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  1. Martin Nicolaus – Page 2

    Events moved fast. Too fast. In secret Ebert and his group joined with the defeated generals to end the monarchy but keep the rule of the wealthy, saving it from the wrath of a hungry country, which demonstrated – a half million in Berlin – but soon yearned for peace, any peace.

  2. Nicolaus FEST - VoteWatch Europe

    Nicolaus FEST Group: IDG, Country: Germany - member of the European Parliament details on Votewatch Europe Become a VoteWatch Europe supporter VoteWatch Europe is a small, independent not-for-profit organisation.

  3. Programme for IACL Research Group Workshop: Luxembourg, 28-29 ...

    Nov 28, 2019 · The IACL Research Group « The Other Rule of Law Traditions in the World » announces its program for its First Workshop in Luxembourg, 28-29 November 2019 .

    • History of The Concept
    • Three Traditions of Thought
    • Concepts of Revolution
    • Conclusion
    • References and Further Reading

    In preparation for presentation of the different philosophical approaches to revolution in the following article, this section is concerned with providing a concise outline of the history of the concept. In so far as “revolution” is employed to describe political transformation, conceptual historians understand its origins to be genuinely modern. Critically informed by the experience of the revolutions in England, America, and France, the term in common usage designates the epitome of political change, that is, change not only in laws, policies, or government but in the established order that is both profound and durable. Earlier conceptions of political change are missing the notions of a people’s autonomous ability to act or of its right to emancipation. Further, the absence of two structural preconditions explains why revolution in the sense of fundamental politico-social transformation is not conceived prior to modernity. On the historical level, it is the formation of the “stro...

    Before turning to a detailed examination of important conceptual and normative issues concerning revolution, this section aims at giving an overview of three dominant lines of thought on revolution. Given the considerable discontinuities and breaks within each of these strands on the one hand and the numerous overlaps and interchanges between them on the other, the lines of thought presented here have to be understood as ideal types. Although it is likely that there are alternative perspectives, very few theories of revolution resist classification into one of these strands.

    The following section discusses central questions addressed in the works of theorists from these main strands: The questions of novelty, violence, freedom, the revolutionary subject, the revolutionary object or target, and the extension of revolution. As it is neither possible to comprehensively discuss relevant concepts of revolution proposed by political philosophers and theorists nor to comprehensively include thematic considerations of the theorists presented here, this section contents itself with highlighting certain crucial features. Since this article is concerned with concepts of revolution as developed by political philosophers and theorists, important historical (compare Furet/Ozouf, 1989; Hobsbawm, 1996 [1962]; Palmer, 2014 [1959]), sociological (compare Skopcol, 1979), and politological (compare DeFronzo, 2011) studies that primarily concentrate on the phenomenon of revolution, its empirical forms and causes, are not taken into account. Further, a number of theoretical...

    Even when the plurality of manners in which “revolution” is used in the domains of technology and science, culture and art, is left aside and when the term is applied in the domain of politics only, the heterogeneity and contested nature of understandings remains considerable. In spite of the wide range of specific approaches, arguments, and agendas characteristic of the individual theories of political revolution, they can be situated within one multifaceted, yet unified intellectual space: From the theoretical enablers and “inventors” of revolution like Rousseau, Paine, or Kant to contemporary thinkers of revolution like Balibar or Graeber, their theories have been confronted with a number of central problems and questions which open up, shape, and sustain this space. It is primarily in terms of these central questions that they have attempted to conceptually grasp revolution. Six of these questions have been outlined in the above sections: (1) the question of revolutionary novelt...

    Arendt, H., 2006, On Revolution[1963], New York: Penguin.
    Badiou, A., 2012, The Rebirth of History, trans. G. Elliott, London/New York: Verso.
    Balibar, É., 2014, Equaliberty: Political Essays, trans J. Ingram, Durham: Duke University Press.
    Bakunin, M., 2009, God and the State[1871], New York: Cosimo.
  4. John of Bohemia - Wikipedia,_Count_of_Luxembourg

    In 1310, Emperor Henry arranged the marriage of the 14-year-old John to Elizabeth, sister of the deceased King Wenceslaus III of Bohemia.The wedding took place in Speyer, after which the newlyweds made their way to Prague accompanied by a group led by the experienced diplomat and expert on Czech issues, Peter of Aspelt, Archbishop of Mainz.

    • 1310–1346
    • Henry
  5. More on this Day - February, 19 | Britannica

    On February 19, Shivaji, Nicolaus Copernicus, Lee Marvin were born and Umberto Eco, Timur, Deng Xiaoping died.

  6. A Decade Of Dollar-Denominated Debasement Debauchery | Nasdaq

    Jan 07, 2021 · The 12 years since those headlines, that January 3, 2009 Genesis bitcoin block and the global financial crisis that spurred the Bitcoin network’s creation, have been defined by historical ...

  7. Report from Germany – Martin Nicolaus

    Jan 17, 2019 · Events moved fast. Too fast. In secret Ebert and his group joined with the defeated generals to end the monarchy but keep the rule of the wealthy, saving it from the wrath of a hungry country, which demonstrated – a half million in Berlin – but soon yearned for peace, any peace.

  8. Louis I of Hungary - Wikipedia

    Because Casimir fell ill, Louis became the sole commander of the united Polish and Hungarian army. He invaded the lands of the Lithuanian prince, Kęstutis, in July. Kęstutis seemingly accepted Louis's suzerainty on 15 August and agreed to be baptised, along with his brothers, in Buda.

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