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  1. From the ancient world (at least since Aristotle) until the 19th century, natural philosophy was the common term for the study of physics (nature), a broad term that included botany, zoology, anthropology, and chemistry as well as what we now call physics. It was in the 19th century that the concept of science received its modern shape, with ...

    • History of Naturalism
    • Description
    • Providing Assumptions Required For Science
    • Metaphysical Naturalism
    • Methodological Naturalism
    • Criticism
    • References

    Ancient and medieval philosophy

    Naturalism is most notably a Western phenomenon, but an equivalent idea has long existed in the East. Naturalism was the foundation of two out of six orthodox schools and one heterodox school of Hinduism. Samkhya, one of the oldest schools of Indian philosophy puts nature (Prakriti) as the primary cause of the universe, without assuming the existence of a personal God or Ishwara. The Carvaka, Nyaya, Vaisheshika schools originated in the 7th, 6th, and 2nd century BCE, respectively. Similarly,...

    Modern philosophy

    It was not until the early modern era of philosophy and the Age of Enlightenment that naturalists like Benedict Spinoza (who put forward a theory of psychophysical parallelism), David Hume. and the proponents of French materialism (notably Denis Diderot, Julien La Mettrie, and Baron d'Holbach) started to emerge again in the 17th and 18th centuries. In this period, some metaphysical naturalists adhered to a distinct doctrine, materialism, which became the dominant category of metaphysical natu...

    Contemporary philosophy

    A politicized version of naturalism that has arisen in contemporary philosophy is Ayn Rand's Objectivism. Objectivism is an expression of capitalist ethical idealism within a naturalistic framework. An example of a more progressive naturalistic philosophy is secular humanism. The current usage of the term naturalism "derives from debates in America in the first half of the last century. Currently, metaphysical naturalism is more widely embraced than in previous centuries, especially but not e...

    According to Steven Schafersman, naturalism is a philosophy that maintains that; 1. "Nature encompasses all that exists throughout space and time; 2. Nature (the universe or cosmos) consists only of natural elements, that is, of spatio-temporal physical substance—mass–energy. Non-physical or quasi-physical substance, such as information, ideas, val...

    According to Robert Priddy, all scientific study inescapably builds on at least some essential assumptions that cannot be tested by scientific processes; that is, that scientists must start with some assumptions as to the ultimate analysis of the facts with which it deals. These assumptions would then be justified partly by their adherence to the t...

    Naturalism in its primary sense is known as metaphysical naturalism, ontological naturalism, pure naturalism, philosophical naturalism and antisupernaturalism. Metaphysical naturalism rejects the supernatural concepts and explanations that are part of many religions.

    Methodological naturalism, this second sense of the term "naturalism", seeks to provide a framework of acquiring knowledge that requires scientists to seek explanations of how the world around us functions based on what we can observe, test, replicate and verify. It is a distinct system of thought concerned with a cognitive approach to reality, and...

    Applicability of mathematics to the material universe

    The late eminent philosopher of mathematics Mark Steinerhas written extensively on this matter and acknowledges that the applicability of mathematics constitutes "a challenge to naturalism."

    Further reading

    1. Mario De Caro and David Macarthur (eds) Naturalism in Question.Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2004. 2. Mario De Caro and David Macarthur (eds) Naturalism and Normativity.New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. 3. Friedrich Albert Lange, The History of Materialism, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co Ltd, 1925, ISBN 0-415-22525-6 4. David Macarthur, "Quinean Naturalism in Question," Philo. vol 11, no. 1 (2008).

  2. Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) is the philosophical study of physics (Aristotle), that is, nature and the physical universe. It was dominant before the development of modern science . A celestial map from the 17th century, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik de Wit.

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  4. Mar 27, 2017 · In science, the important breakthroughs and paradigm changes have almost always come from those “thinking outside the box”. The purpose of Natural Philosophy Wiki (NPW) Encyclopedia is to address the limitations of traditional encyclopedias in the area of science and to present a full array of alternative ideas in an objective manner.

  5. Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775-1854), considered the primary figure of Naturphilosophie. Naturphilosophie (German for " nature-philosophy ") is a term used in English-language philosophy to identify a current in the philosophical tradition of German idealism, as applied to the study of nature in the earlier 19th century.

  6. Natural Philosophy Wikipedia. May 24, 2017 admin Link. ... A Science Wikipedia that allows for alternative science theories, models, and ideas as well as disputing ...

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