2 days ago · Marine protists are defined by their habitat as protists that live in marine environments, that is, in the saltwater of seas or oceans or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. Life originated as single-celled prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) and later evolved into more complex eukaryotes .
6 days ago · Marine microorganisms are defined by their habitat as microorganisms living in a marine environment, that is, in the saltwater of a sea or ocean or the brackish water of a coastal estuary. A microorganism (or microbe ) is any microscopic living organism or virus , that is too small to see with the unaided human eye without magnification.
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4 days ago · Marine life, sea life, or ocean life is the plants, animals, and other organisms that live in the saline water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. At a fundamental level, marine life affects the nature of the world. Marine organisms, mostly microorganisms, produce oxygen, and sequester carbon.
Jul 16, 2021 · Marine protists. By 2015, about 40 viruses affecting marine protists had been isolated and examined, most of them viruses of microalgae. The genomes of these marine protist viruses are highly diverse. Marine algae can be infected by viruses in the family Phycodnaviridae.
Jul 06, 2021 · v. t. e. Marine prokaryotes are marine bacteria and marine archaea. They are defined by their habitat as prokaryotes that live in marine environments, that is, in the saltwater of seas or oceans or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. All cellular life forms can be divided into prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
- Food Chains and Trophic Levels
- Primary Producers
- Primary Consumers
- Higher Order Consumers
- by Habitat
- Foundation and Keystone Species
- Cryptic Interactions
- Complexity and Stability
- Terrestrial Comparisons
Food webs are built from food chains. All forms of life in the sea have the potential to become food for another life form. In the ocean, a food chain typically starts with energy from the sun powering phytoplankton, and follows a course such as: Phytoplankton don't need other organisms for food, because they have the ability to manufacture their own food directly from inorganic carbon, using sunlight as their energy source. This process is called photosynthesis, and results in the phytoplankton converting naturally occurring carbon into protoplasm. For this reason, phytoplankton are said to be the primary producers at the bottom or the first level of the marine food chain. Since they are at the first level they are said to have a trophic level of 1 (from the Greek trophēmeaning food). Phytoplankton are then consumed at the next trophic level in the food chain by microscopic animals called zooplankton. Zooplankton comprise the second trophic level in the food chain, and include micr...
At the base of the ocean food web are single-celled algae and other plant-like organisms known as phytoplankton. Like plants on land, phytoplankton use chlorophyll and other light-harvesting pigments to carry out photosynthesis, absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide to produce sugars for fuel. Chlorophyll in the water changes the way it reflects and absorbs sunlight, allowing scientists to map the amount and location of phytoplankton. These measurements give scientists valuable insights into the health of the ocean environment, and help scientists study the ocean carbon cycle. Among the phytoplankton are members from a phylum of bacteria called cyanobacteria. Marine cyanobacteria include the smallest known photosynthetic organisms. The smallest of all, Prochlorococcus, is just 0.5 to 0.8 micrometres across. In terms of individual numbers, Prochlorococcus is possibly the most plentiful species on Earth: a single millilitre of surface seawater can contain 100,000 cells or more. Worldwi...
The second trophic level (primary consumers) is occupied by zooplankton which feed off the phytoplankton. Together with the phytoplankton, they form the base of the food pyramid that supports most of the world's great fishing grounds. Zooplankton are tiny animals found with the phytoplankton in oceanic surface waters, and include tiny crustaceans, and fish larvae and fry (recently hatched fish). Most zooplankton are filter feeders, and they use appendages to strain the phytoplankton in the water. Some larger zooplankton also feed on smaller zooplankton. Some zooplankton can jump about a bit to avoid predators, but they can't really swim. Like phytoplankton, they float with the currents, tides and winds instead. Zooplanktons can reproduce rapidly, their populations can increase up to thirty percent a day under favourable conditions. Many live short and productive lives and reach maturity quickly. 1. Zooplankton form a second level in the ocean food chain 2. Segmented worm 3. Tiny shr...Marine invertebratesFish
There has been increasing recognition in recent years that marine microorganisms play much bigger roles in marine ecosystems than was previously thought. Developments in metagenomics gives researchers an ability to reveal previously hidden diversities of microscopic life, offering a powerful lens for viewing the microbial world and the potential to revolutionise understanding of the living world. Metabarcoding dietary analysistechniques are being used to reconstruct food webs at higher levels of taxonomic resolution and are revealing deeper complexities in the web of interactions. Microorganisms play key roles in marine food webs. The viral shunt pathway is a mechanism that prevents marine microbial particulate organic matter (POM) from migrating up trophic levels by recycling them into dissolved organic matter (DOM), which can be readily taken up by microorganisms. Viral shunting helps maintain diversity within the microbial ecosystem by preventing a single species of marine microb...
1. Byrnes, J.E., Reynolds, P.L. and Stachowicz, J.J. (2007) "Invasions and extinctions reshape coastal marine food webs". PloS one, 2(3): e295. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000295 The key nutrients determining eutrophication are nitrogen in coastal waters and phosphorus in lakes. Both are found in high concentrations in guano (seabird feces), which acts as a fertilizer for the surrounding ocean or an adjacent lake. Uric acid is the dominant nitrogen compound, and during its mineralization differ...
The mesopelagic web 1. Mesopelagic food web 2. Impact of mesopelagic species on the global carbon budget DVM = diel vertical migration NM = non-migration Scientists are starting to explore in more detail the largely unknown twilight zone of the mesopelagic, 200 to 1,000 metres deep. This layer is responsible for removing about 4 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere each year. The mesopelagic layer is inhabited by most of the marine fish biomass. 1. Mesopelagic bristlemouthsmay...
At the ocean surface
Ocean surface habitats sit at the interface between the atmosphere and the ocean. The biofilm-like habitat at the surface of the ocean harbours surface-dwelling microorganisms, commonly referred to as neuston. This vast air–water interface sits at the intersection of major air–water exchange processes spanning more than 70% of the global surface area . Bacteria in the surface microlayer of the ocean, called bacterioneuston, are of interest due to practical applications such as air-sea gas exc...
Foundation species are species that have a dominant role structuring an ecological community, shaping its environment and defining its ecosystem. Such ecosystems are often named after the foundation species, such as seagrass meadows, oyster beds, coral reefs, kelp forests and mangrove forests. For example, the red mangrove is a common foundation species in mangrove forests. The mangrove’s root provides nursery grounds for young fish, such as snapper.A foundation species can occupy any trophic level in a food web but tend to be a producer. The term was coined in 1972 by Paul K. Dayton, who applied it to certain members of marine invertebrate and algaecommunities. It was clear from studies in several locations that there were a small handful of species whose activities had a disproportionate effect on the rest of the marine community and they were therefore key to the resilience of the community. Dayton’s view was that focusing on foundation species would allow for a simplified approa...
Cryptic interactions, interactions which are "hidden in plain sight", occur throughout the marine planktonic foodweb but are currently largely overlooked by established methods, which mean large‐scale data collection for these interactions is limited. Despite this, current evidence suggests some of these interactions may have perceptible impacts on foodweb dynamics and model results. Incorporation of cryptic interactions into models is especially important for those interactions involving the transport of nutrients or energy. Simplifications such as “zooplankton consume phytoplankton,” “phytoplankton take up inorganic nutrients,” “gross primary production determines the amount of carbon available to the foodweb,” etc. have helped scientists explain and model general interactions in the aquatic environment. Traditional methods have focused on quantifying and qualifying these generalizations, but rapid advancements in genomics, sensor detection limits, experimental methods, and other...
Food webs provide a framework within which a complex network of predator–prey interactions can be organised. A food web model is a network of food chains. Each food chain starts with a primary producer or autotroph, an organism, such as an alga or a plant, which is able to manufacture its own food. Next in the chain is an organism that feeds on the primary producer, and the chain continues in this way as a string of successive predators. The organisms in each chain are grouped into trophic levels, based on how many links they are removed from the primary producers. The length of the chain, or trophic level, is a measure of the number of species encountered as energy or nutrients move from plants to top predators. Food energyflows from one organism to the next and to the next and so on, with some energy being lost at each level. At a given trophic level there may be one species or a group of species with the same predators and prey. In 1927, Charles Elton published an influential syn...
Marine environments can have inversions in their biomass pyramids. In particular, the biomass of consumers (copepods, krill, shrimp, forage fish) is generally larger than the biomass of primary producers. This happens because the ocean's primary producers are mostly tiny phytoplankton which have r-strategist traits of growing and reproducing rapidly, so a small mass can have a fast rate of primary production. In contrast, many terrestrial primary producers, such as mature forests, have K-strategisttraits of growing and reproducing slowly, so a much larger mass is needed to achieve the same rate of primary production. Examples: The bristlecone pine can live for thousands of years, and has a very low production/biomass ratio. The cyanobacterium Prochlorococcuslives for about 24 hours, and has a very high production/biomass ratio. In oceans, most primary production is performed by algae. This is a contrast to on land, where most primary production is performed by vascular plants. Aquat...
Jul 12, 2021 · A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or a colony of cells . The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India.
Jun 28, 2021 · Download Episode (6.9 MB, 10.1 minutes) Show notes: Microbe of the episode: Streptomyces caelestis. Takeaways. Viruses affect their hosts many different ways: instant hostile takeover of cellular machinery, lurking unseen in the genome for generations, inducing reduced cell division or excessive cell division, and more.
Jun 28, 2021 · The microbiology podcast for microbe lovers: reporting on exciting news about bacteria, archaea, and sometimes even eukaryotic microbes and viruses.