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  1. New Imperialism - Wikipedia

    The new wave of imperialism reflected ongoing rivalries among the great powers, the economic desire for new resources and markets, and a "civilizing mission" ethos. Many of the colonies established during this era gained independence during the era of decolonization that followed World War II .

  2. American imperialism - Wikipedia

    American imperialism consists of policies aimed at extending the political, economic and cultural influence of the United States over areas beyond its boundaries. Depending on the commentator, it may include military conquest, gunboat diplomacy, unequal treaties, subsidization of preferred factions, economic penetration through private companies followed by intervention when those interests ...

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  4. Category:New Imperialism - Wikipedia

    Pages in category "New Imperialism" The following 18 pages are in this category, out of 18 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().

  5. Talk:New Imperialism - Wikipedia

    Though industrialists, financiers, and imperialist statesmen in the great powers often used economic arguments to explain the necessity for colonial expansion, the New Imperialism (1870-1914) had support from a broad array of groups, including colonial administrators, missionaries, atavistic military elites, and elements of the landed aristocracies. Even some trade union leaders and some European socialists were enthusiastic about colonial expansion.

  6. Imperialism - Wikipedia's

    Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending the rule over peoples and other countries, for extending political and economic access, power and control, often through employing hard power especially military force, but also soft power.

  7. New Imperialism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europe's powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. 1870–1914).

    • Rise
    • Social Implications
    • Asia
    • Africa
    • Polynesia
    • Imperial Rivalries
    • Motivation
    • Theories
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    The Amer­i­can Rev­o­lu­tion (1775–83) and the col­lapse of the Span­ish Em­pire in Latin Amer­ica around 1820 ended the first era of Eu­ro­pean im­pe­ri­al­ism. Es­pe­cially in Great Britain these rev­o­lu­tions helped show the de­fi­cien­cies of mer­can­til­ism, the doc­trine of eco­nomic com­pe­ti­tion for fi­nite wealth which had sup­ported ear­lier im­pe­r­ial ex­pan­sion. In 1846, the Corn Lawswere re­pealed and man­u­fac­tur­ers gained, as the reg­u­la­tions en­forced by the Corn Laws had slowed their busi­nesses. With the re­peal in place, the man­u­fac­tur­ers were then able to trade more freely. Thus, Britain began to adopt the con­cept of free trade. Dur­ing this pe­riod, be­tween the 1815 Con­gress of Vi­enna after the de­feat of Napoleonic France and the end of the Franco-Pruss­ian Warin 1871, Britain reaped the ben­e­fits of being the world's sole mod­ern, in­dus­trial power. As the "work­shop of the world", Britain could pro­duce fin­ished goods so ef­fi­ciently that...

    New Im­pe­ri­al­ism gave rise to new so­cial views of colo­nial­ism. Rud­yard Kipling, for in­stance, urged the United States to "Take up the White Man's bur­den" of bring­ing Eu­ro­pean civ­i­liza­tion to the other peo­ples of the world, re­gard­less of whether these "other peo­ples" wanted this civ­i­liza­tion or not. This part of The White Man's Burdenex­em­pli­fies Britain's per­ceived at­ti­tude to­wards the col­o­niza­tion of other coun­tries: While So­cial Dar­win­ism be­came pop­u­lar through­out West­ern Eu­rope and the United States, the pa­ter­nal­is­tic French and Por­tuguese "civ­i­liz­ing mis­sion" (in French: mis­sion civilisatrice; in Por­tuguese: Missão civilizadora) ap­pealed to many Eu­ro­pean states­men both in and out­side France. De­spite ap­par­ent benev­o­lence ex­ist­ing in the no­tion of the "White Man's Bur­den", the un­in­tended con­se­quences of im­pe­ri­al­ism might have greatly out­weighed the po­ten­tial ben­e­fits. Gov­ern­ments be­came in­creas­ingl...


    In the 17th cen­tury, the British busi­ness­men ar­rived in India and, after tak­ing a small por­tion of land, formed the East India Com­pany. The British East India Com­pany an­nexed most of the coun­try of India, start­ing with Ben­gal in 1757 and end­ing with Pun­jab in 1849. Many princely states re­mained in­de­pen­dent. This was aided by a power vac­uum formed by the col­lapse of the Mughal Em­pire in India and the death of Mughal Em­peror Au­rangzeb and in­creased British forces in Indi...

    Southeast Asia

    After tak­ing con­trol of much of India, the British ex­panded fur­ther into Burma, Malaya, Sin­ga­pore and Bor­neo, with these colonies be­com­ing fur­ther sources of trade and raw ma­te­ri­als for British goods.


    For­mal coloni­sa­tion of the Dutch East In­dies (now In­done­sia) com­menced at the dawn of the 19th cen­tury when the Dutch state took pos­ses­sion of all Dutch East India Com­pany (VOC) as­sets. Be­fore that time the VOC mer­chants were in prin­ci­ple just an­other trad­ing power among many, es­tab­lish­ing trad­ing posts and set­tle­ments (colonies) in strate­gic places around the arch­i­pel­ago. The Dutch grad­u­ally ex­tended their sov­er­eignty over most of the is­lands in the East In­...

    Be­tween 1850 and 1914, Britain brought nearly 30% of Africa's pop­u­la­tion under its con­trol, to 15% for France, 9% for Ger­many, 7% for Bel­gium and 1% for Italy: Nige­ria alone con­tributed 15 mil­lion sub­jects to Britain, more than in the whole of French West Africa, or the en­tire Ger­man colo­nial em­pire. The only re­gions not under Eu­ro­pean con­trol in 1914 were Liberia and Ethiopia.

    In Ocea­nia, France got a lead­ing po­si­tion as im­pe­r­ial power after mak­ing Tahiti and New Cale­do­niapro­tec­torates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. Chile's in­ter­est in ex­pand­ing into the is­lands of the Pa­cific Ocean dates to the pres­i­dency of José Joaquín Pri­eto (1831-1841) and the ide­ol­ogy of Diego Por­tales, who con­sid­ered that Chile's ex­pan­sion into Poly­ne­sia was a nat­ural con­se­quence of its mar­itime destiny.[A] Nonethe­less, the first stage of the coun­try's ex­pan­sion­ism into the Pa­cific began only a decade later, in 1851, when—in re­sponse to an Amer­i­can in­cur­sion into the Juan Fernández Is­lands—Chile's gov­ern­ment for­mally or­ga­nized the is­lands into a sub­del­e­ga­tion of Val­paraíso. That same year, Chile's eco­nomic in­ter­est in the Pa­cific were re­newed after its mer­chant fleet briefly suc­ceeded in cre­at­ing an agri­cul­tural goods ex­change mar­ket that con­nected the Cal­i­forn­ian port of San Fran­cisco with Aus­tralia. By 18...

    The ex­ten­sion of Eu­ro­pean con­trol over Africa and Asia added a fur­ther di­men­sion to the ri­valry and mu­tual sus­pi­cion which char­ac­ter­ized in­ter­na­tional diplo­macy in the decades pre­ced­ing World War I. France's seizure of Tunisiain 1881 ini­ti­ated fif­teen years of ten­sion with Italy, which had hoped to take the coun­try, re­tal­i­at­ing by al­ly­ing with Ger­many and wag­ing a decade-long tar­iff war with France. Britain's takeover of Egypt a year later caused a marked cool­ing of her re­la­tions with France. The most strik­ing con­flicts of the era were the Span­ish–Amer­i­can War of 1898 and the Russo-Japan­ese War of 1904–05, each sig­nal­ing the ad­vent of a new im­pe­r­ial great power; the United States and Japan, re­spec­tively. The Fashodain­ci­dent of 1898 rep­re­sented the worst An­glo-French cri­sis in decades, but France's buck­ling in the face of British de­mands fore­shad­owed im­proved re­la­tions as the two coun­tries set about re­solv­ing their o...


    One of the biggest mo­ti­va­tions be­hind New Im­pe­ri­al­ism was the idea of hu­man­i­tar­i­an­ism and "civ­i­liz­ing" the "lower" class peo­ple in Africa and in other un­de­vel­oped places. This was a re­li­gious mo­tive for many Chris­t­ian mis­sion­ar­ies, in an at­tempt to save the souls of the "un­civ­i­lized" peo­ple, and based on the idea that Chris­tians and the peo­ple of the United King­dom were morally su­pe­rior. Most of the mis­sion­ar­ies that sup­ported im­pe­ri­al­ism did so...

    Dutch Ethical Policy

    The Dutch Eth­i­cal Pol­icy was the dom­i­nant re­formist and lib­eral po­lit­i­cal char­ac­ter of colo­nial pol­icy in the Dutch East In­dies dur­ing the 20th cen­tury. In 1901, the Dutch Queen Wil­helmina an­nounced that the Nether­lands ac­cepted an eth­i­cal re­spon­si­bil­ity for the wel­fare of their colo­nial sub­jects. This an­nounce­ment was a sharp con­trast with the for­mer of­fi­cial doc­trine that In­done­sia was mainly a wingewest (re­gion for mak­ing profit). It marked the star...

    The "ac­cu­mu­la­tion the­ory" adopted by Karl Kaut­sky, John A. Hob­son and pop­u­lar­ized by Vladimir Lenin cen­tered on the ac­cu­mu­la­tion of sur­plus cap­i­tal dur­ing and after the In­dus­trial Rev­o­lu­tion: re­stricted op­por­tu­ni­ties at home, the ar­gu­ment goes, drove fi­nan­cial in­ter­ests to seek more prof­itable in­vest­ments in less-de­vel­oped lands with lower labor costs, un­ex­ploited raw ma­te­ri­als and lit­tle com­pe­ti­tion. Hob­son's analy­sis fails to ex­plain colo­nial ex­pan­sion on the part of less in­dus­tri­al­ized na­tions with lit­tle sur­plus cap­i­tal, such as Italy, or the great pow­ers of the next cen­tury—the United States and Rus­sia—which were in fact net bor­row­ers of for­eign cap­i­tal. Also, mil­i­tary and bu­reau­cratic costs of oc­cu­pa­tion fre­quently ex­ceeded fi­nan­cial re­turns. In Africa (ex­clu­sive of what would be­come the Union of South Africain 1909) the amount of cap­i­tal in­vest­ment by Eu­ro­peans was rel­a­tively small...

    Albrecht-Carrié, René. A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna(1958), 736pp; basic survey
    Aldrich, Robert. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion(1996)
    Anderson, Frank Maloy, and Amos Shartle Hershey, eds. Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870-1914 (1918), highly detailed summary prepared for use by the American del...
    Baumgart, W. Imperialism: The Idea and Reality of British and French Colonial Expansion 1880-1914(1982)
  8. Imperialism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Imperialism not only describes colonial, territorial policies, but also economic and/or military dominance and influence. [ edit ] Definitions from some other sources Definition 3 in the Shorter Oxford Dictionary (2007) is particularly apropos to our second (attitude) meaning above ; and also to the issue of how far non-military and not-overtly-territorial control can be called imperialism:

  9. History of colonialism - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    In the nineteenth century Europe underwent industrialisation, the population got larger, armies became more organised and had better weapons produced in factories. This time became known as the era of New Imperialism. Very quickly European powers were able to take over land and included the Scramble for Africa.

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