Mar 27, 2020 · The Munich Conference, held in September 1938, resulted in an agreement signed by Great Britain, France, Italy and Germany that ceded the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Germany. The resolution was signed in an attempt to avoid war. However, Hitler continued to invade territories after the Munich Conference which ultimately led to the ...
Nov 11, 2008 · The Munich Conference The agreement permitting Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland was signed on Sept 29, 1938. Richard Cavendish | Published in History Today Volume 58 Issue 11 November 2008
- The Coveted Sudetenland
- Tensions Rise
- Diplomatic Efforts
- Chamberlain Steps in
- The Munich Conference
- Selected Sources
Having occupied Austria beginning in March 1938, Adolf Hitler turned his attention to the ethnically German Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. Since its formation at the end of World War I, Czechoslovakia had been wary of possible German advances. This was largely due to unrest in the Sudetenland, which was fomented by the Sudeten German Party (SdP). Formed in 1931 and led by Konrad Henlein (1898–1945), the SdP was the spiritual successor of several parties that worked to undermine the legitimacy of the Czechoslovakian state in the 1920s and early 1930s. After its creation, the SdP worked to bring the region under German control and, at one point, became the second-largest political party in the country. This was accomplished as German Sudeten votes concentrated in the party while Czech and Slovak votes were spread across a constellation of political parties. The Czechoslovak government strongly opposed the loss of the Sudetenland, as the region contained a vast array of natural...
Having moved toward an expansionist policy in late 1937, Hitler began assessing the situation to the south and ordered his generals to start making plans for an invasion of the Sudetenland. Additionally, he instructed Konrad Henlein to cause trouble. It was Hitler's hope that Henlein's supporters would foment enough unrest that it would show that the Czechoslovakians were unable to control the region and provide an excuse for the German Army to cross the border. Politically, Henlein's followers called for the Sudeten Germans to be recognized as an autonomous ethnic group, given self-government, and be permitted to join Nazi Germanyif they so desired. In response to the actions of Henlein's party, the Czechoslovak government was forced to declare martial law in the region. Following this decision, Hitler began demanding that the Sudetenland immediately be turned over to Germany.
As the crisis grew, a war scare spread across Europe, leading Britain and France to take an active interest in the situation, as both nations were eager to avoid a war for which they were not prepared. As such, the French government followed the path set by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (1869–1940), who believed that the Sudeten Germans' grievances had merit. Chamberlain also thought that Hitler's broader intentions were limited in scope and could be contained. In May, France and Britain recommended to Czechoslovakian President Edvard Beneš (1844–1948) that he give in to Germany's demands. Resisting this advice, Beneš instead ordered a partial mobilization of the army. As tensions grew through the summer, Beneš accepted a British mediator, Walter Runciman (1870–1949), in early August. Meeting with both sides, Runciman and his team were able to convince Beneš to grant the Sudeten Germans autonomy. Despite this breakthrough, the SdP was under strict orders from Germany no...
In an attempt to calm the situation, Chamberlain sent a telegram to Hitler requesting a meeting with the goal of finding a peaceful solution. Traveling to Berchtesgaden on Sept. 15, Chamberlain met with the German leader. Controlling the conversation, Hitler lamented the Czechoslovak persecution of Sudeten Germans and boldly requested that the region be turned over. Unable to make such a concession, Chamberlain departed, stating that he would have to consult with the Cabinet in London and requested that Hitler refrain from military action in the meantime. Though he agreed, Hitler continued military planning. As part of this, the Polish and Hungarian governments were offered a part of Czechoslovakia in return for allowing the Germans to take the Sudetenland. Meeting with the Cabinet, Chamberlain was authorized to concede the Sudetenland and received support from the French for such a move. On Sept. 19, 1938, the British and French ambassadors met with the Czechoslovak government and...
Though Hitler was willing to risk war, he soon found that the German people were not. As a result, he stepped back from the brink and sent Chamberlain a letter guaranteeing the safety of Czechoslovakia if the Sudetenland were ceded to Germany. Eager to prevent war, Chamberlain replied that he was willing to continue talks and asked Italian leader Benito Mussolini(1883–1945) to aid in persuading Hitler. In response, Mussolini proposed a four-power summit between Germany, Britain, France, and Italy to discuss the situation. The Czechoslovakians were not invited to take part. Gathering in Munich on Sept. 29, Chamberlain, Hitler, and Mussolini were joined by French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier (1884–1970). Talks progressed through the day and into the night, with a Czechoslovakian delegation forced to wait outside. In the negotiations, Mussolini presented a plan that called for the Sudetenland to be ceded to Germany in exchange for guarantees that it would mark the end of German terr...
As a result of the agreement, German forces crossed the border on Oct. 1 and were warmly received by the Sudeten Germans while many Czechoslovakians fled the region. Returning to London, Chamberlain proclaimed that he had secured "peace for our time." While many in the British government were pleased with the result, others were not. Commenting on the meeting, Winston Churchill proclaimed the Munich Agreement "a total, unmitigated defeat." Having believed that he would have to fight to claim the Sudetenland, Hitler was surprised that Czechoslovakia's erstwhile allies readily abandoned the country in order to appease him. Quickly coming to have contempt for Britain's and France's fear of war, Hitler encouraged Poland and Hungary to take parts of Czechoslovakia. Unconcerned about retaliation from the western nations, Hitler moved to take the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939. This was met with no significant response from either Britain or France. Concerned that Poland would be Ger..."Munich Pact September 29, 1938." The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Development. Lillian Goldman Law Library 2008. Web. May 30, 2018.Holman, Brett. "The Sudeten crisis, 1938." Airminded: Airpower and British Society, 1908–1941. Airminded. Web. May 30, 2018.
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The Munich Conference was held in Munich in 1938. There, Neville Chamberlin, the British Prime Minister; Edouard Daladier, the French Premiere, Benito Mussolini, the Italian Dictator, and Adolph ...
The Munich Conference was an attempt between several great European powers to avert a war over the Sudetenland crisis of September 1938. Involving Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain of the United Kingdom, Premier Edouard Daladier of the Third French Republic, Führer Adolf Hitler of the German Reich, and Prime Minister/Duce Benito Mussolini of Italy, the conference in Munich led to the Munich ...
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Upon speaking with Chamberlain, Lord Perth gave Chamberlain's thanks to Mussolini as well as Chamberlain's request that Mussolini attend a four-power conference of Britain, France, Germany, and Italy in Munich on 29 September to settle the Sudeten problem prior to the deadline of 2:00 pm. Mussolini agreed.
Munich Agreement, settlement reached by Germany, Britain, France, and Italy in Munich in September 1938 that let Germany annex the Sudetenland, in western Czechoslovakia. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain claimed that the agreement had achieved ‘peace for our time,’ but World War II began in September 1939.
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