Norway comprises the western and northernmost part of Scandinavia in Northern Europe. Norway lies between latitudes 57° and 81° N, and longitudes 4° and 32° E. Norway is the northernmost of the Nordic countries and if Svalbard is included also the easternmost.
Oslo (/ ˈ ɒ z l oʊ / OZ-loh, US also / ˈ ɒ s l oʊ / OSS-loh,...
The Norwegian monarch is the head of state of Norway, which...
This article is a list of the countries of the world by...
The History of Norway has been influenced to an extraordinary degree by the terrain and the climate of the region. About 10,000 BC, following the retreat of the great inland ice sheets, the earliest inhabitants migrated north into the territory which is now Norway.
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The battle of Hafrsfjord (872 A.D.) resulted in small kingdoms becoming one larger kingdom, ruled by Harald Fairhair. After the king's death, again there were smaller kingdoms, inside Norway. Stockfish (or fish that has been freeze-dried, outside in cold weather) has been traded and exported; this happened as early as either the 9th century, 10th century, or 11th century until 1066. Other sources say that the exporting was happening as early as the 12th century; stockfish is one of the country's oldest [type of] thingsto be sold for export. In 1349 half of the Norwegian people died, getting sick from the bubonic plague (or Black Death). When a Norwegian king died in 1387, there was no Norwegian king until the 20th century. In 1397, Denmark, Norway and Sweden began the Kalmar Union. The first [known] map, where Norway is drawn, was made in 1482. Sweden left the Kalmar Union in 1523. From 1536/1537, Denmark and Norway formed a personal union that by 1660 became the state called Denmar...
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The Government has Norwegian soldiers working in Syria (as of 2017) and Afghanistan, together with soldiers from other countries that belong to NATO.
Exports include :natural gas, oil, hydroelectric power, and fish.Other natural resources are agriculture, forests, and minerals. The government collects much money from various sources, and has policies intended to spread this wealth among Norwegians. This spread of wealth, is done both directly and indirectly. [Including year 2020], the fishing industry is catching between 2.5 million tons and 3 million tons fish from the ocean per year; from fish farms around 1.5 million tons are slaughteredper year.
At the end of 2020, immigrants and people who were born in Norway, but who had two parents who were immigrants, they were 18.5 percent of the population; from those (two categories), 11.8% came from Poland. Most people in Norway are ethnic Norwegians. Norwegians speak a language that is related to German and English. Swedish and Danish are so close to Norwegian that most Norwegians understand them. Across Norway, many different dialects are spoken. Norwegians disagree on how to make one correct written language. Therefore, there are two standard languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Nynorsk is used in writing in most of the western areas and in the central mountains. Bokmål is written by most people in the rest of the country. A native population of Norway, the Sami people, has its home in the northern parts of the country. Their language is not at all related to Norwegian. In some parishes in the far north, they make up the majority of people. Many Sami now live outside the Sami homeland,...
Norwegian culture can be compared to English culture in the way that it is considered a bad thing to show off, as opposed to the US, where this is more acceptable. This is a big aspect of Norwegian culture, and it is related to the philosophy of egalitarianism. Because of this, people will understate things, for example if a Norwegian says something is good or nice, it can mean that it's really great. Items from the Viking Age (in Norway), are shown in museums: One item is the Gokstad ship. Museums in Norway includes The Ibsen Museum - named after Henrik Ibsen. The farmers' culture (bondekulturen) was brutal.Unwanted babies were "placed in the forest" (sette barn på skogen) to die, until the nineteenth century; in the end, the [rural] police authority - consisting of individuals called lensmann (en) - were able to control [and stop] these crimes. Modern, cambered skis were invented in the Norwegian province of Telemark in the early 19th century.
In Norway power is shared among three branches: The justice sector, the government and the parliament (Stortinget). Norway also has a king, Harald V, but he does not have any real power and acts as a symbol and ambassador. This form of government is called a constitutional monarchy. Elections are held every four years, and the winner of the election is the party or coalition of parties that gets the most votes and seats in the parliament. After the elections are done, the winners work together to find out who the prime minister should be, as well as who the other ministersshould be. Here is a short summary of the biggest political parties in Norway, from left to right on the political axis: 1. Red (Rødt): A revolutionary socialist party which works for equality of income, labour rights, a controlled economy and feminism. 2. Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk venstreparti): The party is not very radical and is concerned with environmental issues as well as education. The party is tra...
The city with the most people living there (or inhabitants) is Oslo. The city of Bergen has 272,000 people living there; the city of Trondheim has 182,000 people in its population. Some claim that Bergen and Trondheim, each had their time as Norway's capital during the Middle Ages.
- Physical Geography
- Sunlight, Time Zones, and Tides
- Biological Diversity
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Geographic coordinates: WikiMiniAtlas62°N 10°E / 62°N 10°E / 62; 10 Map references: Europe Area: total: 324,220 km2 (125,180 sq mi) land: 307,860 km2 (118,870 sq mi) water: 16,360 km2 (6,320 sq mi) With Svalbard and Jan Mayen included: 385,199 km2(148,726 sq mi) Area - comparative:The contiguous area is slightly smaller than Vietnam and slightly larger than the US state of New Mexico. With Svalbard and Jan Mayen included, the area is slightly larger than Japan. Land boundaries: total: 2,515 km (1,563 mi) border countries: Finland 729 km (453 mi); Sweden 1,619 km (1,006 mi); Russia196 km (122 mi). Coastline:continental 25,148 km (15,626 mi); including islands 83,281 km (51,748 mi) Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 10 nmi (18.5 km; 11.5 mi) continental shelf: 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi) exclusive economic zone: 2,385,178 km2 (920,922 sq mi) territorial sea:12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi) Norway's exclusive economic zone (EEZ) totals 2,385,178 km2 (920,922 sq mi). It is one of the larges...
Mainland Norway comprises an extensive range of natural variation, given its moderate size, including both terrestrial, marine, limnic and snow and ice ecosystems. Norway has a high mineral and bedrock diversity, and high diversity of landforms. Major landscape types include inland hills and mountains, inland valleys, inland plains, coastal plains, coastal fjords and coastal hills and mountains. Glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered p...
Scandinavian Mountains: the Scandinavian Mountains are the most defining feature of the country. Starting with Setesdalsheiene north of the Skagerrak coast, the mountains are found in large parts of the country and intersect the many fjords of Vestlandet. This region includes Hardangervidda, Jotunheimen (with Galdhøpiggen at 2,469 metres (8,100 ft) a.s.l.), Sognefjell, and Trollheimen in the north, with large glaciers, such as Jostedalsbreen, Folgefonna, and Hardangerjøkulen. The mountain cha...
Svalbard: further north, in the Arctic ocean, lies the Svalbard archipelago, which is also dominated by mountains that are mostly covered by large glaciers, especially in the eastern part of the archipelago, where glaciers cover more than 90%, with one glacier, Austfonna, being the largest in Europe. Unlike on the mainland, these glaciers calvedirectly into the open ocean. Jan Mayen: to the far northwest, halfway towards Greenland, is Jan Mayen island, where the only active volcano in Norway,...
Areas in Norway located north of the Arctic Circle have extreme darkness in winter, which increases with latitude. At Longyearbyen on the Svalbard islands in the extreme north, the upper part of the sun's disc is above the horizon from 19 April to 23 August, and winter darkness lasts from 27 October to 14 February. The corresponding dates for still northerly Tromsø are 17 May – 25 July, and 26 November – 15 January. The winter darkness is not totally dark on the mainland, as there is twilight for a few hours around noon in Tromsø; but in Longyearbyen there is near total darkness in the midst of the dark period. Even the southern part of the country experiences large seasonal variations in daylight; in Oslo the sun rises at 03:54 and sets 22:54 at the summer solstice, but is only above the horizon from 09:18 - 15:12 at the winter solstice. The northern part of the country is located in the aurora borealiszone; the aurora is occasionally seen in the southern part of the country as wel...
The climate of Norway is more temperate than could be expected for such high latitudes. This is mainly due to the North Atlantic Current with its extension, the Norwegian Current, raising the air temperature; the prevailing southwesterlies bringing mild air onshore; and the general southwest–northeast orientation of the coast, which allows the westerlies to penetrate into the Arctic. The January average in Brønnøysund is 14.6 °C (26.2 °F) warmer than the January average in Nome, Alaska, even though both towns are situated on the west coast of the continents at 65°N. In July, the difference is reduced to 2.9 °C (5.2 °F). The January average of Yakutsk, in Siberiabut slightly further south, is 42.2 °C (76.0 °F) colder than in Brønnøysund.
Due to the large latitudinal range of the country and its varied topography and climate, Norway has a higher number of habitats than almost any other European country. There are approximately 60,000 species of plant and animal life in Norway and adjacent waters. The Norwegian Shelf large marine ecosystem is considered highly productive. The total number of species include 16,000 species of insects (probably 4,000 more species yet to be described), 20,000 species of algae, 1,800 species of lichen, 1,050 species of mosses, 2,800 species of vascular plants, up to 7,000 species of fungi, 450 species of birds (250 species nesting in Norway), 90 species of mammals, 45 species of freshwater fish, 150 species of saltwater fish, 1,000 species of freshwater invertebrates and 3,500 species of saltwater invertebrates.About 40,000 of these species have been scientifically described. In the summer of 2010, scientific exploration in Finnmark discovered 126 species of insects new to Norway, of whic...
Natural vegetation in Norway varies considerably, as can be expected in a country having such variations in latitude. There are generally fewer species of trees in Norway than in areas in western North America with a similar climate. This is because European north–south migration routes after the ice age are more difficult, with bodies of water (such as the Baltic Sea and the North Sea) and mountains creating barriers, while in America land is contiguous and the mountains follow a north–south direction. However, recent research using DNA-studies of spruce and pine and lake sediments have proven that Norwegian conifers survived the ice age in ice-free refuges to the north as far as Andøya. Many imported plants have been able to bear seed and spread. Less than half of the 2,630 plant species in Norway today actually occur naturally in the country. About 210 species of plants growing in Norway are listed as endangered, 13 of which are endemic.The national parks in Norway are mostly loc...
In addition to oil and natural gas, hydroelectric power, and fish and forest resources, Norway has reserves of ferric and nonferric metal ores. Many of these have been exploited in the past but whose mines are now idle because of low-grade purity and high operating costs. Europe's largest titanium deposits are near the southwest coast. Coal is mined in the Svalbard islands. Resources: Petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, lumber, hydropower.
Arable land: 3.3% (in use; some more marginal areas are not in use or used as pastures) 1. Permanent crops: 0% 2. Permanent pastures: 0% 3. Forests and woodland: 38% of land area is covered by forest, 21% by conifer forest, and 17% by deciduous forest, increasing as many pastures in the higher elevations and some coastal, man-made heathsare no longer used or reforested, as well as increase due to warmer summers 4. Other: 59% (mountains and heaths 46%, bogs and wetlands6.3%, lakes and rivers 5.3%, urban areas 1.1%) Irrigated land: 970 km2(370 sq mi), 1993 estimate Natural hazards: 1. European windstorms with hurricane-strength winds along the coast and in the mountains are not uncommon. For centuries one out of four males in coastal communities were lost at sea. 2. Avalancheson steep slopes, especially in the northern part of the country and in mountain areas. 3. Landslides have on occasions killed people, mostly in areas with soil rich in marine clay, as in lowland...
Environmental concerns in Norway include how to cut greenhouse gas emissions, pollution of the air and water, loss of habitat, damage to cold-water coral reefs from trawlers, and salmon fish farming threatening the wild salmon by spawning in the rivers, thereby diluting the fish DNA. Acid rain has damaged lakes, rivers and forests, especially in the southernmost part of the country, and most wild salmon populations in Sørlandet have died. Due to lower emissions in Europe, acid rain in Norway...
Norway is a party to:Tollefsrud, J.; Tjørve, E.; Hermansen, P.: Perler i Norsk Natur - En Veiviser. Aschehoug, 1991. ISBN 82-03-16663-6Gjærevoll, Olav. "Plantegeografi". Tapir, 1992. ISBN 82-519-1104-4Moen, A. 1998. Nasjonalatlas for Norge: Vegetasjon. Statens Kartverk, Hønefoss. ISBN 82-90408-26-9Norwegian Meteorological Institute ().
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- State ownership role
- Economic structure and sustained growth
- Agriculture of Norway
The economy of Norway is a highly developed mixed economy with state-ownership in strategic areas. Although sensitive to global business cycles, the economy of Norway has shown robust growth since the start of the industrial era. The country has a very high standard of living compared with other European countries, and a strongly integrated welfare system. Norway's modern manufacturing and welfare system rely on a financial reserve produced by exploitation of natural resources, particularly Nort
Prior to the industrial revolution, Norway's economy was largely based on agriculture, timber, and fishing. Norwegians typically lived under conditions of considerable scarcity, though famine was rare. Except for certain fertile areas in Hedemarken and Østfold, crops were ...
Aside from mining in Kongsberg, Røros and Løkken, industrialization came with the first textile mills that were built in Norway in the middle of the 19th century. But the first large industrial enterprises came into formation when entrepreneurs' politics led to the ...
After World War II, the Norwegian Labour Party, with Einar Gerhardsen as prime minister, embarked on a number of social democratic reforms aimed at flattening the income distribution, eliminating poverty, ensuring social services such as retirement, medical care, and disability b
The Norwegian state maintains large ownership positions in key industrial sectors concentrated in natural resources and strategic industries such as the strategic petroleum sector, hydroelectric energy production, aluminum production, the largest Norwegian bank and telecommunication provider. The government controls around 35% of the total value of publicly listed companies on the Oslo stock exchange, with five of its largest seven listed firms partially owned by the state. When non-listed compa
The emergence of Norway as an oil-exporting country has raised a number of issues for Norwegian economic policy. There has been concern that much of Norway's human capital investment has been concentrated in petroleum-related industries. Critics have pointed out that Norway's economic structure is highly dependent on natural resources that do not require skilled labor, making economic growth highly vulnerable to fluctuations in the demand and pricing for these natural resources. The Government P
Pesticide usage information for the entire country is available from Statistics Norway.
Overall the risk of antimicrobial resistance in the food supply chains is "negligible". Specifically cattle, milk/dairy products, fish, seafood, drinking water, and pork are considered to be negligible risks. On the other hand there is a more-than-negligible risk from contact wit
Norway, whose expansionalism starts from the very foundation of the Kingdom in 872, reached the peak of its power in the years between 1240 and 1319. At the peak of Norwegian expansion before the civil war (1130–1240), Sigurd I led the Norwegian Crusade (1107–1110). The crusaders won battles in Lisbon and the Balearic Islands.