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  1. Kingdom of the Two Sicilies - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Kingdom_of_Naples_and_Sicily
    • Name
    • Background
    • History
    • Arts Patronage
    • Historical Population
    • Economy
    • Geography
    • Monarchy
    • Flags of The Kingdom of The Two Sicilies
    • Orders of Knighthood

    The name "Two Sicilies" originated from the partition of the medieval Kingdom of Sicily. Until 1285, the island of Sicily and the Mezzogiorno were constituent parts of the Kingdom of Sicily. As a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302), the King of Sicily lost the Island of Sicily (also called Trinacria) to the Crown of Aragon, but remained ruler over the peninsular part of the realm. Although his territory became known unofficially as the Kingdom of Naples, he and his successors never gave up the title "King of Sicily" and still officially referred to their realm as the "Kingdom of Sicily". At the same time, the Aragonese rulers of the Island of Sicily also called their realm the "Kingdom of Sicily". Thus, there were two kingdoms called "Sicily": hence, the Two Sicilies.

    Origins of the two kingdoms

    In 1130 the Norman king Roger II formed the Kingdom of Sicily by combining the County of Sicily with the southern part of the Italian Peninsula (then known as the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria) as well as with the Maltese Islands. The capital of this kingdom was Palermo — which is on the island of Sicily. During the reign of Charles I of Anjou (1266–1285), the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302) split the kingdom. Charles, who was of French origin, lost the island of Sicily to the House of...

    Aragonese and Spanish direct rule

    Only with the Peace of Caltabellotta (1302), sponsored by Pope Boniface VIII, did the two kings of "Sicily" recognize each other's legitimacy; the island kingdom then became the "Kingdom of Trinacria" in official contexts, though the populace still called it Sicily.[better source needed] In 1442, Alfonso V of Aragon, king of insular Sicily, conquered Naples and became king of both. Alfonso V called his kingdom in Latin "Regnum Utriusque Siciliæ", meaning "Kingdom of both Sicilies". At the dea...

    1816-1848

    The treaty of Casalanza restored Ferdinand IV of Bourbon back to the throne of Naples; the island of Sicily (where the constitution of 1812 virtually had disempowered him) was returned to him. He annulled the constitution in 1816; Sicily was fully reintegrated into what was now officially called the Regno delle Due Sicilie(Kingdom of Two Sicilies), Ferdinand IV became Ferdinand I. A number of accomplishments under the administration of Kings Joseph and Joachim Murat, such as the Code Civil, t...

    1848-1861

    The Kingdom of Two Sicilies, in the course of 1848-1849, had been able to suppress the revolution and the attempt of Sicilian secession with their own forces, hired Swiss guards included. The war declared on Austriain April 1848, under pressure of public sentiment, had been an event on paper only. In 1849 King Ferdinand II was 39 years old; he had begun as a reformer; the early death of his wife (1836), the frequency of political unrest, the extent and range of political expectations on the s...

    The Teatro Reale di San Carlo commissioned by the Bourbon King Charles VII of Naples who wanted to grant Naples a new and larger theatre to replace the old, dilapidated, and too-small Teatro San Bartolomeo of 1621. Which had served the city well, especially after Scarlatti had moved there in 1682 and had begun to create an important opera centre which existed well into the 1700s. Thus, the San Carlo was inaugurated on 4 November 1737, the king's name day, with the performance of Domenico Sarro's opera Achille in Sciroand much admired for its architecture the San Carlo was now the biggest opera house in the world. On 13 February 1816 a fire broke out during a dress-rehearsal for a ballet performance and quickly spread to destroy a part of building. On the orders of King Ferdinand I, who used the services of Antonio Niccolini, to rebuild the opera house within ten months as a traditional horseshoe-shaped auditorium with 1,444 seats, and a proscenium, 33.5m wide and 30m high. The stage...

    The kingdom had a large population, its capital Naples being the biggest city in Italy, at least three times as large as any other contemporary Italian state. At its peak, the kingdom had a military 100,000 soldiers strong, and a large bureaucracy. Naples was the largest city in the kingdom and the third largest city in Europe. The second largest city, Palermo, was the third largest in Italy. In the 1800s, the kingdom experienced large population growth, rising from approximately five to seven million.It held approximately 36% of Italy's population around 1850. Because the kingdom did not establish a statistical department until after 1848,most population statistics prior to that year are estimates and censuses that were thought by contemporaries to be inaccurate.

    A major problem in the Kingdom was the distribution of land property - most of it concentrated in the hands of a few families, the Landed Oligarchy. The villages housed a large Rural Proletariat, desperately poor and dependent on the landlords for work. The Kingdom's few cities had little industry, thus not providing the outlet excess rural population found in northern Italy, France or Germany. The figures above show that the population of the countryside rose at a faster rate than that of the city of Naples herself, a rather odd phenomenon in a time when much of Europe experienced the Industrial Revolution.

    Departments

    The peninsula was divided into fifteen departments and Sicily was divided into seven departments. The island itself had a special administrative status, with its base at Palermo.[citation needed] In 1860, when the Two Sicilies were conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia, the departments became provinces of Italy, according to the Rattazzi law.[citation needed] Peninsula departments 1. Province of Naples - Naples 2. Terra di Lavoro - Capua / Casertafrom 1818 3. Principato Citra - Salerno 4. Prin...

    Kings of the Two Sicilies

    1. Ferdinand I, 1816–1825 2. Francis I, 1825–1830 3. Ferdinand II, 1830–1859 4. Francis II, 1859–1861 In 1860–61 with influence from Great Britain and Gladstone's propaganda, the kingdom was absorbed into the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the title dropped. It is still claimed by the head of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.

    Titles of King of the Two Sicilies

    Francis I or Francis II, King of the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem, etc., Duke of Parma, Piacenza, Castro, etc., Hereditary Grand Prince of Tuscany, etc.

    1816–1848; 1849–1860 flag
    1848–1849 flag
    1860–1861 flag
    Framed antique flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (c. 1830s) discovered in Palermo.
  2. Baiae - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Baiae

    Baiae (Italian: Baia; Neapolitan: Baia) was an ancient Roman town situated on the northwest shore of the Gulf of Naples and now in the comune of Bacoli.It was a fashionable resort for centuries in antiquity, particularly towards the end of the Roman Republic, when it was reckoned as superior to Capri, Pompeii, and Herculaneum by wealthy Romans, who built villas here from 100 BC to AD 500.

  3. Wikipedia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Wikopedia

    Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process. It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company.

  4. Tyrrhenian Sea - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Mari_Tirrenu

    The Tyrrhenian Sea is situated near where the African and Eurasian Plates meet; therefore mountain chains and active volcanoes such as Mount Marsili are found in its depths. The eight Aeolian Islands and Ustica are located in the southern part of the sea, north of Sicily .

  5. May 3 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › May_3
    • Events
    • Births
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    Pre-1600

    1. 752 – Mayan king Bird Jaguar IV of Yaxchilan in modern-day Chiapas, Mexico, assumes the throne. 2. 1481 – The largest of three earthquakes strikes the island of Rhodesand causes an estimated 30,000 casualties. 3. 1491 – Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries, adopting the baptismal name of João I.

    1601-1900

    1. 1616 – Treaty of Loudunends a French civil war. 2. 1715 – A total solar eclipse is visible across northern Europe and northern Asia, as predicted by Edmond Halleyto within four minutes accuracy. 3. 1791 – The Constitution of May 3 (the first modern constitution in Europe) is proclaimed by the Sejm of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. 4. 1802 – Washington, D.C. is incorporated as a city after Congress abolishes the Board of Commissioners, the District's founding government. The "City of Washi...

    1901-present

    1. 1901 – The Great Fire of 1901 begins in Jacksonville, Florida. 2. 1913 – Raja Harishchandra, the first full-length Indian feature film, is released, marking the beginning of the Indian film industry. 3. 1920 – A Bolshevik coup fails in the Democratic Republic of Georgia. 4. 1921 – Ireland is partitioned under British law by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, creating Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland. 5. 1921 – West Virginia becomes the first state to legislate a broad sales tax, but...

    Pre-1600

    1. 490 – K'an Joy Chitam I, ruler of Palenque(d. 565) 2. 612 – Constantine III, Byzantine emperor (d. 641) 3. 1238 – Emilia Bicchieri, Italian saint (d. 1314) 4. 1276 – Louis, Count of Évreux, son of King Philip III of France(d. 1319) 5. 1415 – Cecily Neville, Duchess of York(d. 1495) 6. 1428 – Pedro González de Mendoza, Spanish cardinal (d. 1495) 7. 1446 – Margaret of York(d. 1503) 8. 1461 – Raffaele Riario, Italian cardinal (d. 1521) 9. 1469 – Niccolò Machiavelli, Italian historian and phil...

    1601-1900

    1. 1632 – Catherine of St. Augustine, French-Canadian nurse and saint, founded the Hôtel-Dieu de Québec(d. 1668) 2. 1662 – Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann, German architect, designed the Pillnitz Castle(d. 1736) 3. 1678 – Amaro Pargo, Spanish corsair (d. 1747) 4. 1695 – Henri Pitot, French physicist and engineer, invented the Pitot tube(d. 1771) 5. 1729 – Florian Leopold Gassmann, Czech composer (d. 1774) 6. 1761 – August von Kotzebue, German playwright and author (d. 1819) 7. 1764 – Princess Élis...

    1901-present

    1. 1902 – Alfred Kastler, German-French physicist and poet, Nobel Prizelaureate (d. 1984) 2. 1903 – Bing Crosby, American singer and actor (d. 1977) 3. 1905 – Edmund Black, American hammer thrower (d. 1996) 4. 1905 – Werner Fenchel, German-Danish mathematician and academic (d. 1988) 5. 1905 – Red Ruffing, American baseball pitcher and coach (d. 1986) 6. 1906 – Mary Astor, American actress (d. 1987) 7. 1906 – René Huyghe, French historian and author (d. 1997) 8. 1906 – Anna Roosevelt Halsted,...

    Pre-1600

    1. 678 – Tōchi, Japanese princess 2. 738 – Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil, Mayan ruler (ajaw) 3. 1152 – Matilda of Boulogne(b. 1105) 4. 1270 – Béla IV of Hungary(b. 1206) 5. 1294 – John I, Duke of Brabant(b. 1252) 6. 1330 – Alexios II Megas Komnenos, Emperor of Trebizond(b. 1282) 7. 1410 – Antipope Alexander V 8. 1481 – Mehmed the Conqueror, Ottoman sultan (b. 1432) 9. 1501 – John Devereux, 9th Baron Ferrers of Chartley, English Baron (b. 1463) 10. 1524 – Richard Grey, 3rd Earl of Kent, English p...

    1601-1900

    1. 1606 – Henry Garnet, English priest and author (b. 1555) 2. 1621 – Elizabeth Bacon, English Tudor gentlewoman (b. 1541) 3. 1679 – James Sharp, Scottish archbishop (b. 1613) 4. 1693 – Claude de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, French courtier (b. 1607) 5. 1704 – Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber, Czech-Austrian violinist and composer (b. 1644) 6. 1724 – John Leverett the Younger, American lawyer, academic, and politician (b. 1662) 7. 1750 – John Willison, Scottish minister and author (b. 1680) 8. 1752...

    1901-present

    1. 1910 – Howard Taylor Ricketts, American pathologist (b. 1871) 2. 1916 – Tom Clarke, Irish rebel (b. 1858) 3. 1916 – Thomas MacDonagh, Irish poet and rebel (b. 1878) 4. 1916 – Patrick Pearse, Irish teacher and rebel leader (b. 1879) 5. 1918 – Charlie Soong, Chinese businessman and missionary (b. 1863) 6. 1919 – Elizabeth Almira Allen, American educator (b. 1854) 7. 1921 – Théodore Pilette, Belgian race car driver (b. 1883) 8. 1925 – Clément Ader, French engineer, designed the Ader Avion III...

  6. Republic of Pisa - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Republic_of_Pisa

    The Republic of Pisa (Italian: Repubblica di Pisa) was an independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa, which existed from the 11th to the 15th century.It rose to become an economic powerhouse, a commercial center whose merchants dominated Mediterranean and Italian trade for a century, before being surpassed and superseded by the Republic of Genoa.

  7. Romulus Augustulus - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Romulus_Augustulus

    Romulus Augustus ( c. 460 – after 476, possibly still alive as late as 507), known derisively and historiographically as Augustulus, was Roman emperor of the West from 31 October 475 until 4 September 476. He is often described as the last Western Roman emperor, though some historians consider this to be Julius Nepos.

  8. Benedetto Croce - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Benedetto_Croce

    Benedetto Croce KOCI, COSML ( Italian: [beneˈdetto ˈkroːtʃe]; 25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics. In most regards, Croce was a liberal, although he opposed laissez-faire free trade and ...

  9. Künstlerroman - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Künstlerroman

    Künstlerroman. Language. Watch. Edit. A Künstlerroman ( German pronunciation: [ˈkʏnstlɐ.ʁoˌmaːn]; plural -ane), meaning "artist's novel" in English, is a narrative about an artist's growth to maturity. It could be classified as a sub-category of Bildungsroman. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, a Künstlerroman differs from a ...

  10. TIL that Wikipedia has a list of all the errors in the ...

    www.reddit.com › r › todayilearned

    TIL that Wikipedia has a list of all the errors in the Encyclopedia Britannica, and has corrected each one. Close. 101.

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