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  1. Scandinavia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Scandinavia

    Scandinavia (/ ˌ s k æ n d ɪ ˈ n eɪ v i ə / SKAN-dih-NAY-vee-ə) is a subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties.. In English usage, Scandinavia can refer to Denmark, Norway and Sweden, sometimes more narrowly to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or more broadly to include the Åland Islands, the Faroe Islands, Finland and Iceland.

  2. Anthroposophy - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Anthroposophist

    The historian of religion Olav Hammer has termed anthroposophy "the most important esoteric society in European history." [30] Authors, scientists, and physicians including Michael Shermer , Michael Ruse, Edzard Ernst , David Gorski , and Simon Singh have criticized anthroposophy's application in the areas of medicine, biology, agriculture, and ...

  3. Scandinavia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    aiweb.cs.washington.edu › random_wiki_pages › Scandinavia

    Norway's old royal line had died out with the death of Olav IV, [67] but Norway's remaining a hereditary kingdom was an important factor to the Oldenburg dynasty of Denmark-Norway in its struggles to win elections as kings of Denmark. The Dano-Norwegian union was formally dissolved at the 1814 Treaty of Kiel.

  4. 1160s - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 1160s

    Roger IV, duke of Apulia and Calabria (b. 1152) 1162. February 18 – Theotonius, Portuguese advisor (b. 1082) May 31 – Géza II, king of Hungary and Croatia (b. 1130) July 7 – Haakon II (Sigurdsson), king of Norway (b. 1147) July 29 – Guigues V, count of Albon and Grenoble (b. 1125) July 31 – Fujiwara no Tadazane, Japanese nobleman (b ...

  5. Viking metal - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Viking_metal

    Viking metal is a style of heavy metal music characterized by a lyrical and thematic focus on Norse mythology, Norse paganism, and the Viking Age.Viking metal is quite diverse as a musical style, to the point where some consider it more a cross-genre term than a genre, but it is typically seen as black metal with influences from Nordic folk music.

  6. Scandinavia — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org › en › Scandinavia

    Norway's old royal line had died out with the death of Olav IV in 1387, but Norway's remaining a hereditary kingdom became an important factor for the Oldenburg dynasty of Denmark–Norway in its struggles to win elections as kings of Denmark.

  7. Scandinavia - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core

    infogalactic.com › info › Scandinavia

    Norway's old royal line had died out with the death of Olav IV in 1387, but Norway's remaining a hereditary kingdom became an important factor for the Oldenburg dynasty of Denmark–Norway in its struggles to win elections as kings of Denmark.

  8. Viking Age | Military Wiki | Fandom

    military.wikia.org › wiki › Viking_Age
    • Historical Considerations
    • Historical Background
    • Probable Causes of Norse Expansion
    • Historic Overview
    • Geography
    • Northwestern Europe
    • Southern and Eastern Europe
    • Central Europe
    • Western Europe
    • Other Territories

    In England, the Viking Age began on 8 June 793 when Vikings destroyed the abbey on Lindisfarne, a centre of learning that was famous across the continent. Monks were killed in the abbey, thrown into the sea to drown, or carried away as slaves along with the church treasures. Three Viking ships had beached in Portland Bay four years earlier (although due to a scribal error the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle dates this event to 787 rather than 789), but that incursion may have been a trading expedition that went wrong rather than a piratical raid. Lindisfarne was different. The Viking devastation of Northumbria's Holy Island was reported by the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin of York, who wrote: "Never before in Britain has such a terror appeared". Vikings were portrayed as uniformly violent and bloodthirsty. The chronicles of medieval England portrayed them as rapacious "wolves among sheep". The first challenges to the many anti-Viking images in Britain emerged in the 17th century. Pioneering sch...

    The Vikings who invaded western and eastern Europe were chiefly pagans from Denmark, Norway and Sweden. They also settled in the Faroe Islands, Ireland, Iceland, Scotland (Caithness, the Hebrides and the Northern Isles), Greenland, and Canada. Their North Germanic language, Old Norse, became the mother-tongue of present-day Scandinavian languages. By 801, a strong central authority appears to have been established in Jutland, and the Danes were beginning to look beyond their own territory for land, trade and plunder. In Norway, mountainous terrain and fjords formed strong natural boundaries. Communities there remained independent of each other, unlike the situation in Denmark which is lowland. By 800, some 30 small kingdoms existed in Norway. The sea was the easiest way of communication between the Norwegian kingdoms and the outside world. It was in the 8th century that Scandinavians began to build ships of war and send them on raiding expeditions to initiate the Viking Age. The Nor...

    Norse society was based on agriculture and trade with other peoples and placed great emphasis on the concept of honour, both in combat and in the criminal justice system. It was, for example, unfair and wrong to attack an enemy already in a fight with another. It is unknown what triggered the Norse expansion and conquests. This era coincided with the Medieval Warm Period (800–1300) and stopped with the start of the Little Ice Age (about 1250–1850). The start of the Viking Age, with the sack of Lindisfarne, also coincided with Charlemagne's Saxon Wars, or Christian wars with pagans in Saxony. Historians Rudolf Simek and Bruno Dumézil theorise that the Viking attacks may have been in response to the spread of Christianity among pagan peoples. Professor Rudolf Simek believes that "it is not a coincidence if the early Viking activity occurred during the reign of Charlemagne".Because of the penetration of Christianity in Scandinavia, serious conflict divided Norway for almost a century....

    The earliest date given for a Viking raid is 787 AD when, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a group of men from Norway sailed to the Isle of Portland in Dorset. There, they were mistaken for merchants by a royal official. They murdered him when he tried to get them to accompany him to the king's manor to pay a trading tax on their goods. The beginning of the Viking Age in the British Isles is, however, often given as 793. It was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Northmen raided the important island monastery of Lindisfarne (note that the generally accepted date is actually 8 June, not January): In 794, according to the Annals of Ulster, there was a serious attack on Lindisfarne's mother-house of Iona, which was followed in 795 by raids upon the northern coast of Ireland. From bases there, the Norsemen attacked Iona again in 802, causing great slaughter amongst the Céli DéBrethren, and burning the abbey to the ground. The end of the Viking Age is traditionally mark...

    There are various theories concerning the causes of the Viking invasions. For people living along the coast, it would seem natural to seek new land by the sea. Another reason was that during this period England, Wales and Ireland, which were divided into many different warring kingdoms, were in internal disarray and became easy prey. The Franks, however, had well-defended coasts and heavily fortified ports and harbours. Pure thirst for adventure may also have been a factor. A reason for the raids is believed by some to be over-population caused by technological advances, such as the use of iron. Although another cause could well have been pressure caused by the Frankish expansion to the south of Scandinavia and their subsequent attacks upon the Viking peoples. Another possible contributing factor is that Harald I of Norway ("Harald Fairhair") had united Norway around this time, and the bulk of the Vikings were displaced warriorswho had been driven out of his kingdom and who had nowh...

    England

    According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, Viking raiders struck England in 793 and raided Lindisfarne, the monastery that held Saint Cuthbert’s relics. The raiders killed the monks and captured the valuables. This raid marks the beginning of the "Viking Age of Invasion", made possible by the Viking longship. There was great but sporadic violence from the last decade of the 8th century on England’s northern and eastern shores: Viking raids continued on a small scale across coastal England. Whil...

    Scotland

    While there are few records, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in Scotland on the holy island of Iona in 794, the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne, Northumbria. In 839, a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn, both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu. They defeated Eogán mac Óengusa, king of the Picts, his brother Bran and the king of the Scots of Dál Riata, Áed mac...

    Wales

    Wales was not colonised by the Vikings as heavily as eastern England. The Vikings did, however, settle in the south around St. David's, Haverfordwest, and Gower, among other places. Place names such as Skokholm, Skomer, and Swansea remain as evidence of the Norse settlement.The Vikings, however, did not subdue the Welsh mountain kingdoms.

    The Varangians or Varyags (Russian, Ukrainian language:Варяги, Varyagi; Belarusian language:Варагі, Varahi; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Βαριάγοι, Varangoi) sometimes referred to as Variagians were Scandinavians, often Swedes, who migrated eastwards and southwards through what is now Russia, Belarus and Ukraine mainly in the 9th and 10th centuries. Engaging in trade, piracy and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki, reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople.Contemporary English publications also use the name "Viking" for early Varangians in some contexts. The term Varangian remained in usage in the Byzantine Empire until the 13th century, largely disconnected from its Scandinavian roots by then.Having settled Aldeigja (Ladoga) in the 750s, Scandinavian colonists were probably an element in the early ethnogenesis of the Rus' people, and likely played a role in the formation of the Rus' Khaganate. The Varangians (Varyags, in Old East Slavic) are first men...

    Viking Age Scandinavian settlements were set up along the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, primarily for trade purposes. Their appearance coincides with the settlement and consolidation of the Slavic tribes in the respective areas. Scandinavians had contacts to the Slavs since their very immigration, these first contacts were soon followed by both the construction of Scandinavian emporia and Slavic burghs in their vicinity. The Scandinavian settlements were larger than the early Slavic ones, their craftsmen had a considerably higher productivity, and in contrast to the early Slavs, the Scandinavians were capable of seafaring.Their importance for trade with the Slavic world however was limited to the coastal regions and their hinterlands. Scandinavian settlements at the Mecklenburgian coast include Reric (Groß Strömkendorf) on the eastern coast of Wismar Bay, and Dierkow (near Rostock). Reric was set up around the year 700, but following later warfare between Obodrites and Danes, th...

    France

    The French region of Normandy takes its name from the Viking invaders who were called Normanni, which means ‘men of the North’. The first Viking raids began between 790 and 800 along the coasts of western France. They were carried out primarily in the summer, as the Vikings wintered in Scandinavia. Several coastal areas were lost during the reign of Louis the Pious (814–840). But the Vikings took advantage of the quarrels in the royal family caused after the death of Louis the Pious to settle...

    Spain

    After 842, when the Vikings set up a permanent base at the mouth of the Loire River, they could strike as far as northern Spain. They attacked Cadiz in AD 844. In some of their raids they were crushed either by Kingdom of Asturiasor Emirate armies. These Vikings were Hispanised in all Christian kingdoms, while they kept their ethnic identity and culture in Al-Andalus. In 1015, a Viking fleet entered the river Minho and sacked the episcopal city of Tui(Galicia); no new bishop was appointed unt...

    Portugal

    In 844, many dozens of drakkars appeared in the "Mar da Palha" ("the Sea of Straw", mouth of the Tagus river). After a siege, the Vikings conquered Lisbon (at the time, the city was under Muslim rule and known as Al-Ushbuna). They left after 13 days, following a resistance led by Alah Ibn Hazm and the city's inhabitants.Another raid was attempted in 966, without success.

    North America

    In about 986, Bjarni Herjólfsson, Leif Ericson and Þórfinnr Karlsefni from Greenland reached North America and attempted to settle the land they called Vinland. They created a small settlement on the northern peninsula of present-day Newfoundland, near L'Anse aux Meadows. Conflict with indigenous peoples and lack of support from Greenland brought the Vinland colony to an end within a few years. The archaeological remains are now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

  9. Norway's old royal line had died out with the death of Olav IV in 1387, but Norway's remaining a hereditary kingdom became an important factor for the Oldenburg dynasty of Denmark-Norway in its struggles to win elections as kings of Denmark.

  10. Scandinavia : definition of Scandinavia and synonyms of ...

    dictionary.sensagent.com › Scandinavia › en-en
    • Overview
    • Terminology and Use
    • Use of Nordic Countries vs. Scandinavia
    • Etymology
    • Geography
    • Languages in Scandinavia
    • History
    • Political Scandinavism
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The vast majority of the human population of Scandinavia are Scandinavians, descended from several (North) Germanic tribes who originally inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and what is now northern Germany, who spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse and who were known as Norsemen in the Early Middle Ages. The Vikings are popularly associated with Norse culture. The Icelanders and the Faroeseare to a significant extent, but not exclusively, descended from peoples retroactively known as Scandinavians. Many of the original Scandinavians that settled to mainland Finland have mixed with the Finnish people during centuries, but Finland still remains officially bilingual. Finland's majority population are Finns, whose mother tongue is either Finnish (approx. 95 %), Swedish or both; the Swedish speaking minority lives mainly on the coast from the city of Porvoo, in the Gulf of Finland, to the city of Kokkola, up in the Bothnian Bay. The Åland Islands, an autonomous pr...

    In English, Scandinavia usually refers to Denmark, Norway and Sweden [3][6][7] Some experts argue for the inclusion of Finland and Iceland,[8][9][10] though that broader region is usually known by the countries concerned as Norden, or the Nordic countries.[4] The use of the name Scandinavia as a convenient general term for the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden is fairly recent; according to some historians, it was adopted and introduced in the eighteenth century, at a time when the ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early literary and linguistic Scandinavism.[5] Before this time, the term Scandinavia was familiar mainly to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings, and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula.[5] As a political term, "Scandinavia" was first used by students agitating for Pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s.[5] The popular usage of the term in Sweden, Denmark and Norway as a unifying conce...

    While the term Scandinavia is commonly used for Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, the term the Nordic countries is used unambiguously for Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland, including their associated territories (Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the Åland Islands).[20]Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries. In addition to the countries of: 1. Denmark (Constitutional monarchy with a Parliamentary system) 2. Norway(Constitutional monarchy with a Parliamentary system) 3. Sweden(Constitutional monarchy with a Parliamentary system) the Nordic countries consist of: 1. Faroe Islands (an autonomous country within the Danish Realm, self-governed since 1948) 2. Finland (Parliamentary republic, independent since 1917) 2.1. Åland Islands(an autonomous province of Finland since 1920) 3. Greenland (an autonomous country within the Danish Realm, self-governed since 1979) 4. Iceland(Parliamentary republic, independent since 1918, but in union with Denmark until...

    Scandinavia and Scania (Skåne, the southernmost province of Sweden) are considered to have the same etymology. Both terms are thought to be derived from the Germanic root *Skaðin-awjō, which appears later in Old English as Scedenig and in Old Norse as Skáney.[21] The earliest identified source for the name Scandinavia is Pliny the Elder's Natural History, dated to the first century A.D. Various reference to the region can also be found in Pytheas, Pomponius Mela, Tacitus, Ptolemy, Procopius and Jordanes. It is believed that the name used by Pliny may be of West Germanic origin, originally denoting Scania.[22] According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *Skaðan- meaning "danger" or "damage" (English scathing, German Schaden, Dutch schaden).[23] The second segment of the name has been restructed as *awjō, meaning "land on the water" or "island". The name Scandinavia would then mean "dangerous island", which is considered to refer to the treacherous sandbanks...

    The geography of Scandinavia is extremely varied. Notable are the Norwegian fjords, the Scandinavian Mountains, the flat, low areas in Denmark, and the archipelagos of Sweden and Norway. Sweden has many lakes and moraines, legacies of the ice age. The climate varies from north to south and from west to east; a marine west coast climate (Cfb) typical of western Europe dominates in Denmark, southernmost part of Sweden and along the west coast of Norway reaching north to 65°N, with orographic lift giving more mm/year precipitation (<5000 mm) in some areas in western Norway. The central part – from Oslo to Stockholm – has a humid continental climate (Dfb), which gradually gives way to subarctic climate (Dfc) further north and cool marine west coast climate (Cfc) along the northwestern coast. A small area along the northern coast east of the North Cape has tundra climate (Et) as a result of a lack of summer warmth. The Scandinavian Mountains block the mild and moist air coming from the s...

    There are two language groups that have coexisted on the Scandinavian peninsula since prehistory—the North Germanic languages (Scandinavian languages) and the Sami languages.[47] The majority languages on the peninsula, Swedish and Norwegian, are today, along with Danish, classified as Continental Scandinavian.[48] The North Germanic languages of Scandinavia are traditionally divided into an East Scandinavian branch (Danish and Swedish) and a West Scandinavian branch (Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese),[49][50] but because of changes appearing in the languages since 1600, the East Scandinavian and West Scandinavian branches are now usually reconfigured into Insular Scandinavian (ö-nordisk/øy-nordisk) featuring Icelandic and Faroese[51] and Continental Scandinavian (Skandinavisk), comprising Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish.[48] The modern division is based on the degree of mutual comprehensibility between the languages in the two branches.[52] Note that skandinavisk(a)may also refer t...

    During a period of Christianization and state formation in the 10th–13th centuries, numerous Germanic petty kingdoms and chiefdomswere unified into three kingdoms: 1. Denmark, forged from the Lands of Denmark (including Jutland, Zealand and Scania (Skåneland) on the Scandinavian Peninsula.[61] The island Gotlandin modern-day Sweden was initially also part of the Danish realm.) 2. Sweden, forged from the Lands of Sweden on the Scandinavian Peninsula (excluding the provinces Bohuslän, Härjedalen, Jämtland and Idre & Särna, Halland, Blekinge and Scaniaof modern-day Sweden) 3. Norway (including Bohuslän, Härjedalen, Jämtland and Idre & Särna on the Scandinavian Peninsula, and its island colonies Iceland, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Shetland, Orkney, Isle of Man and the Hebrides.) In the 1645 Treaty of Brömsebro, Denmark–Norway ceded the Norwegian provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen and Idre & Särna, as well as the Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel (in Estonia) to Sweden. The Treaty of...

    The modern use of the term Scandinavia has been influenced by Scandinavism (the Scandinavist political movement), which was active in the middle of the nineteenth century, mainly between the First war of Schleswig (1848–1850), in which Sweden and Norway contributed with considerable military force, and the Second war of Schleswig (1864). In 1864, the Swedish parliament denounced the promises of military support made to Denmark by Charles XV of Sweden. The members of the Swedish parliament were wary of joining an alliance against the rising German power. The Swedish king also proposed a unification of Denmark, Norway and Sweden into a single united kingdom. The background for the proposal was the tumultuous events during the Napoleonic wars in the beginning of the century. This war resulted in Finland (formerly the eastern third of Sweden) becoming the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 and Norway (de jure in union with Denmark since 1387, although de facto treated as a province)...

    "Scandinavia: Official Website of the Scandinavian Tourist Boards in North America". Scandinavian Tourist Boards in North America, Globescope Internet Services, Inc.. 2005. http://www.goscandinavia...
    Scandinavia House – The Nordic Center in New York, run by the American-Scandinavian Foundation
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