www.maryhare.org.uk/sites/maryhare.org.uk/files/Non literal language parent advice sheet.pdf
- Non-literal Language Non-literal or figurative language is language that goes beyond the dictionary meaning of words or phrases – not using words in their usual or most basic sense. • Writers use a lot of non-literal language to help readers better understand something or gain a more detailed picture in their minds.
Jul 08, 2021 · Types of units. Combining the literary and non-literary. Although you will technically have to make sure you place non-literary units of study “under” an area of exploration, they are very fluid and flexible. One of the most common non-literary units of study will be one that runs concurrently with your literary work. While studying Master ...
Jul 13, 2021 · Non-literary text forms an independent part of a publication . Non-literary texts are informational writing: factual material, informational explanations, newspaper articles, textbooks, journal and diary entries, and so forth that are published in newspapers, Informative magazines current affairs news and educative articles.
Jul 02, 2021 · The Translation Workshops, both Literary and Non-Literary, are run as either a regular class with a section for each language or as one-on-one or small group independent study arranged by the student, depending on the demand in any given semester for a given language.
Jun 26, 2021 · Drawing a connection beyond the non-literary and literary gives rise to language exposure and expansion. Through paper one students can explore global issues across a broad range and bring them to the classroom for debate.
Jul 20, 2021 · The language theories and technical know-how which have been meticulously taught to us are indeed more applicable in real life and at work than a student might think. After all, language is the most direct and essential channel for communication, no matter where in life one may be.
Jul 08, 2021 · Colloquialism is the use of casual and informal language in writing, which can also include slang. Writers use colloquialisms to provide context to settings and characters, and to make their writing sound more authentic.
Jul 16, 2021 · NOTE: the third language can be substituted with two graduate courses in a non-literary/language discipline (e.g. Art History, Philosophy, Cinema) taken outside of the Centre. 4. Students may pursue independent research for credit equivalent to one half-course at the PhD level, under the direction of an advisor approved by the Centre.
- Geographic Distribution
- Writing System
- Sentential Syntax
The native Coptic name for the language is ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (/təmətɾəmənˈkʰeːmə/) in the Bohairic (Delta) dialect and ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲣⲙ̄ⲛ̄ⲕⲏⲙⲉ (/t(ə)məntɾəmənˈkeːmə/) in the Sahidic (Valley) dialect. The particle prefix me(n)t- from the verb mouti (ⲙⲟⲩϯ, 'to speak') forms many abstract nouns in Coptic (not only those pertaining to "language"). The term remənkʰēmi/rəmənkēme meaning 'Egyptian', literally 'person of Egypt', is a compound of rem-, which is the construct state of the Coptic noun ⲣⲱⲙⲓ/ⲣⲱⲙⲉ, 'man, human being', + the genitive preposition (ə)n- (ⲛ̀, 'of') + the word for 'Egypt', kʰēmi/kēme (ⲭⲏⲙⲓ/ⲕⲏⲙⲉ; cf. Kemet). Thus, the whole expression literally means 'language of the people of Egypt', or simply 'Egyptian language'. Another name by which the language has been called is təməntkuptaion (ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲕⲩⲡⲧⲁⲓⲟⲛ) from the Copto-Greek form təməntaigupton (ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲁⲓⲅⲩⲡⲧⲓⲟⲛ, 'Egyptian language'). The term logos ən aiguptios (ⲗⲟⲅⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲓⲅⲩⲡⲧⲓⲟⲥ, 'Egyptian language') is also attested in Sahidic, but logo...
Coptic is today spoken liturgically in the Coptic Orthodox and Coptic Catholic Church (along with Modern Standard Arabic). The language is spoken only in Egypt and historically has had little influence outside of the territory, except for monasteries located in Nubia. Coptic's most noticeable linguistic impact has been on the various dialects of Egyptian Arabic, which is characterised by a Coptic substratum in lexical, morphological, syntactical, and phonologicalfeatures.
The Egyptian language may have the longest documented history of any language, from Old Egyptian that appeared just before 3200 BC to its final phases as Coptic in the Middle Ages. Coptic belongs to the Later Egyptian phase, which started to be written in the New Kingdom of Egypt. Later Egyptian represented colloquial speech of the later periods. It had analytic features like definite and indefinite articles and periphrastic verb conjugation. Coptic, therefore, is a reference to both the most recent stage of Egyptian after Demotic and the new writing system that was adapted from the Greek alphabet.
Coptic uses a writing system almost wholly derived from the Greek alphabet, with the addition of a number of letters that have their origins in Demotic Egyptian. This is comparable to the Latin-based Icelandic alphabet, which includes the runic letter thorn.There is some variation in the number and forms of these signs depending on the dialect. Some of the letters in the Coptic alphabet that are of Greek origin were normally reserved for words that are themselves Greek. Old Coptic texts employed several graphemes that were not retained in the literary Coptic orthography of later centuries. In Sahidic, syllable boundary may have been marked by a supralinear stroke, or the stroke may have tied letters together in one word, since Coptic texts did not otherwise indicate word divisions. Some scribal traditions use a diaeresis over /i/ and /u/ at the beginning of a syllable or to mark a diphthong. Bohairic uses a superposed point or small stroke known as a djinkim.
The oldest Coptic writings date to the pre-Christian era (Old Coptic), though Coptic literature consists mostly of texts written by prominent saints of the Coptic Church such as Anthony the Great, Pachomius the Great and Shenoute. Shenoute helped fully standardise the Coptic language through his many sermons, treatises and homilies, which formed the basis of early Coptic literature.
The core lexicon of Coptic is Egyptian, most closely related to the preceding Demotic phase of the language. Up to 40% of the vocabulary of literary Coptic is drawn from Greek, but borrowings are not always fully adapted to the Coptic phonological system and may have semanticdifferences as well. There are instances of Coptic texts having passages that are almost entirely composed from Greek lexical roots. However, that is likely due to the fact that the majority of Coptic religious texts are direct translations of Greek works. Words or concepts for which no adequate Egyptian translation existed were taken directly from Greek to avoid altering the meaning of the religious message. In addition, other Egyptian words that would have adequately translated the Greek equivalents were not employed as they were perceived as having overt pagan associations. Old Coptic texts employ many such words, phrases and epithets; for example, the word ⲧⲃⲁⲓⲧⲱⲩ '(Who is) in (His) Mountain', is an epithet...
Coptic provides the clearest indication of Later Egyptian phonology from its writing system, which fully indicates vowel sounds and occasionally stress pattern. The phonological system of Later Egyptian is also better known than that of the Classical phase of the language because of a greater number of sources indicating Egyptian sounds, including cuneiform letters containing transcriptions of Egyptian words and phrases, and Egyptian renderings of Northwest Semiticnames. Coptic sounds, in addition, are known from a variety of Coptic-Arabic papyri in which Arabic letters were used to transcribe Coptic and vice versa. They date to the medieval Islamic period, when Coptic was still spoken.
Coptic is agglutinative with subject–verb–object word order but can be verb–subject–object with the correct preposition in front of the subject. Number, gender, tense, and mood are indicated by prefixes that come from Late Egyptian. The earlier phases of Egyptian did this through suffixation. Some vestiges of the suffix inflection survive in Coptic, mainly to indicate inalienable possession and in some verbs. Compare the Middle Egyptian form *satāpafa 'he chooses' (written stp.f in hieroglyphs) to Coptic (Sahidic) f.sotp ϥⲥⲱⲧⲡ̅'he chooses'.
Coptic typically shows subject–verb–object (SVO) word order, as in the following examples: Ⲁ ⲧⲉϭⲁⲙⲁⲩⲗⲉ ⲙⲓⲥⲉ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲛ̀ϣⲓⲙⲉ – A tecamaule mise ənoušēre ənšime 1. ⲁAPFVⲧⲉϭⲁⲙⲁⲩⲗⲉte-camauleDEF:F:SG-camelⲙⲓⲥⲉmisedeliver.ABSⲛ̀ⲟⲩϣⲏⲣⲉən-ou-šērePREP-INDEF:SG-girlⲛ̀ϣⲓⲙⲉən-šimelink-womanⲁ ⲧⲉϭⲁⲙⲁⲩⲗⲉ ⲙⲓⲥⲉ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲛ̀ϣⲓⲙⲉA te-camaule mise ən-ou-šēre ən-šimePFV DEF:F:SG-camel deliver.ABS PREP-INDEF:SG-girl link-woman'The she-camel delivered a daughter.' Ⲡⲉϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲛⲁⲕⲣⲓⲛⲉ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉⲗⲁⲟⲥ – Pecoeis nakrine ənnelaos 1. ⲡⲉϫⲟⲉⲓⲥPe-coeisDEF:M:SG-lordⲛⲁⲕⲣⲓⲛⲉna-krineFUT-judgeⲛ̀ⲛⲉⲗⲁⲟⲥən-ne-laosPREP-DEF:PL-peopleⲡⲉϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲛⲁⲕⲣⲓⲛⲉ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉⲗⲁⲟⲥPe-coeis na-krine ən-ne-laosDEF:M:SG-lord FUT-judge PREP-DEF:PL-people'The Lord will judge the people.' Ⲁⲓϭⲓⲛⲉ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲉⲓⲱⲧ – Aicine əmpaeiōt 1. ⲁⲓϭⲓⲛⲉA-i-cinePFV-1sg-find.ABSⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲉⲓⲱⲧəm-p-a-eiōtPREP-DEF:MASC:SG-1SG-fatherⲁⲓϭⲓⲛⲉ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲉⲓⲱⲧA-i-cine əm-p-a-eiōtPFV-1sg-find.ABS PREP-DEF:MASC:SG-1SG-father'I found my father.' The verbs in these sentences are in the absolute state grade, which r...
There is little written evidence of dialectal differences in the pre-Coptic phases of the Egyptian language due to the centralised nature of the political and cultural institutions of ancient Egyptian society. However, literary Old and Middle (Classical) Egyptian represent the spoken dialect of Lower Egypt around the city of Memphis, the capital of Egypt in the Old Kingdom. Later Egyptian is more representative of the dialects spoken in Upper Egypt, especially around the area of Thebesas it became the cultural and religious center of the New Kingdom. Coptic more obviously displays a number of regional dialects that were in use from the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in northern Egypt, south into Nubia, and in the western oases. However, while many of these dialects reflect actual regional linguistic (namely phonological and some lexical) variation, they mostly reflect localised orthographic traditions with very little grammaticaldifferences.
3 days ago · Serbo-Croatian is a language One still finds many references to Serbo-Croatian, and proponents of Serbo-Croatian who deny that Croats, Serbs, Bosniaks and Montenegrins speak different languages. The usual argument generally goes along the following lines: Standard Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin are completely mutually intelligible.