
    • Awards and Legacy
    • Myths
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Born on 6 August 1881 at Lochfield farm near Darvel, in Ayrshire, Scotland, Alexander Fleming was the third of four children of farmer Hugh Fleming (1816–1888) and Grace Stirling Morton (1848–1928), the daughter of a neighbouring farmer. Hugh Fleming had four surviving children from his first marriage. He was 59 at the time of his second marriage to Grace, and died when Alexander was seven. Fleming went to Loudoun Moor School and Darvel School, and earned a two-year scholarship to Kilmarnock Academy before moving to London, where he attended the Royal Polytechnic Institution. After working in a shipping office for four years, the twenty-year-old Alexander Fleming inherited some money from an uncle, John Fleming. His elder brother, Tom, was already a physician and suggested to him that he should follow the same career, and so in 1903, the younger Alexander enrolled at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in Paddington; he qualified with an MBBSdegree from the school with distinction in...


    During World War I, Fleming with Leonard Colebrook and Sir Almroth Wright joined the war efforts and practically moved the entire Inoculation Department of St Mary's to the British military hospital at Boulogne-sur-Mer. Serving as Temporary Lieutenant of the Royal Army Medical Corps, he witnessed the death of many soldiers from sepsis resulting from infected wounds. Antiseptics, which were used at the time to treat infected wounds, he observed, often worsened the injuries. In an article publi...

    Discovery of lysozyme

    At St Mary's Hospital, Fleming continued his investigations into bacteria culture and antibacterial substances. As his research scholar at the time V.D. Allison recalled, Fleming was not a tidy researcher and usually expected unusual bacterial growths in his culture plates. Fleming had teased Allison of his "excessive tidiness in the laboratory," and Allison rightly attributed such untidiness as the success of Fleming's experiments, and said, "[If] he had been as tidy as he thought I was, he...

    On 24 December 1915, Fleming married a trained nurse, Sarah Marion McElroy of Killala, County Mayo, Ireland. Their only child, Robert Fleming (1924–2015), became a general medical practitioner. After his first wife's death in 1949, Fleming married Amalia Koutsouri-Vourekas, a Greekcolleague at St. Mary's, on 9 April 1953; she died in 1986. Fleming came from a Presbyterian background, while his first wife Sarah was a (lapsed) Roman Catholic. It is said that he was not particularly religious, and their son Robert was later received into the Anglican church, while still reportedly inheriting his two parents' fairly irreligious disposition. When Fleming learned of Robert D. Coghill and Andrew J. Moyer patenting the method of penicillin production in US in 1944,he was furious, and commented: From 1921 until his death in 1955, Fleming owned a country home named "The Dhoon" in Barton Mills, Suffolk.

    On 11 March 1955, Fleming died at his home in London of a heart attack. His ashes are buried in St Paul's Cathedral.

    Fleming's discovery of penicillin changed the world of modern medicine by introducing the age of useful antibiotics; penicillin has saved, and is still saving, millions of people around the world. The laboratory at St Mary's Hospital where Fleming discovered penicillin is home to the Fleming Museum, a popular London attraction. His alma mater, St Mary's Hospital Medical School, merged with Imperial College London in 1988. The Sir Alexander Fleming Building on the South Kensington campus was opened in 1998, where his son Robert and his great granddaughter Claire were presented to the Queen; it is now one of the main preclinical teaching sites of the Imperial College School of Medicine. His other alma mater, the Royal Polytechnic Institution (now the University of Westminster) has named one of its student halls of residence Alexander Fleming House, which is near to Old Street. The Fleming crater on the moon is named after Alexander and Williamina Fleming.

    The Fleming myth

    By 1942, penicillin was produced as pure compound, but still in short supply and not available for clinical use. When Fleming used the first few samples from the Oxford team to treat Harry Lambert who had streptococcal meningitis, the successful treatment was a major news, particularly popularised in The Times. But Wright was a bit surprised as the discoverers Fleming and the Oxford team were not mentioned, though Oxford was attributed as the source of the drug. Wright wrote a letter to the e...

    The Churchills

    The popular story of Winston Churchill's father paying for Fleming's education after Fleming's father saved young Winston from death is false. According to the biography, Penicillin Man: Alexander Fleming and the Antibiotic Revolution by Kevin Brown, Alexander Fleming, in a letter to his friend and colleague Andre Gratia, described this as "A wondrous fable." Nor did he save Winston Churchill himself during World War II. Churchill was saved by Lord Moran, using sulphonamides, since he had no...

    The Life Of Sir Alexander Fleming, Jonathan Cape, 1959. Maurois, André.
    Nobel Lectures, the Physiology or Medicine 1942–1962, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1964
    An Outline History of Medicine. London: Butterworths, 1985. Rhodes, Philip.
    The Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Porter, Roy, ed.

    Media related to Alexander Flemingat Wikimedia Commons 1. Alexander Fleming Obituary 2. Alexander Fleming on including the Nobel Lecture, 11 December 1945 Penicillin 3. Some places and memories related to Alexander Fleming 4. Newspaper clippings about Alexander Fleming in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW

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    1859 – The shooting of a pig in the San Juan Islands led to the so-called Pig War over the border between the United States and British North America.; 1896 – A 7.2 M s earthquake and a subsequent tsunami struck Japan, destroying about 9,000 homes and causing at least 22,000 deaths.

  5. Jamaica - Wikipedia › wiki › Jamaica

    Jamaica (/ dʒ ə ˈ m eɪ k ə / ()) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the Caribbean (after Cuba and Hispaniola).

  6. Alexander Fleming - Biography, Facts and Pictures › alexander-fleming

    Alexander Fleming was born on August 6, 1881 at his parents’ farm located near the small town of Darvel, in Scotland, UK. His parents, Hugh Fleming and Grace Stirling Morton, were both from farming families. His father’s health was fragile; he died when Alexander was just seven years old.

  7. Alexander the Great - Wikipedia › wiki › Alexander_the_Great

    Alexander III of Macedon (Greek: Αλέξανδρος, Aléxandros; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon. A member of the Argead dynasty, he was born in Pella—a city in Ancient Greece—in 356 BC.

  8. Captain Tom Moore - Wikipedia › wiki › Captain_Tom
    • Early Life and Family
    • Military Service
    • Career
    • Hobbies
    • 100th Birthday Walk
    • Personal Life
    • Death, Tributes and Funeral
    • in Popular Culture
    • External Links

    Moore was born in Keighley, West Riding of Yorkshire, England, on 30 April 1920 and grew up in the town. He was the son of Isabella (née Hird) and Wilson "Wilfred" Moore. His father was from of a family of builders, and his mother was a head teacher. Moore was educated at Keighley Grammar School and started an apprenticeship in civil engineering.

    Moore was conscripted in the 8th Battalion, Duke of Wellington's Regiment (8 DWR) in May 1940, stationed at Weston Park in Otley, eight months after the beginning of the Second World War.[unreliable source?] He was selected for officer training later that year, and attended an Officer Cadet Training Unit before being commissioned as a second lieutenanton 28 June 1941. On 22 October 1941, Moore became a member of the Royal Armoured Corps. This was because 8 DWR became an armoured unit designated as the 145th Regiment Royal Armoured Corps. Later that year, he was transferred to the 9th Battalion (9 DWR) in India, which had converted to become the 146th Regiment Royal Armoured Corps. While in India, he was tasked with setting up and running a training programme for army motorcyclists. He was initially posted to Bombay (now Mumbai) and subsequently to Calcutta (now Kolkata). He was promoted to war-substantive lieutenant on 1 October 1942 and to temporary captainon 11 October 1944. As pa...

    After leaving the army, Moore worked as a sales manager for a roofing materials company in Yorkshire. He was later appointed general manager of Cawoods Concrete Products Ltd., manufacturing concrete pipes in March, Cambridgeshire, with a view to restoring it to profitability or closing it down, after its owners had failed to find a buyer. Moore led a management buyout in 1983, with the assistance of local Member of Parliament Clement Freud, who also became an investor in the renamed March Concrete Products Ltd. The company traded successfully for several years until market conditions and technical issues forced the investors to sell it to Amalgamated Roadstone Corporationin 1987.

    Moore raced motorcycles competitively – he purchased his first when he was 12 and wore the number 23. He rode a Scott motorcycle, winning several trophies.Moore was a member of the Keighley and District Photographic Association between 1934 and 1936, as his father had also been. He was a contestant in the Christmas Day 1983 edition of the BBC Television game show Blankety Blank.

    On 6 April 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, and with his 100th birthday approaching, Moore began a fundraising campaign for NHS Charities Together, a group of charities supporting staff, volunteers and patients in the British National Health Service (NHS). He aimed to complete one hundred 25-metre (27-yard) lengths of his garden, ten lengths per day, with the help of a walking frame, branding the endeavour "Tom's 100th Birthday Walk for the NHS". The initial £1,000 goal having been realised on 10 April, the target was increased, first to £5,000, and later to £500,000 as more people around the world became involved. Contributions rose quickly after British media publicised the endeavour, beginning when Moore made a brief appearance by telephone, on Michael Ball's Sunday programme on BBC Radio 2 on 12 April. Moore, who joined Twitterin the same month, used the site to express joy at the public's generosity in donating such a large amount of money. He achieved his target of one hund...

    Moore first married in 1949 to a woman who was known as "Billie". The couple divorced. In January 1968, he married Pamela, fifteen years his junior. They had two daughters, Lucy and Hannah. When Moore was working at Cawoods and then March Concrete, the family lived in Welney in Norfolk. The couple retired to the Costa del Sol, Spain, but returned when Pamela developed a form of dementia. She spent her last years in a nursing home, where Moore would visit her every day. She died in 2006. Moore lived with Hannah, her husband, and two grandchildren, in Marston Moretaine, Bedfordshire, from 2008 until his death.He also had two other grandchildren. In 2018, he received treatment from the NHS, for a broken hip, broken rib, punctured lung and other serious injuries, following a fall. He was still recovering from these injuries when he started his fund-raising walk. The same year, he was also treated for skin cancer. In addition, Moore had a hip replacement and two knee replacements. His gr...

    Moore was admitted to Bedford Hospital on 12 January. He was diagnosed with pneumonia and treated. Ten days later he was discharged to his home in Marston Moretaine. Both before and during his stay in hospital, Moore was tested regularly for COVID-19. On the day of his discharge, 22 January, he first tested positive for the coronavirus. He remained at home for the following nine days while receiving care and treatment. Having difficulty in breathing, Moore was re-admitted to Bedford Hospital on 31 January with COVID-19 and pneumonia. He died on 2 February, aged 100. His funeral took place on 27 February. Sir Tom asked that My Way by Frank Sinatra be played at his funeral and that his epitaph should read: "I told you I was old", in reference to comedian Spike Milligan’s famous epitaph "I told you I was ill". Many public figures, including MPs, sportsmen and celebrities paid tribute to Moore through their social media channels.The NHS Twitter account issued a statement saying "Thanks...

    A mural was created, in honour of Moore, in Pontefract, West Yorkshire in April 2020. Moore was among a number of subjects for graffiti art created by Pontefract artist Rachel List. On 30 April 2020 a 12-foot-high (3.7-metre) mural, by newsagent and artist Paul Cable, on the wall of a popular restaurant in Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, was unveiled as a tribute to Moore on his 100th birthday. In September 2020, it was announced that a biopic of Moore's life was being produced by Fred Films and Powder Keg Pictures. Upon hearing the announcement, Moore commented: "I don’t know of any 100-year-old actors, but I’m sure Michael Caine or Anthony Hopkins could do a wonderful job if they were prepared to age up!". The film is being produced and written by Nick Moorcroftand Meg Leonard. Moore's autobiography, Tomorrow Will Be a Good Day (with a ghost-writer, Wendy Holden), was published by Penguin Books on 17 September 2020. An audiobook edition is read by Derek Jacobi. A version of the book f...

  9. Abraham Lincoln - Wikipedia › wiki › Abraham_Lincoln

    Lincoln's third son, "Willie" Lincoln was born on December 21, 1850, and died of a fever at the White House on February 20, 1862. The youngest, Thomas "Tad" Lincoln, was born on April 4, 1853, and survived his father but died of heart failure at age 18 on July 16, 1871.

  10. Sir Alexander Fleming (1881 - 1955) - Genealogy › people › Sir-Alexander-Fleming-Nobel

    Mar 06, 2021 · Sir Alexander Fleming was born on 6 August 1881 at Lochfield Farm, near Darvel in Ayrshire, Scotland, the third of the four children of Hugh Fleming (1816–1888), from his second marriage to Grace Stirling Morton (1848–1928). Hugh Fleming had four surviving children from his first marriage.

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