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  1. After working in a shipping office for four years, the twenty-year-old Alexander Fleming inherited some money from an uncle, John Fleming. His elder brother, Tom, was already a physician and suggested to him that he should follow the same career, and so in 1903, the younger Alexander enrolled at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in Paddington ...

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  4. Alexander Fleming, die seun van 'n Skotse boer, is op 6 Augustus 1881 in Lochfield gebore. Hy was 'n energieke jong man wat geesdriftig was oor sport en hy het die heuwels saam met sy broers deurswerf met jag, swem, sokkerspeel en boomklim. Op die ouderdom van 14 jaar het hy as 'n verskepingsklerk in Londen gewerk en sou dalk nooit 'n dokter ...

  5. › wiki › FeverFever - Wikipedia

    • Associated Symptoms
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    • Selective Advantage
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    • Other Species

    A fever is usually accompanied by sickness behavior, which consists of lethargy, depression, loss of appetite, sleepiness, hyperalgesia, and the inability to concentrate. Sleeping with a fever can often cause intense or confusing nightmares, commonly called "fever dreams". Mild to severe delirium (which can also cause hallucinations) may also present itself during high fevers.

    Various patterns of measured patient temperatures have been observed, some of which may be indicative of a particular medical diagnosis: 1. Continuous fever, where temperature remains above normal throughout the day and does not fluctuate more than 1 °C in 24 hours (e.g. in bacterial pneumonia, typhoid, infective endocarditis, tuberculosis, or typhus); 2. Intermittent fever, where the temperature elevation is present only for a certain period, later cycling back to normal (e.g., in malaria, leishmaniasis, pyemia, sepsis, or African trypanosomiasis); 3. Remittent fever, where the temperature remains above normal throughout the day and fluctuates more than 1 °C in 24 hours (e.g., in infective endocarditis, or brucellosis) 4. Pel–Ebstein fever is a cyclic fever that is rarely seen in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. 5. Undulant fever, seen in brucellosis 6. Typhoid fever is an example of continuous fever and it shows a characteristic step-ladder pattern,a step-wise increase in tempera...

    Fever is a common symptomof many medical conditions: 1. Infectious disease, e.g., COVID-19, Dengue, Ebola, gastroenteritis, HIV, influenza, Lyme disease, malaria, mononucleosis, as well as infections of the skin, e.g., abscesses and boils. 2. Immunological diseases, e.g., relapsing polychondritis, autoimmune hepatitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Horton disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, Kawasaki disease, lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, and Still's disease;[citation needed] 3. Tissue destruction, as a result of cerebral bleeding, crush syndrome, hemolysis, infarction, rhabdomyolysis, surgery, etc.;[citation needed] 4. Cancers, particularly blood cancers such as leukemia and lymphomas; 5. Metabolic disorders, e.g., gout, and porphyria;[citation needed]and 6. Inherited metabolic disorder, e.g., Fabry disease. Adult and pediatric manifestations for the same disease may differ; for instance, in COVID-19, one metastudy describes 92.8% of adults versus 43.9% of children present...

    Scholars viewing fever from an organismal and evolutionary perspective note the value to an organism of having a fever response, in particular in response to infective disease. On the other hand, while fever evolved as a defense mechanism, treating fever does not appear to worsen outcomes. Studies using warm-blooded vertebrates suggest that they recover more rapidly from infections or critical illness due to fever. Other studies suggest reduced mortality in bacterial infections when fever was present. Fever is thought to contribute to host defense, as the reproduction of pathogens with strict temperature requirements can be hindered, and the rates of some important immunological reactions[clarification needed] are increased by temperature.Fever has been described in teaching texts as assisting the healing process in various ways, including: 1. 1.1. increased mobility of leukocytes;: 1044 [verification needed] 1.2. enhanced leukocyte phagocytosis;: 1044 [verification needed] 1.3. dec...


    Temperature is regulated in the hypothalamus. The trigger of a fever, called a pyrogen, results in the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 in turn acts on the hypothalamus, which creates a systemic response in the body, causing heat-generating effects to match a new higher temperature set point. Hence, the hypothalamus can be seen as working like a thermostat. When the set point is raised, the body increases its temperature through both active generation of heat and retention of heat. Pe...


    A pyrogen is a substance that induces fever. In the presence of an infectious agent, such as bacteria, viruses, viroids, etc., the immune response of the body is to inhibit their growth and eliminate them. The most common pyrogens are endotoxins, which are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produced by Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli. But pyrogens include non-endotoxic substances (derived from microorganisms other than gram-negative-bacteria or from chemical substances) as well. The types of py...

    PGE2 release

    PGE2 release comes from the arachidonic acid pathway. This pathway (as it relates to fever), is mediated by the enzymes phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E2 synthase. These enzymes ultimately mediate the synthesis and release of PGE2.[citation needed] PGE2 is the ultimate mediator of the febrile response. The setpoint temperature of the body will remain elevated until PGE2 is no longer present. PGE2 acts on neurons in the preoptic area (POA) through the pros...

    Fever does not necessarily need to be treated, and most people with a fever recover without specific medical attention. Although it is unpleasant, fever rarely rises to a dangerous level even if untreated. Damage to the brain generally does not occur until temperatures reach 42 °C (107.6 °F), and it is rare for an untreated fever to exceed 40.6 °C (105 °F). Treating fever in people with sepsisdoes not affect outcomes.

    Fever is one of the most common medical signs. It is part of about 30% of healthcare visits by children, and occurs in up to 75% of adults who are seriously sick.About 5% of people who go to an emergency room have a fever.

    A number of types of fever were known as early as 460 BC to 370 BC when Hippocrates was practicing medicine including that due to malaria (tertian or every 2 days and quartan or every 3 days).It also became clear around this time that fever was a symptom of disease rather than a disease in and of itself. Infections presenting with fever were a major source of mortality in humans for about 200,000 years. Until the late nineteenth century, approximately half of all humans died from infections before the age of fifteen.

    Fever is often viewed with greater concern by parents and healthcare professionals than might be deserved, a phenomenon known as fever phobia, which is based in both caregiver's and parents' misconceptions about fever in children. Among them, many parents incorrectly believe that fever is a disease rather than a medical sign, that even low fevers are harmful, and that any temperature even briefly or slightly above the oversimplified "normal" number marked on a thermometer is a clinically significant fever. They are also afraid of harmless side effects like febrile seizures and dramatically overestimate the likelihood of permanent damage from typical fevers. The underlying problem, according to professor of pediatrics Barton D. Schmitt, is "as parents we tend to suspect that our children’s brains may melt."As a result of these misconceptions parents are anxious, give the child fever-reducing medicine when the temperature is technically normal or only slightly elevated, and interfere...

    Fever is an important feature for the diagnosis of disease in domestic animals. The body temperature of animals, which is taken rectally, is different from one species to another. For example, a horse is said to have a fever above 101 °F (38.3 °C). In species that allow the body to have a wide range of "normal" temperatures, such as camels, whose body temperature varies as the environmental temperature varies, the body temperature which constitutes a febrile state differs depending on the environmental temperature. Fever can also be behaviorally induced by invertebrates that do not have immune-system based fever. For instance, some species of grasshopper will thermoregulate to achieve body temperatures that are 2–5 °C higher than normal in order to inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium acridum. Honeybee colonies are also able to induce a fever in response to a fungal parasite Ascosphaera apis.

    • Temperature > between 37.2 and 38.3 °C (99.0 and 100.9 °F)
    • >37.5 or 38.3 °C (99.5 or 100.9 °F)
    • Based on underlying cause, not required for fever itself
    • Virus, bacteria, increase in the body's temperature set point
  6. In 2017, Mountain Fever Records released the Mac Wiseman album I Sang the Song (Life of the Voice with a Heart) featuring contributions from John Prine, Alison Krauss, Sierra Hull, Junior Sisk, Shawn Camp, and Andrea Zonn. Travianna Records. Travianna Records is a child label for releasing Americana music.

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    A native of Jersey City, New Jersey, Fleming graduated from St. Peter's Preparatory School in 1945 and from Fordham University in 1950, serving a year in the United States Navy before he started college. While in the navy, he served aboard the USS Topeka (CL-67). Fleming served as president of the Society of American Historians and the PEN American Center. Fleming also spent ten years as chairman of the New York American Revolution Round Table and was an Honorary Member of the New York State Society of the Cincinnati since 1975. He lived in New York with his wife, Alice, a writer of books for young people. Fleming published books about various events and figures of the Revolutionaryera. He also wrote about other periods of American history, and wrote over a dozen well-received novels set against various historical backgrounds. He said, "I never wanted to be an Irish-American writer, my whole idea was to get across that bridge and be an American writer". Fleming died at his home in N...


    1. Cowpens: "Downright Fighting": the Story of Cowpens. Washington, DC: Division of Publications, National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. 1988. ISBN 0912627336. 2. Now We Are Enemies 3. Beat the Last Drum: The Siege of Yorktown 1781 4. One Small Candle: The Pilgrims' First Year In America. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1963. 5. Washington’s Secret War: The Hidden History of Valley Forge. New York: Smithsonian Books/Collins. 2005. ISBN 0060829621. OCLC 61529854. 6. The Perils of Pea...


    1. Liberty Tavern 2. Dreams of Glory 3. The Spoils of War 4. Rulers of the City 5. A Passionate Girl 6. Promises to Keep 7. Remember The Morning 8. The Wages of Fame 9. When This Cruel War Is Over. New York: Forge. 2001. ISBN 9780812576450. OCLC 50793815. 10. The Secret Trial of Robert E. Lee 11. The Officers’ Wives 12. Time and Tide 13. Over There 14. Loyalties: A Novel of World War II 15. All Good Men 16. The God of Love

    Who's Who in America
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