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  1. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Main_Page

    From today's featured article The marsh rice rat (O. palustris), a similar species to O. gorgasi Oryzomys gorgasi, also known as Gorgas's rice rat, is a rodent in the genus Oryzomys of the family Cricetidae. First collected as a living animal in 1967, it is known from only a few localities, including a freshwater swamp in the lowlands of northwestern Colombia and a mangrove islet in ...

  2. Iranian cuisine - Wikipedia › wiki › Persian_cuisine

    Iranian cuisine (Persian: آشپزی ایرانی āšpazi-e iranī) comprises the cooking traditions of Iran.The term Persian cuisine is used as well due to the fact that Iran is historically known as Persia in the West, even though ethnic Persians are only one of Iran's native ethnic groups that have contributed to the culinary culture.

  3. Hafez - Wikipedia › wiki › Haafiz

    Parvin Loloi, Hafiz, Master of Persian Poetry: A Critical Bibliography - English Translations Since the Eighteenth Century (2004. I.B. Tauris) E. G. Browne. Literary History of Persia. (Four volumes, 2,256 pages, and twenty-five years in the writing with a new introduction by J.T.P De Bruijn). 1997. ISBN 978-0-936347-66-0; Will Durant, The ...

  4. Slavery in the United States - Wikipedia › wiki › Slavery_in_the_United_States

    Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel slavery, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America from its founding in 1776 until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865.

  5. Hellenistic period - Wikipedia › wiki › Hellenistic_period

    "Hellenistic" is a modern word and a 19th-century concept; the idea of a Hellenistic period did not exist in ancient Greece.Although words related in form or meaning, e.g. Hellenist (Ancient Greek: Ἑλληνιστής, Hellēnistēs), have been attested since ancient times, it was Johann Gustav Droysen in the mid-19th century, who in his classic work Geschichte des Hellenismus (History of ...

  6. Liverpool - Wikipedia › wiki › Liverpool

    Liverpool is known to be England's 'most Catholic city', with a Catholic population much larger than in other parts of England. [179] The parish church of Liverpool is the Anglican Our Lady and St Nicholas , colloquially known as "the sailors church", which has existed near the waterfront since 1257.

  7. Reba McEntire - Wikipedia › wiki › Reba_McEntire

    Reba Nell McEntire (born March 28, 1955) is an American country singer, songwriter, and actress. She began her career in the music industry as a high school student singing in the Kiowa High School band, on local radio shows with her siblings, and at rodeos.

  8. Angela Lansbury - Wikipedia › wiki › Angela_Lansbury

    Dame Angela Brigid Lansbury DBE (born October 16, 1925) is a British-American-Irish actress who has played many theatre, television, and film roles. Her career has spanned almost eight decades, much of it in the United States.

  9. Imperialism | - Free Online Encyclopedia › social-sciences-and-law
    • Overview
    • History
    • Theory in Depth
    • Theory in Action
    • Analysis and Critical Response
    • Topics For Further Study
    • Bibliography

    Imperialism is a term used to describe the domination of one state over a number of others. In the early twenty–first century imperialism is generally thought to be a bad idea. After World War IIended in 1945—and increasingly during the late twentieth century—most people came to view imperialist policies as both morally reprehensible and as economically unsound. During the Cold War both superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, were officially opposed to imperialism and generally tried to prevent other countries from pursuing such policies. This was partly because their two ideologies, communism in the Soviet Union and democratic capitalism in the U.S., were opposed to imperialism. They also had national interests that conflicted with those of the major European imperial powers. In addition, the many newly independent countries of the Third Worldopposed European imperialism, which they believed had been only recently bad for them. who controls government? Nation–state how...

    Historically, there have been many forms of imperialism. Indeed, arguably, the whole history of human civilization may be written as the rise and fall of consecutive imperial political powers. These started to occur after the Neolithic(or farming) revolution, which led humans to settle and create political units capable of organizing political, administrative, economic, and military power on a large scale. The first instances of these political enterprises occurred where fertile arable land, water, staple food crops, and suitable climate and geography intersected with the arrival of human beings emigrating, at first from Africa and increasing their numbers substantially. The parts of the world which allowed the formation of the first substantial states were the Middle East(particularly along the Nile and Euphrates rivers), in the river valleys of north India, and in the coastal lands and large river valleys of China. Typically, an imperial order was preceded by a system of smaller s...

    Imperialism is a practice that is designed to benefit the imperial power, and not those who are subjugated by it. It is most rapacious when the imperial power is a proponent of naked force and simple looting, as with Genghis Khan, and most benign when pursuing advantageous commercial exchange, like the U.S. Nonetheless, there may be collateral benefits to the subjugated power because more advanced techniques of production and even cultural practices are introduced to the weaker and subjugated society. This conception has been criticized by post–colonial theories, who argue that all societies are morally equal and none benefit from being conquered. The pursuit of imperialism usually involves an imperial or metropolitan government of a substantial state that is well organized and has a coherent identity. This state is often distinguished by its military power which may arise from its having a large population or territory, being well organized for war, or having developed some militar...

    In the pre–modern world the pursuit of empire was a common aspiration. States were formed, related with one another and competed for imperial dominion. The size of the empires these states could create were dependent on: its initial military capabilities; the size of the imperial economy; the administrative structures they could devise and sustain; and continuing military power they could effectively deploy against hostile forces of both rebellion and invasion at point of threat. They usually required ambitious, ferocious and determined leadership. The modern era was to expand these capabilities, and so the size of the empires they supported.

    The last phase in the expansion of the imperial power of the European states after 1870 was so spectacular that it sparked a major controversy about the reasons for it. A number of explanations were offered at that time, and subsequently by historians. The most obvious was that they conquered other countries because they had the power to do so. This theory of "the pursuit of power" was advanced by Hans J. Morgenthau in his textbook on international relations, Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. This pursuit of power had been common behavior by states since the Neolithic revolution. The disparity in power between the Europeans and others was for long so great that it made imperial conquest very cheap. The "lust for power" inherent in the state, particularly its military forces, provided a culture within which conquest could be justified by the security and strategic interests of the state. Even if conquest was distant, annexation could be justified in terms of d...

    Was Gibbon's description of the Roman Empire reasonable?
    Why did the Chinese state outlast the Roman Empire, despite Rome's superior military advantage over its conquered territories?
    Was Islamic imperialism during the caliphatespurely motivated by religious ideology?


    Blacker, Irwin R., ed. Prescott's Histories: The Rise and Decline of the Spanish Empire. New York: Viking Press, 1963. Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. London: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1996. De Hartog, Leo. Genghis Khan: Conqueror of the World.Leo De Hartog, 1999. Kennedy, Paul. Rise and Fall of the Great Powers,. New York: Random House, 1987. Lace, William W. The British Empire: The End of Colonialism. San Diego: Lucent Books, 2000. Mosler, David, and Bo...

    Further Readings

    Elvin, Mark. Pattern of the Chinese Past, Stanford UniversityPress, 1973. An interpretation of Chinese history which emphasizes the high–level of Chinese achievement by the sixteenth century. Gibbon, Edward. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,Knopf, 1993. A classic history of the expansion and collapse of the Roman Empire, which attributes its failure to the adoption of the Christian religion. Kennedy, Paul. Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, 1987. A description of the manner in which d...

  10. The Rise of Monarchies: France, England ... - › history › encyclopedias

    The Mongolian empire fell apart at the end of the fourteenth century, and the rulers of the Persian and Muslim kingdoms closest to Europe no longer gave outsiders access to their territory. Denied land routes to some of their most treasured goods, the Europeans had to find a route to Asia in the uncharted oceans.

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