Because the organ has both manuals and pedals, organ music has come to be notated on three staves. The music played on the manuals is laid out like music for other keyboard instruments on the top two staves, and the music for the pedals is notated on the third stave or sometimes, to save space, added to the bottom of the second stave as was the ...
- Pipe Organ
- Mechanical Organ
- Electronic Organ
Pipe organs are the most common kind of organ, and many people mean this kind of organ when they use the word "organ". They sound different notes when air flows through pipes of different lengths and types. They take up a lot of room, and the noise they make are meant to fill large spaces. The earliest pipe organs were water organs, which were powered by the flow of water, sometimes from a natural resource or using a pump. Later ones used foot pedals or hand cranks to pump a bellows, which in turn produces the air that goes through the pipes. These kinds of organs are still made today, and are called harmoniums. Today's pipe organs ones use an electric motorto move air, and some, like those in theaters, play different instruments as well. The Wurlitzer company was well known for making instruments that make different sounds.
Mechanical organs have a mechanism that controls which notes are played and when they are played. One type of mechanical organ is the barrel organ, which usually get their music printed on cardboard sheets, although some use piano rolls or a barrel similar to that of a carillon or music box. Mechanical organs can be all shapes and sizes. The smaller barrel organs are often heard on streets in Europe and is a common way of getting money from people who pass by. These types are sometimes called hurdy gurdies, but this is not true. Larger barrel organs can be found on fairgrounds and are loud so that they can be heard above all the other noise at a fair. Meanwhile, smaller barrel organs can be found indoors, and play songs when someone puts in a coin, similar to a slot machine. Some clockshave barrel organ mechanisms that play music at certain times, such as every hour.
The electronic organ is one of the newest types of organ. They use electronics to simulate the sound of a pipe organ and many other instruments. Because of this, they do not need to be very big and many are no bigger than a piano so that they can fit in homes, schools, or can be moved around as needed. They also do not go out of tune because it holds all its sounds on computerizedchips. Many organists think they do not feel as good to play as a traditional, mechanical pipe-organ. There are electronic organs that look and sound like those played in churches, and even many churches use electronic organs when they do not have the money or space for a full pipe organ. The best-known electronic organs include the Hammond organ heard in jazz, and other organs, like those made by the Japanese company Yamaha, are in fact synthesizers that can sound like a whole orchestra playing together. These types of organs are often used for music education, especially in Asia.
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- Pipe Organs
- Non-Piped Organs
- Other Organ Types
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- Historical Instruments
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The organ is a relatively old musical instrument, dating from the time of Ctesibius of Alexandria (285–222 BC), who invented the water organ. It was played throughout the Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman world, particularly during races and games. During the early medieval period it spread from the Byzantine Empire, where it continued to be used in secular (non-religious) and imperial court music, to Western Europe, where it gradually assumed a prominent p...
Pipe organs use air moving through pipesto produce sounds. Since the 16th century, pipe organs have used various materials for pipes, which can vary widely in timbre and volume. Increasingly hybrid organs are appearing in which pipes are augmented with electric additions. Great economies of space and cost are possible especially when the lowest (and largest) of the pipes can be replaced. Non-piped organsinclude: 1. pump organs, named also reed organs or harmoniums...
The pipe organ is the largest musical instrument. These instruments vary greatly in size, ranging from a cubic meter to a height reaching five floors, and are built in churches, synagogues, concert halls, and homes. Small organs are called "positive" (easily placed in different locations) or "portative" (small enough to carry while playing). The pipes are divided into ranks and controlled by the use of hand stops and combination pistons. Although the keyboard is not expressive as on a piano and does not affect dynamics (it is binary; pressing a key only turns the sound on or off), some divisions may be enclosed in a swell box, allowing the dynamics to be controlled by shutters. Some organs are totally enclosed, meaning that all the divisions can be controlled by one set of shutters. Some special registers with free reed pipes are expressive. It has existed in its current form since the 14th century, though similar desi...
Reed or pump organ
The pump organ, reed organ or harmonium, was the other main type of organ before the development of the electronic organ. It generated its sounds using reeds similar to those of an accordion. Smaller, cheaper and more portable than the corresponding pipe instrument, these were widely used in smaller churches and in private homes, but their volume and tonal range was extremely limited. They were generally limited to one or two manuals; they seldom had a pedalboard...
Since the 1930s, pipeless electric instruments have been available to produce similar sounds and perform similar roles to pipe organs. Many of these have been bought both by houses of worship and other potential pipe organ customers, and also by many musicians both professional and amateur for whom a pipe organ would not be a possibility. Far smaller and cheaper to buy than a corresponding pipe instrument, and in many cases portable, they have taken organ music i...
1. Barrel organ—made famous by organ grindersin its portable form, the larger form often equipped with keyboards for human performance 2. Organette—small, accordion-like instrument manufactured in New York in the late 1800s 3. Novelty instruments or various types that operate on the same principles: Orchestrion, fairground organ (or band organ in the USA), dutch street organ and Dance organ—these pipe organs use a piano rollplayer or other mechanical means instead of a keyboard to play a prep...
The wind can also be created by using pressurized steam instead of air. The steam organ, or calliope, was invented in the United States in the 19th century. Calliopes usually have very loud and clean sound. Calliopes are used as outdoors instruments, and many have been built on wheeled platforms.
The organ has had an important place in classical music, particularly since the 16th century. Spain's Antonio de Cabezón, the Netherlands' Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, and Italy's Girolamo Frescobaldi were three of the most important organist-composers before 1650. Influenced in part by Sweelinck and Frescobaldi, the North German school rose from the mid-17th century onwards to great prominence, with leading members of this school having included Buxtehude, Fr...
Electronic organs and electromechanical organs such as the Hammond organhave an established role in a number of popular-music genres, such as blues, jazz, gospel, and 1960s and 1970s rock music. Electronic and electromechanical organs were originally designed as lower-cost substitutes for pipe organs. Despite this intended role as a sacred music instrument, electronic and electromechanical organs' distinctive tone-often modified with electronic effect...
Performers of 20th century popular organ music include William Rowland who composed "Piano Rags"; George Wright (1920–1998) and Virgil Fox(1912–1980), who bridged both the classical and religious areas of music.
1. Panpipes, pan flute, syrinx, and nai, etc., are considered as ancestor of the pipe organ. 2. Aulos, an ancient double reed instrument with two pipes, is the origin of the word Hydr-aulis(water-aerophone).
1. 3rd century BC - the Hydraulis, ancient Greek water-powered organ played by valves. 2. 1st century (at least) - the Ptera and the Pteron, ancient Roman organ similar in appearance to the portative organs 3. 2nd century - the Magrepha, ancient Hebrew organ of ten pipes played by a keyboard 4. 8th century - Pippin's organ of 757 (Carolingian dynasty) was sent as a gift to the West by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V 5. 9th century - the automatic flute player (and possibly automatic hydro...
1. Portative organ: a small portable medieval instrument 2. Positive organ: a somewhat larger though still portable instrument 3. Regal: a portable late-medieval instrument with reed pipes and bellows; forerunner of the harmonium and reed organBarnes, William Harrison (2007). The Contemporary American Organ - Its Evolution, Design And Construction. Barnes Press. p. 376. ISBN 978-1-4067-6023-1.Hunt, Henry George Bonavia (2008). A Concise History of Music. BiblioLife. p. 137. ISBN 978-0554753874.Rimbault, Edward Francis (c. 1865). The Early English Organ Builders and their work . London: William Reeves.
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In 1981, Microsoft hired Charles Simonyi, the primary developer of Bravo, the first GUI word processor, which was developed at Xerox PARC. Simonyi started work on a word processor called Multi-Tool Word and soon hired Richard Brodie, a former Xerox intern, who became the primary software engineer. Microsoft announced Multi-Tool Word for Xenix and MS-DOS in 1983. Its name was soon simplified to Microsoft Word. Free demonstration copies of the application were bundled with the November 1983 iss...
Word for Windows
Word for Windows is available stand-alone or as part of the Microsoft Office suite. Word contains rudimentary desktop publishing capabilities and is the most widely used word processing program on the market. Word files are commonly used as the format for sending text documents via e-mail because almost every user with a computer can read a Word document by using the Word application, a Word viewer or a word processor that imports the Word format (see Microsoft Word Viewer). Word 6 for Window...
Word for Mac
In 1997, Microsoft formed the Macintosh Business Unit as an independent group within Microsoft focused on writing software for Mac OS. Its first version of Word, Word 98, was released with Office 98 Macintosh Edition. Document compatibility reached parity with Word 97, and it included features from Word 97 for Windows, including spell and grammar checking with squiggles.Users could choose the menus and keyboard shortcuts to be similar to either Word 97 for Windows or Word 5 for Mac OS. Word 2...
Microsoft Word's native file formats are denoted either by a .doc or .docx filename extension. Although the .docextension has been used in many different versions of Word, it actually encompasses four distinct file formats: 1. Word for DOS 2. Word for Windows 1 and 2; Word 3 and 4 for Mac OS 3. Word 6 and Word 95 for Windows; Word 6 for Mac OS 4. Word 97 and later for Windows; Word 98 and later for Mac OS (The classic Mac OSof the era did not use filename extensions.) The newer .docx extensio...
During the late 1990s and early 2000s, the default Word document format (.DOC) became a de facto standard of document file formats for Microsoft Office users. There are different versions of "Word Document Format" used by default in Word 97–2007. Each binary word file is a Compound File, a hierarchical file system within a file. According to Joel Spolsky, Word Binary File Format is extremely complex mainly because its developers had to accommodate an overwhelming number of fe...
The .docx XML format introduced in Word 2003 was a simple, XML-based format called WordProcessingML or WordML . The Microsoft Office XML formats are XML-based document formats (or XML schemas) introduced in versions of Microsoft Office prior to Office 2007. Microsoft Office XPintroduced a new XML format for storing Excel spreadsheets and Office 2003 added an XML-based format for Word documents. These formats were succeeded by Office Open XML (ECMA-376) in Microsoft Office 2007.
Among its features, Word includes a built-in spell checker, a thesaurus, a dictionary, and utilities for manipulating and editing text. The following are some aspects of its feature set.
Word for the web is a free lightweight version of Microsoft Word available as part of Office on the web, which also includes web versions of Microsoft Excel and Microsoft PowerPoint. Word for the web lacks some Ribbon tabs, such as Design and Mailings. Mailings allows users to print envelopes and labels, and manage mail merge printing of Word documents.Word for the web is not able to edit certain objects, such as equations, shapes, text boxes, or drawings, but a placeholder may be present in the document. Certain advanced features like table sorting or columns will not be displayed but are preserved as they were in the document. Other views available in the Word desktop app (Outline, Draft, Web Layout, and Full Screen Reading) are not available, nor are side-by-side viewing, split windows, and the ruler.
There are three password types that can be set in Microsoft Word: 1. Password to open a document 2. Password to modify a document 3. Password restricting formatting and editing The second and the third type of passwords were developed by Microsoft for convenient shared use of documents rather than for their protection. There is no encryption of documents that are protected by such passwords, and the Microsoft Office protection system saves a hash sum of a password in a document's header where it can be easily accessed and removed by the specialized software.Password to open a documentoffers much tougher protection that had been steadily enhanced in the subsequent editions of Microsoft Office. Word 95 and all the preceding editions had the weakest protection that utilized a conversion of a password to a 16-bit key. Key length in Word 97 and 2000 was strengthened up to 40 bit. However, modern cracking software allows removing such a password very quickly – a persistent cracking proces...
BYTE in 1984 criticized the documentation for Word 1.1 and 2.0 for DOS, calling it "a complete farce". It called the software "clever, put together well, and performs some extraordinary feats", but concluded that "especially when operated with the mouse, has many more limitations than benefits ... extremely frustrating to learn and operate efficiently". PC Magazine's review was very mixed, stating "I've run into weird word processors before, but this is the first time one's nearly knocked me down for the count" but acknowledging that Word's innovations were the first that caused the reviewer to consider abandoning WordStar. While the review cited an excellent WYSIWYGdisplay, sophisticated print formatting, windows, and footnoting as merits, it criticized many small flaws, very slow performance, and "documentation apparently produced by Madame Sadie's Pain Palace". It concluded that Word was "two releases away from potential greatness". Compute!'s Apple Applications in 1987 stated th...Tsang, Cheryl. Microsoft: First Generation. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0-471-33206-0.Liebowitz, Stan J. & Margolis, Stephen E. Winners, Losers & Microsoft: Competition and Antitrust in High Technology Oakland: Independent Institute. ISBN 978-0-945999-80-5.Media related to Microsoft Wordat Wikimedia Commons
Organ (music) synonyms, Organ (music) pronunciation, Organ (music) translation, English dictionary definition of Organ (music). n a small compact organ used esp for the authentic performance of preclassical music Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014...
Eventually it took a place as a concert instrument, and a rich literature for organ music exists, with most famous composers having written at least some music for it. Most of the times, the term 'organ' applied in Western art music context, refers to the standard pipe organ that can be found in churches, and theaters, or to chamber organs.
This free notation app includes some trial features that are available to try for a limited time in the free version, at the end of which those trial features must be purchased in order to continue to use those features within the app. Music Writing App Features Include: • Choose your clef, time signature, and key signature • Add whole ...
Organ is a VST plug-in that allows you to recreate the sounds of the Hammond B3 organ on your computer.This virtual instrument also provides you with two additional electronic organs (Vox ad ...
The list below includes all pages in the category "For organ". This includes works originally scored for any type of organ. See also For organ (arr), For mechanical organ, For organ 4 hands, For 2 organs. → Sort this list by work type, instrumentation, composer, and more.
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