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  1. Neonatal sepsis. Neonatal sepsis is a type of neonatal infection and specifically refers to the presence in a newborn baby of a bacterial blood stream infection (BSI) (such as meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, or gastroenteritis) in the setting of fever. Older textbooks may refer to neonatal sepsis as "sepsis neonatorum".

  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › SepsisSepsis - Wikipedia

    Neonatal sepsis. In common clinical usage, neonatal sepsis refers to a bacterial blood stream infection in the first month of life, such as meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, or gastroenteritis, but neonatal sepsis also may be due to infection with fungi, viruses, or parasites.

    • May be rapid (<3 hours) or prolonged (several days)
    • Immune response triggered by an infection
    • Causes
    • Epidemiology
    • Symptoms

    Neonatal sepsis can be caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E coli), Listeria, and some strains of streptococcus. Group B streptococcus (GBS) has been a major cause of neonatal sepsis. However, this problem has become less common because women are screened during pregnancy. The herpes simplex virus (HSV) can also cause a severe infection in a newborn baby. This happens most often when the mother is newly infected.

    Early-onset neonatal sepsis most often appears within 24 to 48 hours of birth. The baby gets the infection from the mother before or during delivery. The following increase an infant's risk of early-onset bacterial sepsis:

    Babies with late-onset neonatal sepsis are infected after delivery. The following increase an infant's risk of sepsis after delivery:

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  4. premature birth are the single largest contributor to neonatal mortality, due to the lack of necessary physical development. The survivors of premature birth may suffer life-long effects. Neonatal sepsis is a blood infection that can be caused by a number of different bacteria. Neonatal sepsis can have an early-onset (within 24 hours of birth) or

    • 成因與診斷
    • 治療
    • 預後、流行病學與歷史
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    • 外部連結

    敗血症的定義為由於感染所引起的全身性發炎反應症候群(英語:Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SIRS),亦即滿足後列四項中至少兩項條件,加上存在感染的證據:體溫小於35°C或大於38°C、心跳每分鐘大於95次、呼吸頻率每分鐘大於25次或血液中二氧化碳分壓小於32毫米汞柱、血液中白血球數量每毫升大於12,000或小於4,000。感染的病原體多半為細菌,但亦可能被黴菌、病毒或寄生蟲侵入體內而引發敗血症。如病原体是病毒,则可是病毒血症。高危險族群包括:年長者、年紀幼小之個體,以及因其他疾病 (如:癌症、糖尿病、重大創傷或燒傷)導致免疫功能不足之患者。 敗血症常見的原發性感染來自下列位置:肺、腦、泌尿道、皮膚以及腹腔器官。血液培養(英语:Blood culture)可診斷出特定的病源菌,建議需在施打抗生素之前就取得血液檢體以提高陽性率,然而菌血症並非診斷敗血症的必要條件。醫學影像亦可進一步分析且定位受到感染的病灶組織。其它可造成類似敗血症症狀的鑑別診斷包括:嚴重全身過敏性反應、腎上腺皮質功能不全(英语:Adrenal_insufficiency)、低血容量、心臟衰竭以及肺栓塞等等。

    敗血症常規治療包括靜脈輸液及抗生素治療,通常需要在加護病房內進行生命徵象監測。升壓劑藥物(英语:Antihypotensive_agent)使用於輸液無法有效維持血壓時,而呼吸機及透析治療能夠減輕肺臟以及腎臟的負擔。中央靜脈導管及動脈導管可連續監測血行動力學,提供治療上即時的處置,同時便於升壓藥物的使用。心輸出量(英语:Cardiac output)以及血氧飽和(英语:Oxygen_saturation)也是應密切注意的數據,視情況需要採取必要處置以預防靜脈栓塞、上消化道壓力性潰瘍(英语:stress_ulcers)及褥瘡的發生。使用胰島素嚴格控制血糖對於部分敗血症病患是有好處的,類固醇的使用則尚有爭議。歷經十年臨床使用的試驗評估藥物活化蛋白質C又稱除栓素(英语:drotrecogin_alfa),具有抗凝血與抗發炎之效果,常使用在嚴重敗血症合併多重器官衰竭患者(英語:recombinant activated protein C or Xigris)然因無證據可支持用以治療敗血症病患,且有出血的高風險,禮來公司已於2011年10月25日宣布不再持續臨床試驗。

    預後決定於疾病嚴重度,其中敗血症死亡率可達30%,重度敗血症死亡率達50%。敗血性休克的死亡率隨統計族群不同而有極大的差異,有些甚至高達80%。估計每年全球有數百萬例敗血症發生,而確切統計數字,因發展中國家資料不完整而無法確定。在已發展國家如美國、日本,年發生率約每1000人0.2至3人,即每年有一百萬例敗血症。疾病發生率仍在上升中,其中男性多於女性。敗血症的另一字(英語:septicemia)以及毒血症(英語:blood poisoning)是描述血液中的微生物以及其產生的毒素,現在這兩種描述都已經十分少用 。敗血症的病情至少在希波克拉底的時代就已經可見到相關描述。

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  5. From today's featured article Wessex helicopter delivering supplies on Ascension Island The British depended on complex logistical arrangements to recapture the Falkland Islands in 1982, as the British forces were operating 13,000 kilometres (8,000 mi) from home. The Royal Navy's ships were augmented by ships taken up from trade (STUFT), and a base was developed on remote Ascension Island. The ...

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