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  1. Organ (music) - Wikipedia › wiki › Musical_organ

    Because the organ has both manuals and pedals, organ music has come to be notated on three staves. The music played on the manuals is laid out like music for other keyboard instruments on the top two staves, and the music for the pedals is notated on the third stave or sometimes, to save space, added to the bottom of the second stave as was the ...

  2. Organ (music) - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Organ_(music)
    • Pipe Organ
    • Mechanical Organ
    • Electronic Organ

    Pipe organs are the most common kind of organ, and many people mean this kind of organ when they use the word "organ". They sound different notes when air flows through pipes of different lengths and types. They take up a lot of room, and the noise they make are meant to fill large spaces. The earliest pipe organs were water organs, which were powered by the flow of water, sometimes from a natural resource or using a pump. Later ones used foot pedals or hand cranks to pump a bellows, which in turn produces the air that goes through the pipes. These kinds of organs are still made today, and are called harmoniums. Today's pipe organs ones use an electric motorto move air, and some, like those in theaters, play different instruments as well. The Wurlitzer company was well known for making instruments that make different sounds.

    Mechanical organs have a mechanism that controls which notes are played and when they are played. One type of mechanical organ is the barrel organ, which usually get their music printed on cardboard sheets, although some use piano rolls or a barrel similar to that of a carillon or music box. Mechanical organs can be all shapes and sizes. The smaller barrel organs are often heard on streets in Europe and is a common way of getting money from people who pass by. These types are sometimes called hurdy gurdies, but this is not true. Larger barrel organs can be found on fairgrounds and are loud so that they can be heard above all the other noise at a fair. Meanwhile, smaller barrel organs can be found indoors, and play songs when someone puts in a coin, similar to a slot machine. Some clockshave barrel organ mechanisms that play music at certain times, such as every hour.

    The electronic organ is one of the newest types of organ. They use electronics to simulate the sound of a pipe organ and many other instruments. Because of this, they do not need to be very big and many are no bigger than a piano so that they can fit in homes, schools, or can be moved around as needed. They also do not go out of tune because it holds all its sounds on computerizedchips. Many organists think they do not feel as good to play as a traditional, mechanical pipe-organ. There are electronic organs that look and sound like those played in churches, and even many churches use electronic organs when they do not have the money or space for a full pipe organ. The best-known electronic organs include the Hammond organ heard in jazz, and other organs, like those made by the Japanese company Yamaha, are in fact synthesizers that can sound like a whole orchestra playing together. These types of organs are often used for music education, especially in Asia.

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  4. Organ (music) — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Organ_(music)
    • History
    • Pipe Organs
    • Non-Piped Organs
    • Other Organ Types
    • Organ Music
    • Historical Instruments
    • See Also
    • References
    • Further Reading
    • External Links


    The organ is a rel­a­tively old mu­si­cal in­stru­ment, dat­ing from the time of Cte­si­bius of Alexan­dria (285–222 BC), who in­vented the water organ. It was played through­out the An­cient Greek and An­cient Roman world, par­tic­u­larly dur­ing races and games. Dur­ing the early me­dieval pe­riod it spread from the Byzan­tine Em­pire, where it con­tin­ued to be used in sec­u­lar (non-re­li­gious) and im­pe­r­ial court music, to West­ern Eu­rope, where it grad­u­ally as­sumed a promi­nent p...


    Pipe or­gans use air mov­ing through pipesto pro­duce sounds. Since the 16th cen­tury, pipe or­gans have used var­i­ous ma­te­ri­als for pipes, which can vary widely in tim­bre and vol­ume. In­creas­ingly hy­brid or­gans are ap­pear­ing in which pipes are aug­mented with elec­tric ad­di­tions. Great economies of space and cost are pos­si­ble es­pe­cially when the low­est (and largest) of the pipes can be re­placed. Non-piped organsin­clude: 1. pump organs, named also reed organs or harmoniums...

    The pipe organ is the largest mu­si­cal in­stru­ment. These in­stru­ments vary greatly in size, rang­ing from a cubic meter to a height reach­ing five floors, and are built in churches, syn­a­gogues, con­cert halls, and homes. Small or­gans are called "pos­i­tive" (eas­ily placed in dif­fer­ent lo­ca­tions) or "por­ta­tive" (small enough to carry while play­ing). The pipes are di­vided into ranks and con­trolled by the use of hand stops and com­bi­na­tion pis­tons. Al­though the key­board is not ex­pres­sive as on a piano and does not af­fect dy­nam­ics (it is bi­nary; press­ing a key only turns the sound on or off), some di­vi­sions may be en­closed in a swell box, al­low­ing the dy­nam­ics to be con­trolled by shut­ters. Some or­gans are to­tally en­closed, mean­ing that all the di­vi­sions can be con­trolled by one set of shut­ters. Some spe­cial reg­is­ters with free reed pipes are ex­pres­sive. It has ex­isted in its cur­rent form since the 14th cen­tury, though sim­i­lar de­si...

    Reed or pump organ

    The pump organ, reed organ or har­mo­nium, was the other main type of organ be­fore the de­vel­op­ment of the elec­tronic organ. It gen­er­ated its sounds using reeds sim­i­lar to those of an ac­cor­dion. Smaller, cheaper and more portable than the cor­re­spond­ing pipe in­stru­ment, these were widely used in smaller churches and in pri­vate homes, but their vol­ume and tonal range was ex­tremely lim­ited. They were gen­er­ally lim­ited to one or two man­u­als; they sel­dom had a ped­al­board...

    Electronic organs

    Since the 1930s, pipe­less elec­tric in­stru­ments have been avail­able to pro­duce sim­i­lar sounds and per­form sim­i­lar roles to pipe or­gans. Many of these have been bought both by houses of wor­ship and other po­ten­tial pipe organ cus­tomers, and also by many mu­si­cians both pro­fes­sional and am­a­teur for whom a pipe organ would not be a pos­si­bil­ity. Far smaller and cheaper to buy than a cor­re­spond­ing pipe in­stru­ment, and in many cases portable, they have taken organ music i...


    1. Barrel organ—made famous by organ grindersin its portable form, the larger form often equipped with keyboards for human performance 2. Organette—small, accordion-like instrument manufactured in New York in the late 1800s 3. Novelty instruments or various types that operate on the same principles: Orchestrion, fairground organ (or band organ in the USA), dutch street organ and Dance organ—these pipe organs use a piano rollplayer or other mechanical means instead of a keyboard to play a prep...


    The wind can also be cre­ated by using pres­sur­ized steam in­stead of air. The steam organ, or cal­liope, was in­vented in the United States in the 19th cen­tury. Cal­liopes usu­ally have very loud and clean sound. Cal­liopes are used as out­doors in­stru­ments, and many have been built on wheeled plat­forms.

    Classical music

    The organ has had an im­por­tant place in clas­si­cal music, par­tic­u­larly since the 16th cen­tury. Spain's An­to­nio de Cabezón, the Nether­lands' Jan Pieter­szoon Sweel­inck, and Italy's Giro­lamo Fres­cobaldi were three of the most im­por­tant or­gan­ist-com­posers be­fore 1650. In­flu­enced in part by Sweel­inck and Fres­cobaldi, the North Ger­man school rose from the mid-17th cen­tury on­wards to great promi­nence, with lead­ing mem­bers of this school hav­ing in­cluded Bux­te­hude, Fr...


    Elec­tronic or­gans and electro­mechan­i­cal or­gans such as the Ham­mond organhave an es­tab­lished role in a num­ber of pop­u­lar-mu­sic gen­res, such as blues, jazz, gospel, and 1960s and 1970s rock music. Elec­tronic and electro­mechan­i­cal or­gans were orig­i­nally de­signed as lower-cost sub­sti­tutes for pipe or­gans. De­spite this in­tended role as a sa­cred music in­stru­ment, elec­tronic and electro­mechan­i­cal or­gans' dis­tinc­tive tone-of­ten mod­i­fied with elec­tronic ef­fect...

    Popular music

    Per­form­ers of 20th cen­tury pop­u­lar organ music in­clude William Row­land who com­posed "Piano Rags"; George Wright (1920–1998) and Vir­gil Fox(1912–1980), who bridged both the clas­si­cal and re­li­gious areas of music.


    1. Panpipes, pan flute, syrinx, and nai, etc., are considered as ancestor of the pipe organ. 2. Aulos, an ancient double reed instrument with two pipes, is the origin of the word Hydr-aulis(water-aerophone).

    Early organs

    1. 3rd century BC - the Hydraulis, ancient Greek water-powered organ played by valves. 2. 1st century (at least) - the Ptera and the Pteron, ancient Roman organ similar in appearance to the portative organs 3. 2nd century - the Magrepha, ancient Hebrew organ of ten pipes played by a keyboard 4. 8th century - Pippin's organ of 757 (Carolingian dynasty) was sent as a gift to the West by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V 5. 9th century - the automatic flute player (and possibly automatic hydro...

    Medieval organs

    1. Portative organ: a small portable medieval instrument 2. Positive organ: a somewhat larger though still portable instrument 3. Regal: a portable late-medieval instrument with reed pipes and bellows; forerunner of the harmonium and reed organ

    Barnes, William Harrison (2007). The Contemporary American Organ - Its Evolution, Design And Construction. Barnes Press. p. 376. ISBN 978-1-4067-6023-1.
    Hunt, Henry George Bonavia (2008). A Concise History of Music. BiblioLife. p. 137. ISBN 978-0554753874.
    Rimbault, Edward Francis (c. 1865). The Early English Organ Builders and their work . London: William Reeves.
  5. Microsoft Word - Wikipedia › wiki › Microsoft_Word
    • History
    • File Formats
    • Features and Flaws
    • Word For The Web
    • Password Protection
    • Reception
    • Further Reading
    • External Links


    In 1981, Microsoft hired Charles Simonyi, the primary developer of Bravo, the first GUI word processor, which was developed at Xerox PARC. Simonyi started work on a word processor called Multi-Tool Word and soon hired Richard Brodie, a former Xerox intern, who became the primary software engineer. Microsoft announced Multi-Tool Word for Xenix and MS-DOS in 1983. Its name was soon simplified to Microsoft Word. Free demonstration copies of the application were bundled with the November 1983 iss...

    Word for Windows

    Word for Windows is available stand-alone or as part of the Microsoft Office suite. Word contains rudimentary desktop publishing capabilities and is the most widely used word processing program on the market. Word files are commonly used as the format for sending text documents via e-mail because almost every user with a computer can read a Word document by using the Word application, a Word viewer or a word processor that imports the Word format (see Microsoft Word Viewer). Word 6 for Window...

    Word for Mac

    In 1997, Microsoft formed the Macintosh Business Unit as an independent group within Microsoft focused on writing software for Mac OS. Its first version of Word, Word 98, was released with Office 98 Macintosh Edition. Document compatibility reached parity with Word 97, and it included features from Word 97 for Windows, including spell and grammar checking with squiggles.Users could choose the menus and keyboard shortcuts to be similar to either Word 97 for Windows or Word 5 for Mac OS. Word 2...

    Filename extensions

    Microsoft Word's native file formats are denoted either by a .doc or .docx filename extension. Although the .docextension has been used in many different versions of Word, it actually encompasses four distinct file formats: 1. Word for DOS 2. Word for Windows 1 and 2; Word 3 and 4 for Mac OS 3. Word 6 and Word 95 for Windows; Word 6 for Mac OS 4. Word 97 and later for Windows; Word 98 and later for Mac OS (The classic Mac OSof the era did not use filename extensions.) The newer .docx extensio...

    Binary formats

    During the late 1990s and early 2000s, the default Word document format (.DOC) became a de facto standard of document file formats for Microsoft Office users.[citation needed] There are different versions of "Word Document Format" used by default in Word 97–2007. Each binary word file is a Compound File, a hierarchical file system within a file. According to Joel Spolsky, Word Binary File Format is extremely complex mainly because its developers had to accommodate an overwhelming number of fe...

    XML Document

    The .docx XML format introduced in Word 2003 was a simple, XML-based format called WordProcessingML or WordML . The Microsoft Office XML formats are XML-based document formats (or XML schemas) introduced in versions of Microsoft Office prior to Office 2007. Microsoft Office XPintroduced a new XML format for storing Excel spreadsheets and Office 2003 added an XML-based format for Word documents. These formats were succeeded by Office Open XML (ECMA-376) in Microsoft Office 2007.

    Among its features, Word includes a built-in spell checker, a thesaurus, a dictionary, and utilities for manipulating and editing text. The following are some aspects of its feature set.

    Word for the web is a free lightweight version of Microsoft Word available as part of Office on the web, which also includes web versions of Microsoft Excel and Microsoft PowerPoint. Word for the web lacks some Ribbon tabs, such as Design and Mailings. Mailings allows users to print envelopes and labels, and manage mail merge printing of Word documents.Word for the web is not able to edit certain objects, such as equations, shapes, text boxes, or drawings, but a placeholder may be present in the document. Certain advanced features like table sorting or columns will not be displayed but are preserved as they were in the document. Other views available in the Word desktop app (Outline, Draft, Web Layout, and Full Screen Reading) are not available, nor are side-by-side viewing, split windows, and the ruler.

    There are three password types that can be set in Microsoft Word: 1. Password to open a document 2. Password to modify a document 3. Password restricting formatting and editing The second and the third type of passwords were developed by Microsoft for convenient shared use of documents rather than for their protection. There is no encryption of documents that are protected by such passwords, and the Microsoft Office protection system saves a hash sum of a password in a document's header where it can be easily accessed and removed by the specialized software.Password to open a documentoffers much tougher protection that had been steadily enhanced in the subsequent editions of Microsoft Office. Word 95 and all the preceding editions had the weakest protection that utilized a conversion of a password to a 16-bit key. Key length in Word 97 and 2000 was strengthened up to 40 bit. However, modern cracking software allows removing such a password very quickly – a persistent cracking proces...

    BYTE in 1984 criticized the documentation for Word 1.1 and 2.0 for DOS, calling it "a complete farce". It called the software "clever, put together well, and performs some extraordinary feats", but concluded that "especially when operated with the mouse, has many more limitations than benefits ... extremely frustrating to learn and operate efficiently". PC Magazine's review was very mixed, stating "I've run into weird word processors before, but this is the first time one's nearly knocked me down for the count" but acknowledging that Word's innovations were the first that caused the reviewer to consider abandoning WordStar. While the review cited an excellent WYSIWYGdisplay, sophisticated print formatting, windows, and footnoting as merits, it criticized many small flaws, very slow performance, and "documentation apparently produced by Madame Sadie's Pain Palace". It concluded that Word was "two releases away from potential greatness". Compute!'s Apple Applications in 1987 stated th...

    Tsang, Cheryl. Microsoft: First Generation. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0-471-33206-0.
    Liebowitz, Stan J. & Margolis, Stephen E. Winners, Losers & Microsoft: Competition and Antitrust in High Technology Oakland: Independent Institute. ISBN 978-0-945999-80-5.
    • October 25, 1983; 37 years ago (as Multi-Tool Word)
    • Trialware
    • 2103 (16.0.13901.20400), / April 13, 2021; 54 days ago
    • IA-32, x64, ARM
  6. Organ (music) - definition of Organ (music) by The Free ... › Organ+(music)

    Organ (music) synonyms, Organ (music) pronunciation, Organ (music) translation, English dictionary definition of Organ (music). n a small compact organ used esp for the authentic performance of preclassical music Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014...

  7. Eventually it took a place as a concert instrument, and a rich literature for organ music exists, with most famous composers having written at least some music for it. Most of the times, the term 'organ' applied in Western art music context, refers to the standard pipe organ that can be found in churches, and theaters, or to chamber organs.

  8. Get Crescendo Music Notation Free - Microsoft Store › en-us › p

    This free notation app includes some trial features that are available to try for a limited time in the free version, at the end of which those trial features must be purchased in order to continue to use those features within the app. Music Writing App Features Include: • Choose your clef, time signature, and key signature • Add whole ...

  9. Organ is a VST plug-in that allows you to recreate the sounds of the Hammond B3 organ on your computer.This virtual instrument also provides you with two additional electronic organs (Vox ad ...

  10. Category:For organ - IMSLP: Free Sheet Music PDF Download › wiki › Category:For_organ

    The list below includes all pages in the category "For organ". This includes works originally scored for any type of organ. See also For organ (arr), For mechanical organ, For organ 4 hands, For 2 organs. → Sort this list by work type, instrumentation, composer, and more.

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