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  1. Federation - Wikipedia › wiki › Federal_govt

    Federation. Jump to navigation Jump to search Federal states Unitary states. The pathway of regional integration or separation. Part of the Politics series ...

  2. National State Federation - Wikipedia › wiki › National_State_Federation

    The National State Federation (Italian: Federazione Nazionale Statali, FNS) was a trade union representing civil servants in Italy. The union was founded in 1945, and affiliated to the recently formed Italian General Confederation of Labour. By 1954, it had 68,699 members.

  3. Liberty - Wikipedia › wiki › Liberty
    • Philosophy
    • Politics
    • Origins of Political Freedom
    • Ideologies
    • Cultural Prerequisites
    • Historical Writings on Liberty
    • Bibliography
    • External Links

    Philosophers from earliest times have considered the question of liberty. Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius(121–180 AD) wrote: According to Thomas Hobbes(1588–1679): John Locke(1632–1704) rejected that definition of liberty. While not specifically mentioning Hobbes, he attacks Sir Robert Filmer who had the same definition. According to Locke: John Stuart Mill (1806–1873), in his work, On Liberty, was the first to recognize the difference between liberty as the freedom to act and liberty as the absence of coercion. In his book Two Concepts of Liberty, Isaiah Berlin formally framed the differences between two perspectives as the distinction between two opposite concepts of liberty: positive liberty and negative liberty. The latter designates a negative condition in which an individual is protected from tyranny and the arbitrary exercise of authority, while the former refers to the liberty that comes from self-mastery, the freedom from inner compulsions such as weakness and fear.


    The modern concept of political liberty has its origins in the Greek concepts of freedom and slavery. To be free, to the Greeks, was not to have a master, to be independent from a master (to live as one likes). That was the original Greek concept of freedom. It is closely linked with the concept of democracy, as Aristotleput it: 1. "This, then, is one note of liberty which all democrats affirm to be the principle of their state. Another is that a man should live as he likes. This, they say, i...

    Social contract

    The social contract theory, most influentially formulated by Hobbes, John Locke and Rousseau (though first suggested by Plato in The Republic), was among the first to provide a political classification of rights, in particular through the notion of sovereignty and of natural rights. The thinkers of the Enlightenment reasoned that law governed both heavenly and human affairs, and that law gave the king his power, rather than the king's power giving force to law. This conception of law would fi...

    England and Great Britain

    England (and, following the Act of Union 1707, Great Britain), laid down the cornerstones of the concept of individual liberty. In 1066 as a condition of his coronation William the Conqueror assented to the London Charter of Liberties which guaranteed the "Saxon" liberties of the City of London. In 1100 the Charter of Libertiesis passed which sets out certain liberties of nobles, church officials and individuals. In 1166 Henry II of England transformed English law by passing the Assize of Cla...

    United States

    According to the 1776 United States Declaration of Independence, all men have a natural right to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness". But this declaration of liberty was troubled from the outset by the institutionalization of legalized Black slavery. Slave owners argued that their liberty was paramount since it involved property, their slaves, and that Blacks had no rights that any White man was obliged to recognize. The Supreme Court, in the Dred Scott decision, upheld this princip...


    France supported the Americans in their revolt against English rule and, in 1789, overthrew their own monarchy, with the cry of "Liberté, égalité, fraternité". The bloodbath that followed, known as the reign of terror, soured many people on the idea of liberty. Edmund Burke, considered one of the fathers of conservatism, wrote "The French had shewn themselves the ablest architects of ruin that had hitherto existed in the world."


    According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, liberalism is "the belief that it is the aim of politics to preserve individual rights and to maximize freedom of choice". But they point out that there is considerable discussion about how to achieve those goals. Every discussion of freedom depends on three key components: who is free, what they are free to do, and what forces restrict their freedom. John Gray argues that the core belief of liberalism is toleration. Liberals allow other...


    According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, libertarians hold liberty as their primary political value.Their approach to implementing liberty involves opposing any governmental coercion, aside from that which is necessary to prevent individuals from coercing each other.

    Republican liberty

    According to republican theorists of freedom, like the historian Quentin Skinner or the philosopher Philip Pettit, one's liberty should not be viewed as the absence of interference in one's actions, but as non-domination. According to this view, which originates in the Roman Digest, to be a liber homo, a free man, means not being subject to another's arbitrary will, that is to say, dominated by another. They also cite Machiavelliwho asserted that you must be a member of a free self-governing...

    Some authors have suggested that a virtuous culture must exist as a prerequisite for liberty. Benjamin Franklin stated that "only a virtuous people are capable of freedom. As nations become corrupt and vicious, they have more need of masters." Madison likewise declared: "To suppose that any form of government will secure liberty or happiness without any virtue in the people, is a chimerical idea."John Adams acknowledged: "Our constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other."

    John Locke (1689). Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, the False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. the Latter Is an Essay Conc...
    Frédéric Bastiat (1850). The Law. Paris: Guillaumin & Co.
    John Stuart Mill (1859). On Liberty. London: John W Parker and Son.
    James Fitzjames Stephen (1874). Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. London: Smith, Elder, & Co.
    Breay, Claire (2010). Magna Carta: Manuscripts and Myths. London: The British Library. ISBN 978-0-7123-5833-0.
    Breay, Claire; Harrison, Julian, eds. (2015). Magna Carta: Law, Liberty, Legacy. London: The British Library. ISBN 978-0-7123-5764-7.
    Danziger, Danny; Gillingham, John (2004). 1215: The Year of Magna Carta. Hodder Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-340-82475-7.
    Media related to Libertyat Wikimedia Commons
    Quotations related to Libertyat Wikiquote
  4. Liberty Counsel - Wikipedia › wiki › Liberty_Counsel

    Liberty Counsel is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt religious liberty organization that engages in litigation related to evangelical Christian values. Liberty Counsel was founded in 1989 by its chairman Mathew D. Staver and its president Anita L. Staver, who are attorneys and married to each other.

  5. Federation wikipedia - Yahoo Search Results › tablet › s › wiki › Federation Cached A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government .

  6. One Liberty Plaza, formerly the U.S. Steel Building, is a skyscraper in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. It is situated on a block bounded by Broadway, Liberty Street, Church Street, and Cortlandt Street, on the sites of the former Singer Building and City Investing Building.

  7. The Portugal national football team ( Portuguese: Seleção Portuguesa de Futebol) has represented Portugal in international men's football competition since 1921. It is controlled by the Portuguese Football Federation, the governing body for football in Portugal. Portugal's first participation in a major tournament finals was at the 1966 ...

  8. Wikipedia shqip - Wikipedia › wiki › WP-SQ

    Wikipedia Shqip është versioni shqip i Wikipedia-s, enciklopedisë së lirë. Ajo filloi më 12 tetor 2003 dhe sot përmban 79.920 artikuj.Wikipedia shqip e ka vendin e 72-të sipas listës së Wikipedia-ve.

  9. national rail wikipedia shqip - Yahoo Search Results › tablet › s › wiki › Zion_National_Park Cached Zion National Park is an American national park located in southwestern Utah near the town of Springdale.A prominent feature of the 229-square-mile (590 km 2) park is Zion Canyon, which is 15 miles (24 km) long and up to 2,640 ft (800 m) deep.

  10. Wikipedia - Wikipedia › wiki › Wikipedia

    Versioni shqip i Wikipedia-s, Enciklopedisë së Lirë që quhet Wikipedia shqip, filloi më 12 tetor 2003 dhe sot përmban 83.385 artikuj. Wikipedia shqip mban vendin e 72-të në rangun Meta.

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