The pascal is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus, and ultimate tensile strength. The unit, named after Blaise Pascal, is defined as one newton per square metre and is equivalent to 10 barye in the CGS system. The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere is defined as 101,325 Pa. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal, which is equal to one millibar, and the kilopascal, which is equal to one centibar. Meteorological o
The unit is named after Blaise Pascal, noted for his...
The pascal can be expressed using SI derived units, or...
- Standard units
The unit of measurement called an atmosphere or a standard...
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure or stress. It is a measure of perpendicular force per unit area i.e. equal to one newton per square meter. In everyday life, the pascal is maybe best known from meteorological air-pressure reports, where it happens in the form of hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa).
- Panglima Hitam
- National Special Operations Force
- Roles and Responsibilities
- Selection and Training
- Teams and Structure
- Notable Paskal Members
- in Popular Culture
The PASKAL was founded unofficially in 1977. It was originally known as the Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) Naval Commando Unit based in Woodland, Singapore; which was formerly known as HMS PELANDOK at Khatib Camp, Sembawang, Singapore. This unit is under the RMN Security Regiment Organisation (Malay: Organisasi Rejimen Keselamatan) which now known as the Navy Provos (Malay: Provos Tentera Laut; Protela). PASKAL has its origins in a perceived need for a security regiment trained in modern maritime operations. The unit's main purpose was the protection of Malaysia's naval bases and national assets. (At that time, the Royal Malaysian Navy; RMN main base was known as KD Malaya (Kapal Diraja Malaya; His Majesty's Ship Malaya), formerly known as HMS Malaya before independence, in Woodlands, Singapore, which was later transferred to the new naval base in Lumut, Perakwhen it was completed in 1979. The Security Regiment is largely composed of sailors responsible for the security of strategic sit...
On 15 April 2009, PASKAL Team Command (PTC) was officially named KD Panglima Hitam in a ceremony held at the Royal Malaysian Navy HQ in Lumut, Perak by the King of Malaysia, Yang di-Pertuan Agong Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidinto honour PASKAL's service. KD Panglima Hitam translates into English as HMS Black Knight, inspired by His Majesty Sultan of Selangor, Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Al Haj ibni Al Marhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al Haj as an honorary Navy Captain. A total of 34 names of sultans and 56 common names have been proposed to the RMN and were chosen: KD Panglima Hitam, KD Halilintar and the KD Maharaja Lela. Panglima Hitam is a traditional title awarded to proven warriors during the era of the various Malay Sultanates in Perak, Selangor and Johorereferring to a warrior skilled in fighting tactics. The symbolism of Panglima Hitam's history and myth remains emblematic, representing strength, military prowess and strategic sense.
In 2016, the main counter-terrorism operators in Malaysia were formed into one special operations task force. Few operators from PASKAL are selected to be part of the National Special Operations Force.
One of PASKAL's main roles is to launch offensive operations independently via sea, land and air in enemy-controlled areas. PASKAL operatives are trained to conduct maritime operations such as anti-piracy, ship and oil rig hijacking. The security of more than thirty offshore oil rigs in Malaysian waters are PASKAL's responsibility. The unit holds regular training exercises on each rig. Other PASKAL roles include securing beachheads, deep penetration reconnaissance raids, structure and underwater demolition and sabotage. PASKAL also handles in-harbour underwater sabotage, ship-boarding assault, Counter-Terrorist missions (CT), infiltrationbehind enemy lines and mine-clearing. Special joint training with army special units is conducted regularly on specialised skills like HALO and HAHOoverwater and overland parachute jumps. PASKAL detachments are stationed on sensitive Malaysian offshore stations, particularly on the Layang-Layang atoll, while other detachments are permanently staged...
As a Special Forcesunit, PASKAL's personnel are required to be mentally and physically agile. Every new trainee undergoes three months of the Basic Commando Course at the RMN's Lumut Naval Base. Applicants must be younger than 30 years old and healthy. They must complete and pass the Basic Commando Course before attending the Special Warfare Training Centre(SWTC; PULPAK) in Sungai Udang, Malacca to undergo basic parachute training. Next is the Advanced First Class training where they receive training in fields such as medic, communications, explosives and electrical–mechanical repair. They must pass a physical test every three months. Assignment to PASKAL is conditional on passing the PASKAL Physical Screening Test (PST). Prospective trainees are expected to exceed the minimums. Among other activities the PST consists of: 1. 7.8 km running in 24 minutes (below 24 years of age) 2. 1.5 km swimming in not more than 25 minutes (in a swimming pool) 3. 6.4 km swimming in open sea with ful...
Naval Special Operations Units
The manpower details of this unit are highly classified. It is believed to be a regiment divided into two operations units – KD PANGLIMA HITAM, PASKAL Unit Satu (PASKAL – Unit 1) based in the Lumut Naval Base in Perak on Peninsular Malaysia, and PASKAL Unit Dua (PASKAL – Unit 2) based at KD SRI SEMPORNA, a Naval Base in Semporna, Sabah. A company-strength (detachment) is based at Teluk Sepanggar Naval Base near Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
PASKAL organises itself operationally into squadrons of at least four companies (or platoons) each. Each company is in turn organised roughly along the lines of the US Green Berets'structure of Alpha, Bravo, Charlie and Delta Squadron. The smallest PASKAL unit is the Boat Troop, with seven men. Each PASKAL company consists of: Alpha Squadron 1. The Versatile Special Operations Force, mainly trained for Maritime Counter-terrorism and other rescue operations into cargo vessels and oil rigs as w...
Reddish Purple (Magenta) coloured beret
1. The magenta beret reflects PASKAL's identity and its close relationship with the Indonesian Marine Corps.
Navy blue lanyard
1. The navy blue lanyard reflects the Royal Malaysian Navy and possibly reflects their founding trainers, the British Royal Marines Commando.
1. The PASKAL camouflage uniform is identical to that worn by US Navy SEALs. It reflects the close relationship with this US Special Forcesunit from which PASKAL receives training.
The weaponry and equipment inventory is a confidential subject. PASKAL teams use equipment designed for a variety of specialist situations including close quarters combat (CQC), urban warfare, hostile maritime interdiction (VBSS/GOPLATS), long range target interdiction, jungle warfare and special reconnaissance. Nevertheless, amid rumours of financing from the consortium of oil and shipping companies in addition to ample financing from the navy, PASKAL's inventory currently includes some of the world's most advanced and sophisticated equipment. Voluntary contributions from the oil consortium and shipping companies ensures that PASKAL has sufficient means to procure specialised weapons and equipment including heavy body armour, ballistic shields, entry tools, tactical vehicles, advanced night vision optics, and motion detectors that are much more modern and sophisticated in comparison to the other special forces units in the Malaysian armed forces. All the weaponry and equipment was...Commodore Assoc. Prof. Dr. Haji Mohd Sutarji Bin Kasmin(now Admiral, retired) — first commanding officer of PASKAL, considered godfather of PASKALFirst Admiral Dato'Hj Saifudin Bin KamarudinFA Dato'Hj Jamaludin Bin Mohd Saman (Retired)
Books, televisions and movie. 1. 2018: "PASKAL The Movie", an action movie based on a true story about missions of UNIVEM II and Operations Dawn 8in Gulf of Aden. 2. 2019: "PASKAL 24 Jam", a TV reality show by Astro Gempak about the seven actors and social media celebrities joining the challenge to feel the real experience of training in the PASKAL camp non-stop for 24 hours with KD Panglima Hitam.
- See Also
The pascal can be expressed using SI derived units, or alternatively solely SI base units, as: Where N is the newton, m is the meter, kg is the kilogram, and sis the second.
Standard atmospheric pressure is 101325 Pa = 101.325 kPa = 1013.25 hPa = 1.01325 bar = 0.101325 MPa = 760 Torr = 14.696 psi. This definition is used for pneumatic fluid power (ISO R554), and in the aerospace (ISO 2533) and petroleum (ISO 5024) industries. In 1985 the IUPAC recommended that the standard for atmospheric pressure should be harmonized to 100,000 Pa = 1 bar = 750 Torr. The same definition is used in the compressor and the pneumatic tool industries (ISO 2787). The Unicode computer character set has dedicated symbols ㎩ (Template:U+) for Pa and ㎪ (Template:U+) for kPa, but these exist merely for backward-compatibility with some older ideographic character-sets and are therefore deprecated.
The pascal (Pa) or kilopascal (kPa) as a unit of pressure measurement is widely used throughout the world and has largely replaced the pounds per square inch (psi) unit, except in some countries that still use the Imperial measurement system. Tectonophysicistsuse the gigapascal (GPa) in measuring or calculating tectonic forces within the earth. In materials science, megapascals (MPa = N/mm2) or gigapascals (GPa = kN/mm2) are commonly used to measure stiffness or tensile strength of materials. Examples of (approximate) tensile modulus for several common substances include nylon at 2-4; hemp (fibre) at 58, aluminum at 69; tooth enamel at 83, copper at 117, steel at approximately 200 GPa, silkworm silk at 500, and diamondat 1220. The pascal is also equivalent to the SI unit of energy density, J/m3. This applies not only to the thermodynamics of pressurized gasses, but also to the energy density of electric, magnetic, and gravitationalfields. Other, older units of measure occasionally u...
The unit of atmospheric pressure (perhaps) should be the Galileo, not the hectopascal. Pascal didn't do much in the area of weighing the atmosphere. Millibar is the best term, though. Trudy June 28th, 2005 11:03 Z Is this a comment regarding the article? Markus Kuhn 17:00, 17 August 2005 (UTC) I'm with Markus.
Pascal (unit) Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas. Unit pascal (simbol: Pa) ialah satu unit terbitan SI bagi tekanan, tekanan dalaman, stres, modulus Young dan kekuatan tegangan yang dinamakan sempena ahli matematik, ahli fizik, pencipta, penulis dan ahli falsafah dari Perancis, Blaise Pascal. Ia adalah ukuran daya bagi setiap unit keluasan ...
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, designed by Niklaus Wirth as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honour of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal . Based on Wirth's book Algorithms ...