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  1. The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers to form the Triple Alliance with the signing of the August 1914 Turco-German Alliance. Turkey formally entered World War I on October 28, 1914, with the bombing of Russian Black Sea ports. The Triple Entente, or Allied Powers, declared war on the Ottoman Empire on November 4.

  2. Following the attack, the Russian Empire (2 November 1914) and its allies France (5 November 1914) and the British Empire (5 November 1914) declared war on the Ottoman Empire (also on 5 November 1914, the British government changed the status of the Khedivate of Egypt and Cyprus, which were de jure Ottoman territories prior to the war, as ...

    • 2300-1400 BC
    • Ottoman
  3. The Ottoman Empire started military action after three months of formal neutrality, but it had signed a secret alliance with the Central Powers in August 1914. The great landmass of Anatolia was between the Ottoman army's headquarters in Istanbul and many of the theatres of war.

  4. Hi Friendy - my understanding is that West Thracia was part of Bulgaria at the time the Ottoman Empire entered the FWW in 1914, awarded in the Treaty of Bucharest following the Second Balkan War of 1913.

  5. 1914-1918. Map of Europe in 1914: Allied, Central, and Neutral Powers. Map of the Western Front in 1914. Map of the Eastern Front in 1914. Map of the Ottoman Empire 1914. Map of the Serbian Campaign - August-December 1914. Map of Northwest Europe: Opposing Armies - August 2, 1914

    • Introduction↑
    • The Caucasus Campaign↑
    • The Mesopotamian Campaign↑
    • The Campaign in Palestine↑
    • The Gallipoli Campaign↑
    • Secondary Campaigns↑
    • Conclusion↑

    When the Ottoman Empire entered the war by the naval bombardment of Russian Black Sea ports on 29 October 1914, its army had already undergone a hasty reorganization and a series of reforms following its catastrophic defeat in the First Balkan War. Along with the officers who were deemed opponents of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), elderly officers who were held responsible for the “Balkan Disaster”, had been forced into retirement and a rejuvenated but less experienced officer corps had emerged. General mobilization, which was declared on 2 August 1914, had not been properly plannedor coordinated. This caused massive delays in units reaching their full strength before the hostilities began. The army initially fielded thirteen army corps and two independent divisions. These units were organized into four field armies. The 1st and 2nd Armies were deployed on both sides of the Bosphorus to protect the capital, its vicinity, Thrace, and the Aegean Coast; the 3rd Army was dep...

    Shortly after the hostilities began, the Ottoman General Staff decided to launch a large-scale winter offensive that would encircle and annihilate the Russian Army in the Caucasus. For the operation, Minister of War Enver Pasha (1881-1922) personally arrived at the front and assumed command of the 3rd Army himself. The plan, devised by Enver Pasha himself, was to conduct a single envelopment of the Russian right flank and strike the main body of the Russian Army in Sarikamis. During the planning of the operation, however, weather conditions, rough terrain, potential logistical problems, and the lack of heavy artillery support had been widely ignored. Enver Pasha, though an able staff officer and a proven expert in irregular warfare, had no practical experience in commanding an army, let alone in leading such a large-scale operation. These factors, all combined, would decide the fate of the campaign. The offensive started on 22 December, catching the Russians off guard, but in a litt...

    The landing of an infantry brigade of the Indian Army’s 6th Division at Fao, on 5 November 1914, started the campaign in Mesopotamia. Meeting no serious resistance, the Britishreinforced their troops with an additional brigade and moved inland, capturing Basra and Qurna before the end of the year. The irregular tribal units, of which the Ottoman High Command had extremely high hopes in defence of Iraq, proved to be completely unreliable. By spring 1915, the General Staff, abandoning its strategy to defend Mesopotamia by irregular forces, sent two infantry divisions under the command of Iraq Area Command. Later in autumn 1915, two more Anatolian infantry divisions arrived in Iraq. The British 6th Division’s offensive that started on 21 November 1915 was stopped at Selman-i Pak (Ctesiphon). The British retreated back to Kut al-Amara, pursued by the Ottoman forces which immediately besieged the city. After several assaults on the city, which proved to be extremely costly for the Ottoma...

    Shortly after the Ottoman Empire’s entry in the war, Ottoman General Staff ordered the VIII Corps in Syria to prepare for an offensive on the Suez Canal. The objective of the operation was to pose a material threat on the Suez Canal, thus forcing British Army to keep a considerable force in Egypt and away from the Western Front. After preparations were complete, the corps-sized Canal Expeditionary Force arrived at the east bank of the canal on 3 February 1915 and the cross-canal assault by pontoons started immediately. The assault failed against strong British resistance on the opposite bank. The expeditionary force retreated under the cover of darkness. Ottoman casualties totalled 52 officers and 1,358 enlisted men. Though the channel couldn’t be seized, the intended objective was certainly achieved. The British were forced to increase their military presence in Egyptuntil the spring of 1917. After nearly two years of relative silence in Palestine, in March 1917, the British finall...

    The greatest danger that the Ottoman Empire ever faced throughout the war came when an Allied armada entered the Strait of Dardanelles with hopes of capturing Istanbul and forcing the Ottoman Empire to capitulate. The naval offensive started at 8:30 AM on 18 March 1915 and lasted until 5 PM. Heavy fire from Dardanelles fortifications and undetected sea minesdestroyed three Allied warships and two torpedo boats and forced them to retreat. Turkish casualties numbered 79 dead and wounded. When the naval offensive failed, the Allies, convinced that forcing the Dardanelles by sea would be futile and costly, devised an amphibious assault plan to capture the Ottoman fortifications by land. The Allied landings started in the early hours of 25 April, with the British 29th Division landing at Seddulbahir (Cape Helles) and ANZAC landing at Ariburnu (Anzac Cove). The 9th Division put up a fierce resistance against the landings at Ariburnu and Seddulbahir, until Lieutenant Colonel Mustafa Kemal...

    One of the biggest internal problems of the Ottoman Empire during the war, apart from the Armenian Uprising, was the Arab Revolt that resulted in the end of Ottoman rule in Hejaz. When the revolt began in the summer of 1916, the Ottoman Army had only a single division stationed in Mecca and Ta’if which held out for a little more than three months before surrendering to the rebels. The Ottoman forces in Medina, Asir, and Yemen held out until long after the end of war. In the summer of 1916, the Ottoman forces in Medina repulsed the initial rebel attacks on the city. Shortly after the revolt began, the Hejaz Expeditionary Force was created in Medina, under the command of Fakhreddin Pasha (1868-1948). While the troops in Medina held out against rebel attacks, the Ottoman General Staff made plans to evacuate the city, though this was later found too difficult to undertake. Medina held out, under extremely harsh conditions, until Fakhreddin Pasha finally agreed to surrender to the Arab r...

    The Ottoman Army fought four major campaigns throughout the war and managed to come out victorious in only one of them. The campaigns in Mesopotamia and Palestine, despite the victories at Kut and the First and Second Battles of Gaza, ended with the Ottoman Army retreating all the way back to Anatolia. In the Caucasus Campaign, things did not go well from the start and steadily evolved into a disaster. However, the tide turned in favour of the Ottomans when Russia dropped out of the war in 1917. Only in Gallipoli, did the Ottoman Army manage to win a remarkable victory that had important strategic consequences. The isolated units on the Arabian Peninsula held out until the end, only to give up when the armistice was signed. While fighting for their very survival, the Ottomans managed to send help to their allies. Ottoman troops contributed to stopping the Russian onslaught in Galicia and knocking Romania quickly out of the war. Despite high casualty numbers and almost an equally hig...

  6. Nov 03, 2017 · The Ottoman Empire, an Islamic superpower, ruled much of the Middle East, North Africa and Eastern Europe between the 14th and early 20th centuries. ... The Ottoman army entered the war in 1914 on ...

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