Ojibwe/oʊˈdʒɪbweɪ/,also known as Ojibwa/oʊˈdʒɪbwə/,Ojibwayor Otchipwe,is an indigenous language of North Americaof the Algonquian language family. The language is characterized by a series of dialectsthat have local names and frequently local writing systems.
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most of the Ojibwe people live in the United States. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe; 76,760 Saulteaux; and 8,770 Mississauga, organized in 125 bands. They live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, the US census says that there are 170,742 Ojibwe people. References
The Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Nipissing, Oji-Cree, Odawa and the Potawatomi.
There are three 'main' Ojibwe language pages: Ojibwa-Ottawa language (oji) Ojibwa language (oji) Ojibwa-Potawatomi-Ottawa language no Ethnologue code I believe. A few observations, based on the published literature on Ojibwe and its dialects: There is a single Ojibwe language with multiple dialects.
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Ojibwa dialects tend to have three short and four long vowels. Long vowels below are marked with a macron. The long vowel /ē? lack a corresponding short one. Some varieties of Ojibwa also have nasal vowels (Wikipedia). Some dialects of Ojibwa drop unstressed vowels, e.g, in the Odaawaa dialect, Anishinaabemowin becomes Nishnaabemwin.
Ojibwa dialects usually have 17 consonants. Stops, fricatives and afffricates can be either voiced or voiceless. Voiceless consonants are often aspirated or preaspirated. The semivowel /w/ is pronounced with very little lip rounding. The glottal fricative /h/ occurs in some dialects instead of the glottal stop /?/ (Wikipedia). Ojibwe allows few consonant clusters, mostly in the middle or at the end of words. The voiceless glottal fricative /h/ is only in a small number of words. 1. /ʔ/ = simi...
Ojibwa words are divided into metrical feet. Every two syllables constitute a foot, starting with the beginning of a word. The first syllable in a foot is weak, the second one is strong. Long vowels are always strong. When they occur in the weak position of a foot, they form a separate one-syllable foot, and counting continues starting with the following vowel. In an example from Wikipedia, the word bebezhigooganzhii‘ horse’, is divided into feet as follows: (be)(be)(zhi-goo)(gan-zhii).Like many other polysynthetic aboriginal North American languages, Ojibwa attaches prefixes and suffixes to roots to form long words that in other languages might constitute a whole sentence. For i...Ojibwa is an ergative language. Ergative languages mark the subject of a transitive verb with the ergative case. They mark both the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive ve...
Ojibwa tends not to borrow words from other languages. Instead, it creates new words by using native elements. For instance, bemisemagak ‘airplane’ literally means ‘thing that flies’. However, there exist a few borrowing from other indigenous languages, especially Cree, from English, e.g., gaapi ‘coffee’, and from French,e.g., boozhoo‘bonjour’. Below are a few basic words and phrases in Ojibwa. Below are Ojibwa numerals 1-10.
There is no standard orthography for writing Ojibwa. 1. In the U.S., Ojibwa is usually written with the Roman alphabet. There are several Romanized systems for writing the language (Wikipedia). The newest Roman character-based writing system is the Double Vowel System. In this system, long vowels are written with double vowel symbols, e.g., a long /a/ is written as aa. The Double Vowel System is quickly becoming accepted due to its ease, especially in computer applications. 2. In Canada, Ojibwa is written inCanadian Aboriginal syllabic writing, or simply syllabics. Syllabics have also been occasionally used in the U.S. by border communities. Below is a table of Ojibwa syllabics (from Wikipedia). Take a look at Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Northwestern Ojibwa.
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The Ojibwa (\\"oh-jib-wah\\") are a woodland people of northeastern North America. In the mid-seventeenth century there were approximately 35,000 Ojibwa on the continent. According to the 1990 census, the Ojibwa were the third-largest Native group (with a population of 104,000), after the Cherokee (308,000) and the Navajo (219,000). Federally recognized Ojibwa reservations are found in Minnesota (Fond du Lac, Grand Portage, Leech Lake, Mille Lacs, Nett Lake [Bois Forte Band], Red Lake, and White...
The Ojibwa face the same misconceptions and stereotypes applied to other Native peoples. Because they refuse to strip the land of all its bounty, they have been considered lazy and unintelligent. Sports mascots and consumer product labels targeted at the general American public perpetuate Native American stereotypes. Ojibwa have also seen their sacred religious beliefs, such as vision quests, misinterpreted and sold by seekers of New Age thought. Misconceptions about sovereignty are common. A...
Spoken Ojibwa or Ojibwemowin is an Algonquin language with regional dialectical differences. It is related linguistically to the languages not only ofthe Ottawa and Potawatomi but also of the Fox, Cree, and Menominee. Since it was a spoken rather than a written language, the spelling of Ojibwa words varies. The Ojibwa language is spoken by between 40,000 to 50,000 people. While once spoken only by elders, there is currently a resurgence of interest in and promotion of the language. Many Ojibw...
In traditional Ojibwa culture, an individual lived in a band and was a member of a clan. Most people from the same clan shared a common ancestor on their father's side of the family. Some clans were matrilineal, and children were affiliated with their mother's clan. People of the same clan claim a common totem (dodem, do daim, or do dam ), the symbol of a living creature. The seven original clans were the bear, bird, catfish, crane, deer, loon, and marten. Twenty or more clans with additional...
While some aspects of religious observance were communal, traditional Ojibwa religious practice was focused on inward personal experience. There was a belief in spirits, called manitou or manidoo. The creator was referred to as Gitchie Manitou. Manjimanidoo or evil spirits existed; windigos were especially terrifying spirits who dwelled within lakes and practiced cannibalism. Animate and inanimate objects possessed spiritual power, and the Ojibwa considered themselves one element of nature, n...
Ojibwa culture dictated that excess goods be shared with the less fortunate. With the arrival of the fur trade, the Ojibwa learned to barter for goods that generally could be consumed within a year. They first earned money through the sale of land or timber rights. Since saving money was not a tradition and the amount they received was low, incomes were disposable and might be barely sufficient for a meager living. Often relocated to disadvantaged areas, the Ojibwa faced poverty and bare subs...
Federal policy emphasized the assimilation of the Ojibwa into U.S. society. This policy has taken the following forms: treaty making; establishment of reservations and removal; individual allotments; relocation; and self-determination and cultural affirmation.
The Ojibwa have made a number of significant contributions to American life: they discovered maple sugar and wild rice and invented hammocks, snowshoes, canoeing, and lacrosse. The English language contains a number of Ojibwa words (moccasin, moose) and place-names (Mackinaw, Michigan, Mesabi). Many Ojibwa contributions evolved over centuries, before they could be acknowledged by written record. Notable Ojibwa men and women, primarily those living in the late twentieth century, and their achi...
The Circle. Published by the Minneapolis American Indian Center, this monthly publication provides international, national, and local news relevant to Indian concerns and tracks issues of importance to the Ojibwa.Contact: Joe Allen, Editor.Address: 1530 East Franklin Avenue, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55404-2136.Telephone: (612) 871-4749.Fax: (612) 871-6878.MASINAIGAN (Talking Paper). Published by the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC). This 40-page quarterly publication rep...
Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC). Founded in 1983, the GLWIFC's mission is to assist 13 Ojibwa tribes in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin to better manage their natural resources in off-reservation areas. The Commission comprises five divisions: Biological Services, Enforcement, Planning and Development, Inter-governmental Affairs, and Public Information. It publishes a free quarterly newsletter, MASINAIGAN (Talking Paper). Contact: James Schlender, Executive Directo...
D'Arcy McNickle Center for the History of the American Indian. Located within the Newberry Library, it provides access to scholarly material in the E. E. Ayer Collection; the Center sponsors seminars, exhibits, summer institutes, and fellowships, and publishes occasional papers, bibliographies, and monographs.Address: 60 West Walton Street, Chicago, Illinois 60610-3394.Telephone: (312) 943-9090.Minnesota History Center. The headquarters of the Minnesota Historical Society, it includes an exte...
Broker, Ignatia. Night Flying Women: An Ojibway Narrative. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1983.Densmore, Frances. How Indians Use Wild Rice Plants for Food, Medicine and Crafts. New York: Dover, 1974 (originally published as Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians, 1928).Hilger, M. Indez. Chippewa Child Life and Its Cultural Background. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 (originally published, 1951).The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorati...
Kalmah means "To the Grave" or "To the Death" in the Karelian language. Compilation appearances: - "Like a Slave" on Metal Hammer - Battle Metal VII (Metal Hammer, 2008).
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The variety and fluid nature of Anishinaabe culture, and the geographical spread of Ojibwe people and communities, means that strictly defined terms are often misleading, or even inaccurate. One author refers to such issues as “an etymological labyrinth which surrounds the Ojibwe.” The Ojibwe are part of a larger cultural group of Indigenous peoples known as the Anishinaabeg, which also includes Odawa and Algonquin peoples. The Ojibwe language is part of the Algonquian language family and is also known as Anishinaabemowin, of which Odawa and Algonquinare dialects. As a result, the terms Anishinaabe and Ojibwe are often conflated. The term Ojibwe derives from Outchibou, the 17th-century name of a group living north of present-day Sault Ste Marie, Ontario. They were one of a series of closely related but distinct groups residing between northeastern Georgian Bay and eastern Lake Superior; European explorers and traders applied the term Ojibwe to this collection of groups. Those people...
The Ojibwe language, part of the Algonquian language family, is widely spoken in Canada. Also known as Anishinaabemowin, the language has many regional dialects and as of 2011, was spoken by more than 25,000 people. Dialects like Algonquin are less commonly spoken (approximately 2,400 speakers), while Oji-Cree (a mixture of Ojibwe and Cree) is spoken by more than 10,000 people. (See Indigenous Languages in Canada).
Before contact with Europeans, Ojibwe people subsisted by hunting, fishing and gathering. They resided largely in dome-shaped birchbark dwellings known as wigwams, and often made use of tipi-shaped dwellings. They wore animal-skin clothing — usually deer or moose hides — and travelled by birchbark canoe in warm weather and snowshoes in winter. Men were responsible for hunting large game, while women were responsible for tanning and processing hides into moccasins, leggings, breach cloths and dresses. Once European trade goods became common, Ojibwe people developed ornate beadwork to adorn their clothing. Gathering activities were largely communal, as the collection and preparation of maple sugar and wild rice are labour intensive. Maple sugar was a common seasoning, while wild rice was a staple for those who had ready access to it. Thousands of people would often convene at the site of large-scale fisheries to spear and net freshwater fish in the northern Great Lakes. These gatherin...
Ojibwe oral mythology is extensive and serves both moral and entertainment purposes. The character of Nanabozo, a shape shifter of varying gender, is both creator, arranger of the earth and a trickster. Nanabozo is common across Algonquian peoples, though it may be known by different names. Other figures like the Thunderbird, Great Serpent and Mishipeshu governed various realms of the natural world. Windigo, a man-eating monster who could only be killed by a shaman, was said to roam the winter forests and feast on the flesh of men. Ojibwe spiritual life was animistic, the natural world being inhabited by numerous spirits both good and evil, some of which required special treatment. The spirits that filled all life are known as the Manitou. Adolescent Ojibwe practiced spiritual quests, which produced visions and revealed guardian spirits after a period of isolation and fasting. Shamans cured the ill and performed Shaking Tent rites to communicate with spirits. After about 1700, an or...
The European fur trade profoundly affected the Ojibwe. Initially, they traded furs for French trade items with the Nipissing and Algonquin, but following the mid-17th-century dispersal of the Wendat and other neighbouring Algonquians, the Odawa and their Ojibwe allies became middlemen between European traders and Indigenous communities farther west. The Ojibwe participated in the occasional multi-community Feasts of the Dead at which furs and trade goods were distributed. The western expansion of the French fur trade and the establishment of the English Hudson’s Bay Companynear James Bay and Hudson Bay drew some Ojibwe into new areas, first as temporary trader-hunters, but later as permanent residents. Ojibwe moving north and west into traditional Cree territory often created blended communities. In some cases newcomers simply joined existing Cree communities, becoming known as Cree themselves, or established a blended Oji-Cree culture and identity. Between 1680 and 1800, four divis...
With the decline of traditional, subsistence ways of life, Ojibwe people became dependant on wage labour and government assistance for survival. In addition, Ojibwe people struggled with economic dependency, territorial encroachment and cultural dislocation brought about by residential schools. As local governance shifted from traditional models to those administered by theIndian Act, Ojibwe political autonomy diminished significantly. Nevertheless, Ojibwe people remain politically and culturally active. Art In the cultural sphere, the vibrant, pictograph-inspired Woodlands School of art, typified by the spiritual work of the late Norval Morrisseau, gained prominence for Anishinaabe artists in the 1970s and 1980s. Contemporary Anishinaabe artists have entrenched themselves in the mainstream of the international art community and often use traditional imagery in installations, performance, sculpture and painting to make overt political statements about contemporary Indigenous realiti...
It is difficult to estimate current the population of Ojibwe people living in Canada, as some people may identify as Ojibwe, but may not be registered with a specific First Nation. In terms of registered population, Ojibwe people (including Saulteaux and Mississauga) are among the most numerous in Canada. As of 2014, approximately 160,000 people make up about 200 First Nation bands. Eastern Woodlands Indigenous Peoples, and general articles under Indigenous Peoples in Canada.