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  1. Marine microbiome - Wikipedia › wiki › Marine_microbiome
    • Background
    • Foundations of Productive Ecosystems
    • Reproduction and Host Development
    • Biofouling and Microbial Community Assembly
    • Biogeochemical Cycling
    • Examples
    • Marine Holobionts
    • Further References

    Within the vast biological diversity that inhabits the world’s oceans, it would be challenging to find a eukaryotic organism that does not live in close relationship with a microbial partner. Such symbioses, i.e., persistent interactions between host and microbe in which none of the partners gets harmed and at least one of them benefits, are ubiquitous from shallow reefs to deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Studies on corals, sponges, and mollusks have revealed some of the profoundly important symbiotic roles microbes play in the lives of their hosts. These studies, however, have tended to focus on a small number of specific microbial taxa. In contrast, most hosts retain groups of many hundreds of different microbes (i.e., a microbiome, which themselves can vary throughout the ontogeny of the host and as a result of environmental perturbations.Rather than host-associated microbes functioning independently, complex multi-assemblage microbiomes have major impact on the fitness and function...

    Ecosystem engineers, such as many types of corals, deep-sea mussels, and hydrothermal vent tubeworms, contribute to primary productivity and create the structural habitats and nutrient resources that are the foundation of their respective ecosystems. All of these taxa engage in mutualistic nutritional symbioses with microbes. There are many examples of marine nutritional mutualisms in which microbes enable hosts to utilize resources or substrates otherwise unavailable to the host alone. Such symbioses have been described in detail in reduced and anoxic sediments (e.g., lucinid clams, stilbonematid nematodes, and gutless oligochaetes) and hydrothermal vents (e.g., the giant tube worm or deep-sea mussels). Moreover, many foundational species of marine macroalgae are vitamin auxotrophs (for example, half of more than 300 surveyed species were unable to synthesize cobalamin), and their productivity depends on provisioning from their epiphytic bacteria. Reefs often consist of stony coral...

    Extending beyond nutritional symbioses, microbial symbionts can alter the reproduction, development, and growth of their hosts. Specific bacterial strains in marine biofilms often directly control the recruitment of planktonic larvae and propagules, either by inhibiting settlement or by serving as a settlement cue. For example, the settlement of zoospores from the green alga Ulva intestinalis onto the biofilms of specific bacteria is mediated by their attraction to the quorum-sensing molecule, acyl-homoserine lactone, secreted by the bacteria. Classic examples of marine host–microbe developmental dependence include the observation that algal cultures grown in isolation exhibited abnormal morphologies and the subsequent discovery of morphogenesis-inducing compounds, such as thallusin, secreted by epiphytic bacterial symbionts. Bacteria are also known to influence the growth of marine plants, macroalgae, and phytoplankton by secreting phytohormones such as indole acetic acid and cytok...

    Some host-associated microbes produce compounds that prevent biofouling and regulate microbiome assembly and maintenance in many marine organisms, including sponges, macroalgae, and corals. For example, tropical corals harbor diverse bacteria in their surface mucus layer that produce quorum-sensing inhibitors and other antibacterial compounds as a defense against colonization and infection by potential microbial pathogens. Epiphytic bacteria of marine macroalgae excrete a diverse chemical arsenal capable of selectively shaping further bacterial colonization and deterring the settlement of biofouling marine invertebrates such as bryozoans. As in corals, these diverse, microbially secreted compounds include not only bactericidal and bacteriostatic antibiotics but also compounds like halogenated furanones, cyclic dipeptides, and acyl-homoserine lactone mimics that disrupt bacterial quorum sensing and inhibit biofilm formation. The bacteria likely are able to utilize the carbon-rich exu...

    Host-associated microbiomes also influence biogeochemical cycling within ecosystems with cascading effects on biodiversity and ecosystem processes. For example, microbial symbionts comprise up to 40% of the biomass of their sponge hosts. Through a process termed the “sponge-loop,” they convert dissolved organic carbon released by reef organisms into particulate organic carbon that can be consumed by heterotrophic organisms. Along with the coral–Symbiodiniaceae mutualism, this sponge-bacterial symbiosis helps explain Darwin’s paradox, i.e., how highly productive coral reef ecosystems exist within otherwise oligotrophic tropical seas. Some sponge symbionts play a significant role in the marine phosphorus cycle by sequestering nutrients in the form of polyphosphate granules in the tissue of their host and nitrogen cycling, e.g., through nitrification, denitrification, and ammonia oxidation.]. Many macroalgal-associated bacteria are specifically adapted to degrade complex algal polysacc...

    The microbiomes of diverse marine animals are currently under study, from simplistic organisms including sponges and ctenophores to more complex organisms such as sea squirtsand sharks. The relationship between the Hawaiian bobtail squid and the bioluminescent bacterium Aliivibrio fischeriis one of the best studied symbiotic relationships in the sea and is a choice system for general symbiosis research. This relationship has provided insight into fundamental processes in animal-microbial symbioses, and especially biochemical interactions and signaling between the host and bacterium. The gutless marine oligochaete worm Olavius algarvensis is another relatively well-studied marine host to microbes. These three centimetre long worms reside within shallow marine sediments of the Mediterranean Sea. The worms do not contain a mouth or a digestive or excretory system, but are instead nourished with the help of a suite of extracellular bacterial endosymbionts that reside upon coordinated us...

    Reef-building corals are holobionts that include the coral itself (a eukaryotic invertebrate within class Anthozoa), photosynthetic dinoflagellates called zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium), and associated bacteria and viruses.Co-evolutionary patterns exist for coral microbial communities and coral phylogeny. 1. Coral holobiont 2. Seagrass holobiont 3. Sponge holobiont 4. Climate change and the rhodolith holobiont

    Stal, L. J. and Cretoiu, M. S. (Eds.) (2016) The marine microbiome: an untapped source of biodiversity and biotechnological potential Springer. ISBN 9783319330006.

  2. Marine microorganisms - Wikipedia › wiki › Ocean_microbe

    Marine microorganisms are defined by their habitat as microorganisms living in a marine environment, that is, in the saltwater of a sea or ocean or the brackish water of a coastal estuary. A microorganism (or microbe) is any microscopic living organism or virus, that is too small to see with the unaided human eye without magnification. Microorganisms are very diverse.

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  4. International Census of Marine Microbes - Wikipedia › wiki › International_Census_of

    The International Census of Marine Microbes is a field project of the Census of Marine Life that inventories microbial diversity by cataloging all known diversity of single-cell organisms including bacteria, Archaea, Protista, and associated viruses, exploring and discovering unknown microbial diversity, and placing that knowledge into ecological and evolutionary contexts.

    • ICoMM
    • The Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole
  5. Marine life - Wikipedia › wiki › Fauna_of_the_ocean

    Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, is the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. At a fundamental level, marine life affects the nature of the planet. Marine organisms, mostly microorganisms, produce oxygen and sequester carbon. Shorelines are in part shaped and protected by marine life, and some marine organisms even help create new land.

  6. Marine microorganisms — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Marine_microorganisms

    Sea spray containing marine microorganisms can be swept high into the atmosphere and may travel the globe before falling back to earth. The mi­croor­gan­ism in the oceans in­clude viruses, prokary­otes ( Bac­te­ria and Ar­chaea ), and pro­tists.

  7. Marine primary production - Wikipedia › wiki › Marine_alga

    Microalgae are important components of the marine protists, as well as the marine phytoplankton. They are very diverse. It has been estimated there are 200,000-800,000 species of which about 50,000 species have been described. Depending on the species, their sizes range from a few micrometers (µm) to a few hundred micrometers.

  8. Marine microbial symbiosis - Wikipedia › wiki › Marine_Microbial_Symbiosis

    Marine microbial symbiosis. Possible ecological interactions between two individuals. The result of the interaction for each member of the pair can be positive, negative or neutral. For example, in predation, one partner obtains the benefits while the other assumes the costs. Microbial symbiosis in marine animals was not discovered until 1981.

  9. Marine life — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Marine_life

    Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, is the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. At a fundamental level, marine life affects the nature of the planet. Marine organisms, mostly microorganisms, produce oxygen and sequester carbon. Shorelines are in part shaped and protected by marine life, and some marine organisms even help create new land.

  10. Marine food web - Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Marine_food_web

    Compared to terrestrial environments, marine environments have biomass pyramids which are inverted at the base. In particular, the biomass of consumers (copepods, krill, shrimp, forage fish) is larger than the biomass of primary producers. This happens because the ocean's primary producers are tiny phytoplankton which grow and reproduce rapidly, so a small mass can have a fast rate of primary ...

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