In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: Φρυγία) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey.The Phrygians (Phruges or Phryges) initially lived in the southern Balkans; according to Herodotus, under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phruges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
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The earliest mentionings of the Bryges are contained in the historical writings of Herodotus, who describes the assumed relation with the Phrygians by saying that, according to the Macedonians, the Bryges "changed their name" to Phryges after migrating into Anatolia, a movement which is thought to have happened between 1200 BC and 800 BC perhaps due to the Bronze Age collapse, particularly the fall of the Hittite Empire and the power vacuum that was created. In the Balkans, the Bryges occupied central Albania and northern Epirus, as well as Macedonia, mainly west of the Axios river, but also Mygdonia, which was conquered by the kingdom of Macedon in the early 5th century BC; they seem to have lived peacefully next to the inhabitants of Macedonia, however, Eugammon in his Telegony, drawing upon earlier epic traditions, mentions that Odysseus commanded the Epirotian Thesprotians against the Bryges. Small groups of Bryges, after the migration to Anatolia and the expan...
There is no certain derivation for the name and tribal origin of the Bryges. In 1844, Hermann Müller suggested the name might be related to the same Indo-European root as that of to German Berg (mountain) and Slavic breg (hill, slope, mountain), i.e. IE *bʰerǵʰ. It would then be cognate with Western European tribal names such as the Celtic Brigantes and the Germanic Burgundians, and semantically motivated by some aspect of the word meanings 'high, elevated, noble, illustrious'.
Koine is also the language of the Christian New Testament, of the Septuagint (the 3rd-century BC Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible ), and of most early Christian theological writing by the Church Fathers. In this context, Koine Greek is also known as "Biblical", "New Testament", "ecclesiastical" or "patristic" Greek.
Je m'y suis spécialisée en Espagnol où j'y ai également suivi l'option Grec Ancien et une initiation au droit. According to Old Greek sources, Armenian has Phrygian origins. Selon les sources anciennes grecques l'arménien dérive de la langue phrygienne. Georgius comes from Old Greek and means 'farmer'. Georges provient du grec et signifie ...
Hatti, Hittite and Phrygian periods. The oldest settlements in and around the city center of Ankara belong to the Hatti civilization which thrived during the Bronze Age.The city significantly grew in size and importance under the Phrygians starting from around 1000 BC, experiencing a large expansion following the mass migration from Gordion, the capital of Phrygia, after an earthquake which ...
Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres. Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. Les lettres doivent être adjacentes et les mots les plus longs sont les meilleurs.
- Hesychius Glossary
- Macedonian in Classical Sources
- Contributions to The Koine
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Due to the fragmentary attestation various interpretations are possible. Suggested phylogenetic classifications of Macedonian include: 1. An Indo-European language which is a close cousin to Greek and also related to Thracian and Phrygian languages, suggested by A. Meillet (1913) and I. I. Russu (1938), or part of a Sprachbund encompassing Thracian, Illyrian and Greek (Kretschmer 1896, E. Schwyzer1959). 2. An Illyrian dialect mixed with Greek, suggested by K. O. Müller (1825) and by G. Bonfante(1987). 3. A Greek dialect, part of the North-Western (Locrian, Aetolian, Phocidian, Epirote) variants of Doric Greek, suggested amongst others by N.G.L. Hammond (1989) Olivier Masson (1996) and Michael Meier-Brügger (2003). 4. A northern Greek dialect, related to Aeolic Greek and Thessalian, suggested among others by A.Fick (1874) and O.Hoffmann (1906). 5. A Greek dialect with a non-Indo-European substratalinfluence, suggested by M. Sakellariou (1983). 6. A sibling la...
From the few words that survive, only a little can be said about the language. A notable sound-law is that the Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirates (/bʰ, dʰ, gʰ/) appear as voiced stops /b, d, g/, (written β, δ, γ), in contrast to all known Greek dialects, which have unvoiced them to /pʰ, tʰ, kʰ/ (φ, θ, χ) with few exceptions. 1. Macedonian δάνος dánοs ('death', from PIE *dhenh2- 'to leave'), compare Attic θάνος thános 2. Macedonian ἀβροῦτες abroûtes or ἀβροῦϜες abroûwes as opposed to Attic ὀφρῦς ophrûsfor 'eyebrows' 3. Macedonian Βερενίκη Bereníkē versus Attic Φερενίκη Phereníkē, 'bearing victory' 4. Macedonian ἄδραια adraia ('bright weather'), compare Attic αἰθρία aithría, from PIE *h2aidh- 5. Macedonian βάσκιοι báskioi ('fasces'), Attic φάσκωλος pháskōlos 'leather sack', from PIE *bhasko 6. According to Herodotus 7.73 (ca. 440 BC), the Macedonians claimed that the Phryges were called Brygoi before they migrated from Thrace to Anatolia(around 8th–7th century B...
M. Hatzopoulos summarizes the Macedonian anthroponymy (that is names borne by people from Macedonia before the expansion beyond the Axius or people undoubtedly hailing from this area after the expansion) as follows: 1. Epichoric Greek names that either differ from the phonology of the introduced Attic or that remained almost confined to Macedonians throughout antiquity 2. Panhellenic Greek names 3. Identifiable non-Greek (Thracian, Illyrian and "native" – that is names generally confined...
The toponyms of Macedonia proper are generally Greek, though some of them show a particular Macedonian phonology that might set them apart and a few others are non-Greek.
The Macedonian names of about half or more of the months of the ancient Macedonian calendar have a clear and generally accepted Greek etymology (e.g. Dios, Apellaios, Artemisios, Loos, Daisios), though some of the remaining ones have sometimes been considered to be Greek but showing a particular Macedonian phonology (e.g. Audunaios has been connected to "Haides" *A-widand Gorpiaios/Garpiaios to "karpos" fruit).
Macedonian onomastics: the earliest epigraphical documents attesting substantial numbers of Macedonian proper names are the second Athenian alliance decree with Perdiccas II (~417-413 BC), the decree of Kalindoia,~335-300 BC) and seven curse tablets of the 4th c. BC bearing mostly names. The Pella curse tablet, a text written in a distinct Doric Greek dialect, found in 1986 and dated to between mid to early 4th century BC, has been forwarded as an argument that the ancient Macedonian language was a dialect of North-Western Greek, part of the Doric dialects.
A body of words has been assembled from ancient sources, mainly from coin inscriptions, and from the 5th century lexicon of Hesychius of Alexandria, amounting to about 150 words and 200 proper names, though the number of considered words sometimes differs from scholar to scholar. The majority of these words can be confidently assigned to Greek albeit some words would appear to reflect a dialectal form of Greek. There are, however, a number of words that are not easily identifiable as Greek and reveal, for example, voiced stops where Greek shows voiceless aspirates. 1. ἄβαγνα abagna 'roses amaranta (unwithered)' (Attic ῥόδα rhoda, Aeolic βρόδα broda roses). (LSJ: amarantos unfading. Amaranth flower. (Aeolic ἄβα aba 'youthful prime' + ἁγνός hagnos 'pure, chaste, unsullied) or epithet aphagna from aphagnizo 'purify'. If abagnon is the proper name for rhodon rose, then it is cognate to Persian bāġ, 'garden', Gothic bagms 'tree' and Greek bakanon 'cabbage-seed'. Finally, a Phrygi...
Among the references that have been discussed as possibly bearing some witness to the linguistic situation in Macedonia, there is a sentence from a fragmentary dialogue, apparently between an Athenian and a Macedonian, in an extant fragment of the 5th century BC comedy 'Macedonians' by the Athenian poet Strattis (fr. 28), where a stranger is portrayed as speaking in a rural Greek dialect. His language contains expressions such as ὕμμες ὡττικοί for ὑμείς αττικοί "you Athenians", ὕμμες being also attested in Homer, Sappho (Lesbian) and Theocritus (Doric), while ὡττικοί appears only in "funny country bumpkin" contexts of Attic comedy. Another text that has been quoted as evidence is a passage from Livy (lived 59 BC-14 AD) in his Ab urbe condita (31.29). Describing political negotiations between Macedonians and Aetolians in the late 3rd century BC, Livy has a Macedonian ambassador argue that Aetolians, Acarnanians and Macedonians were "men of the same language". This has been in...
Despite the Macedonians' important role in the formation of the Koine, Macedonian itself contributed few elements to the dialect, such as military terminology (διμοιρίτης, ταξίαρχος, ὑπασπισταί etc.) and, possibly, the suffix "-issa" which became productive in Medieval Greek. Today, the classification of the language and its relation to Ancient Greek is been recruited to the modern Macedonia Naming Dispute. According to Eugene Borza, classification is difficult, as it is known from only a few fragmentary surviving attestations, mainly in glosses and proper names.Brixhe C., Panayotou A. (1994) Le Macédonien in Bader, F. (ed.) Langues indo-européennes, Paris:CNRS éditions, 1994, pp 205–220. ISBN 2-271-05043-XCrossland, R. A., "The Language of the Macedonians", CAH III.1, Cambridge 1982
- Origines et Classification
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L'origine de cette langue reste mystérieuse. Des propositions ont été faites pour relier le bourouchaski au sumérien, au basque, ainsi qu'aux familles caucasienne et dravidienne ; aucune n'a cependant réussi à faire l'unanimité des linguistes. C'est sans doute parce que la parenté à rechercher doit l'être sur une échelle plus vaste qu'une seule famille linguistique comme le pense le bascologue et comparatiste Michel Morvan. Une théorie soutient que lors de l'expansion de son empire, Alexandre le Grand aurait donné l'ordre à ses troupes d'établir un camp dans la région de Hunza, il semblerait que certains mots aient une racine commune avec l'ancien macédonien, ce qui expliquerait pourquoi il existe deux dialectes bourouchaskis[réf. nécessaire]. Récemment, un rapprochement a été proposé entre le bourouchaski et les langues ienisseïennes. Il est parfois décrit comme un « chaînon intermédiaire entre caucasien et paléo-asiatique ». Le bourouchaski est une langue ergative de type SO...
Le bourouchaski utilise 34 consonnes et 5 voyelles. Ces dernières ( /a, e, i, o, u/ ) peuvent être longues ou brèves, avec des variantes supplémentaires pour les voyelles longues.
Le bourouchaski distingue morphologiquement quatre classes nominales, la logique de la répartition des noms entre ces classes étant dans l'ensemble plutôt respectée : 1. êtres humains masculins 2. êtres humains féminins 3. animaux et objets comptables 4. noms non-comptables et concepts abstraits Il existerait (selon Dick Grune) quatre nombres : singulier, pluriel, indéfini (comme en basquepar exemple) et collectif, la forme collective pouvant se mettre au pluriel (« double pluriel »). Toutefo...
Les pronoms personnels
A la troisième personne (singulier et pluriel), il existe 4 formes pronominales, correspondant aux 4 classes nominales ; de plus, il existe pour chacun d'entre eux une forme exprimant la proximité et une autre l'éloignement. Au cas oblique, on trouve en outre une forme courte pour chaque personne.
La morphologie verbale du bourouchaski est très complexe. Elle tient compte des catégories suivantes: 1. aspect-temps(présent, futur, imparfait, parfait, plus-que-parfait) 2. mode (conditionnel, 3 optatifs, impératif, conatif) 3. nombre(singulier, pluriel) 4. personne (1re, 2e, 3e) 5. classe nominale (les 4 classes décrites plus haut ; à la 3epersonne seulement) et possède un système à 11 positions possibles (slots), ces positions ne pouvant toutefois être toutes occupées dans une même...
1. linguistique 1.1. liste de langues 1.1.1. langues par famille
1. (en) Présentation du bourouchaski par Dick Grune (1998) 2. (de) Présentation par le professeur Ernst Kausen (2005) 3. (en) Fiche langue dans Ethnologue.com 1. Portail des langues
- List of Letters
- Digraphs and Diphthongs
- Use of The Greek Script For Other Languages
- Derived Alphabets
- Greek in Mathematics
- Greek Encodings
- Further Reading
In its classical and modern form, the Greek alphabet contains 24 letters. They are named, in order, as follows: alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, eta, theta, iota, kappa, lambda, mu, nu, xi, omicron, pi, rho, sigma, tau, upsilon, phi, chi, psi, omega. The 24 capital letters (upper-case symbols) are: Α, Β, Γ, Δ, Ε, Ζ, Η, Θ, Ι, Κ, Λ, Μ, Ν, Ξ, Ο, Π, Ρ, Σ, Τ, Υ, Φ, Χ, Ψ, Ω. The 24 minuscule symbols (lower-case letters) of the Greek alphabet (in order) are: α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ, η, θ, ι, κ, λ, μ, ν, ξ, ο, π, ρ, σ (ς), τ, υ, φ, χ, ψ, ω. Before the 24-letter alphabet, three of the original Phoenician letters had been in use before the alphabet took its classical shape: the letter Ϻ (san), similar to Σ (sigma) denoting the same phoneme /s/; the letter Ϙ (qoppa), which was redundant with Κ (kappa) for /k/; and Ϝ (digamma), whose sound value was /w/. A system of diacritics on some letters was added during the Hellenistic period. Today the diacritics exist in two orthographic variants: the...
The Greek alphabet emerged in the late 9th century BC or early 8th century BC Another, unrelated writing system, Linear B, had been in use to write the Greek language during the earlier Mycenean period, but the two systems are separated from each other by a hiatus of several centuries, the so-called Greek Dark Ages. The Greeks adopted the alphabet from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, a member of the family of closely related West Semitic scripts. The most notable change made in adapting the Phoenician system to Greek was the introduction of vowel letters. According to a definition used by some modern authors, this feature makes Greek the first "alphabet" in the narrow sense, as distinguished from the purely consonantal alphabets of the Semitic type, which according to this terminology are called "abjads". Greek initially took over all of the 22 letters of Phoenician. Five of them were reassigned to denote vowel sounds: the glide consonants /j/ (yodh) and /w/ (waw) were use...
Below is a table listing the Greek letters, as well as their forms when romanized. The table also provides the equivalent Phoenician letter from which each Greek letter is derived. Pronunciations transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet. The classical pronunciation given below is the reconstructed pronunciation of Attic in the late 5th and early 4th century BC. Some of the letters had different pronunciations in pre-classical times or in non-Attic dialects. For details, see History of the Greek alphabet and Ancient Greek phonology. For details on post-classical Ancient Greek pronunciation, see Koine Greek phonology. 1. For details and different transliteration systems see Romanization of Greek.
A digraph is a pair of letters used to write one sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters in sequence. The orthography of Greek includes several digraphs, including various pairs of vowel letters that used to be pronounced as diphthongs but have been shortened to monophthongs in pronunciation. Many of these are characteristic developments of modern Greek, but some, such as ΟΥ (pronounced [oː], then [uː]) and ΕΙ (pronounced [eː], then [iː]), were already present in Classical Greek. None of them are regarded as a letter of the alphabet. During the Byzantine period, it became customary to write the silent iota in digraphs as an iota subscript (ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ).
In the polytonic orthography traditionally used for ancient Greek, vowels can carry diacritics, namely accents and breathings. The accents are the acute accent (ά), the grave accent (ὰ), and the circumflex accent (α̃ or α̑). In Ancient Greek, these accents marked different forms of the pitch accent on a vowel. By the end of the Roman period, pitch accent had evolved into a stress accent, and in later Greek all of these accents marked the stressed vowel. The breathings are the rough breathing (ἁ), marking an /h/ sound at the beginning of a word, and the smooth breathing (ἀ), marking its absence. The letter rho (ρ), although not a vowel, always carries a rough breathing when it begins a word. Another diacritic used in Greek is the diaeresis (¨), indicating a hiatus. In 1982, the old spelling system, known as polytonic, was simplified to become the monotonic system, which is now official in Greece. The accents have been reduced to one, the tonos, and the breathings were abolished.
The Greek alphabet has been adopted at various times and in various places to write other languages.For some languages, additional letters were introduced.
The Greek alphabet gave rise to various others: 1. The Latin alphabet, an offshoot of an archaic western formof the Greek alphabet 2. The Gothic alphabet, devised in Late Antiquity to write the Gothic language 3. The Glagolitic alphabet, devised in the Middle Ages for writing Slavic languages 4. The Cyrillic script, which replaced the Glagolitic alphabet shortly afterwards 5. The International Phonetic Alphabetcontains many Latin and Greek letters. It is also considered a possible ancestor of the Armenian alphabet, and had an influence on the development of the Georgian alphabet.
Greek symbols are traditionally used as names in mathematics, physics and other sciences. Many symbols have traditional uses, such as lower case epsilon (ε) for an arbitrarily small positive number, lower case pi (π) for the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, capital sigma (Σ) for summation, and lower case sigma (σ) for standard deviation.
For the usage in computers, a variety of encodings have been used for Greek online, many of them documented in RFC 1947. The two principal ones still used today are ISO/IEC 8859-7 and Unicode. ISO 8859-7 supports only the monotonic orthography; Unicode supports the polytonic orthography.Hansen and Quinn (1992). Greek - An Intensive Course, Second Revised Edition. Fordham University Press.- especially noted for an excellent discussion on traditional accents and breathings, as well...Humez, Alexander; Nicholas Humez (1981). Alpha to omega: the life & times of the Greek alphabet. Godine. ISBN 0-87923-377-X.— A popular history, more about Greek roots in English than about the alp...Jeffery, Lilian Hamilton (1961). The local scripts of archaic Greece: a study of the origin of the Greek alphabet and its development from the eighth to the fifth centuries B.C.. Oxford University...Macrakis, Michael S. (ed.) (1996). Greek letters: from tablets to pixels. [proceedings of an international symposium held at the Institut Français d'Athènes, Athens, June 7–10, 1995 / Greek Font So...
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