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  1. The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus, and ultimate tensile strength. The unit, named after Blaise Pascal, is defined as one newton per square metre and is equivalent to 10 barye (Ba) in the CGS system.

  2. Pascal's law (also Pascal's principle or the principle of transmission of fluid-pressure) is a principle in fluid mechanics given by Blaise Pascal that states that a pressure change at any point in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid such that the same change occurs everywhere.

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  4. › wiki › PressurePressure - Wikipedia

    For gases, pressure is sometimes measured not as an absolute pressure, but relative to atmospheric pressure; such measurements are called gauge pressure. An example of this is the air pressure in an automobile tire, which might be said to be "220 kPa (32 psi)", but is actually 220 kPa (32 psi) above atmospheric pressure. Since atmospheric ...

    • p, P
    • 1 N/m², 1 kg/(m·s²), or 1 J/m³
    • p = F / A
    • pascal [Pa]
  5. Pressure measures force per unit area, with SI units of pascals (1 pascal = 1 newton per square metre, 1 N/m 2 ).

    • History
    • Implementations
    • Language Constructs
    • Resources
    • Standards
    • Reception
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    Earlier efforts

    Much of the history of computer language design during the 1960s can be traced to the ALGOL 60 language. ALGOL was developed during the 1950s with the explicit goal of being able to clearly describe algorithms. It included a number of features for structured programmingthat remain common in languages to this day. Shortly after its introduction, in 1962 Wirth began working on his dissertation with Helmut Weber on the Euler programming language. Euler was based on ALGOL's syntax and many concep...


    Pascal was influenced by the ALGOL W efforts, with the explicit goals of producing a language that would be efficient both in the compiler and at run-time, allowing for the development of well-structured programs, and being useful for teaching students structured programming.A generation of students used Pascal as an introductory language in undergraduate courses. One of the early successes for the language was the introduction of UCSD Pascal, a version that ran on a custom operating system t...

    Object Pascal

    During work on the Lisa, Larry Tesler began corresponding with Wirth on the idea of adding object-oriented extensions to the language. This led initially to Clascal, introduced in 1983. As the Lisa program faded and was replaced by the Macintosh, a further version was created and named Object Pascal. This was introduced on the Mac in 1985 as part of the MacApp application framework, and became Apple's main development language into the early 1990s. The Object Pascal extensions were added to T...

    Early Pascal compilers

    The first Pascal compiler was designed in Zürich for the CDC 6000 series mainframe computer family. Niklaus Wirth reports that a first attempt to implement it in FORTRAN 66 in 1969 was unsuccessful due to FORTRAN 66's inadequacy to express complex data structures. The second attempt was implemented in a C-like language (Scallop by Max Engeli) and then translated by hand (by R. Schild) to Pascal itself for boot-strapping. It was operational by mid-1970. Many Pascal compilers since have been si...

    The Pascal-P system

    To propagate the language rapidly, a compiler porting kit was created in Zürich that included a compiler that generated so called p-code for a virtual stack machine, i.e., code that lends itself to reasonably efficient interpretation, along with an interpreter for that code – the Pascal-P system. The P-system compilers were named Pascal-P1, Pascal-P2, Pascal-P3, and Pascal-P4. Pascal-P1 was the first version, and Pascal-P4 was the last to come from Zürich. The version termed Pascal-P1 was coi...

    Object Pascal and Turbo Pascal

    Apple Computer created its own Lisa Pascal for the Lisa Workshop in 1982, and ported the compiler to the Apple Macintosh and MPW in 1985. In 1985 Larry Tesler, in consultation with Niklaus Wirth, defined Object Pascal and these extensions were incorporated in both the Lisa Pascal and Mac Pascal compilers. In the 1980s, Anders Hejlsberg wrote the Blue Label Pascal compiler for the Nascom-2. A reimplementation of this compiler for the IBM PC was marketed under the names Compas Pascal and PolyPa...

    Pascal, in its original form, is a purely procedural language and includes the traditional array of ALGOL-like control structures with reserved words such as if, then, else, while, for, and case, ranging on a single statement or a begin-end statements block. Pascal also has data structuring constructs not included in the original ALGOL 60 types, li...

    Compilers and interpreters

    Several Pascal compilers and interpreters are available for general use: 1. Delphi is Embarcadero's (formerly Borland/CodeGear) flagship rapid application development (RAD) product. It uses the Object Pascal language (termed 'Delphi' by Borland), descended from Pascal, to create applications for Windows, macOS, iOS, and Android. The .NET support that existed from D8 through D2005, D2006, and D2007 has been terminated, and replaced by a new language (Prism, which is rebranded Oxygene, see belo...


    1. Dev-Pascal is a Pascal IDE that was designed in Borland Delphiand which supports Free Pascal and GNU Pascal as backends. 2. Lazarus is a free Delphi-like visual cross-platform IDE for rapid application development (RAD). Based on Free Pascal, Lazarus is available for numerous platforms including Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and Microsoft Windows. 3. Fire (macOS) and Water (Windows) for the Oxygene and the Elements Compiler


    1. WOL Library for creating GUI applications with the Free Pascal Compiler.

    ISO/IEC 7185:1990 Pascal

    In 1983, the language was standardized in the international standard IEC/ISO 7185and several local country-specific standards, including the American ANSI/IEEE770X3.97-1983, and ISO 7185:1983. These two standards differed only in that the ISO standard included a "level 1" extension for conformant arrays (an array where the boundaries of the array are not known until run time), where ANSI did not allow for this extension to the original (Wirth version) language. In 1989, ISO 7185 was revised (...

    ISO/IEC 10206:1990 Extended Pascal

    In 1990, an extended Pascal standard was created as ISO/IEC 10206, which is identical in technical content to IEEE/ANSI 770X3.160-1989As of 2019, Support of Extended Pascal in FreePascalCompiler is planned.


    Niklaus Wirth's Zürich version of Pascal was issued outside ETHin two basic forms: the CDC 6000 compiler source, and a porting kit called Pascal-P system. The Pascal-P compiler left out several features of the full language that were not required to bootstrap the compiler. For example, procedures and functions used as parameters, undiscriminated variant records, packing, dispose, interprocedural gotos and other features of the full compiler were omitted. UCSD Pascal, under Professor Kenneth B...

    Pascal generated a wide variety of responses in the computing community, both critical and complimentary.

    Niklaus Wirth: The Programming Language Pascal. 35–63, Acta Informatica, Volume 1, 1971.
    C. A. R. Hoare: "Notes on data structuring". In O.-J. Dahl, E. W. Dijkstra and C. A. R. Hoare, editors, Structured Programming, pages 83–174. Academic Press, 1972.
    C. A. R. Hoare, Niklaus Wirth: An Axiomatic Definition of the Programming Language Pascal. 335–355, Acta Informatica, Volume 2, 1973.
    Kathleen Jensen and Niklaus Wirth: Pascal – User Manual and Report. Springer-Verlag, 1974, 1985, 1991, ISBN 0-387-97649-3 and ISBN 3-540-97649-3.
    • the values True or False
    • Wirth Pascal
  6. Vapor pressure (or vapour pressure in English-speaking countries other than the US; see spelling differences) or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an ...

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