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  1. The Phrygian language (/ˈfrɪdʒiən/) was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, spoken in Anatolia (modern Turkey), during classical antiquity (c. 8th century BC to 5th century AD).

  2. Phrygians | Article about Phrygians by The Free Dictionary

    Phrygian. the language of the Phrygians. Phrygian is attested by inscriptions from Asia Minor that correspond to two separate time periods and by glosses from the works of Greek and Roman authors. Old Phrygian texts, represented by 78 inscriptions, occur on temples and pottery (graffiti) and date from the eighth to fifth centuries B.C.

  3. Slavs - Wikipedia

    Slavs are ethnolinguistic groups of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European language family.They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe all the way north and eastwards to Northeast Europe, Northern Asia and Central Asia (especially Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan), as well as ...

  4. Sibyl - Wikipedia

    The English word sibyl (/ ˈ s ɪ b əl / or /ˈsɪbɪl/) comes—via the Old French sibile and the Latin sibylla—from the ancient Greek Σίβυλλα (Sibulla). Varro derived the name from theobule ("divine counsel"), but modern philologists mostly propose an Old Italic [3] or alternatively a Semitic etymology.

  5. Paeonians - Wikipedia

    Mysian was possibly a member of the Anatolian branch in the Indo-European language family or a member of the Armeno-Phrygian languages (languages of the Bryges, Phrygians, Western and Eastern Mushki and ancient Armenians), another branch of the Indo-European languages, possibly more closely related to the Hellenic branch (Greek and Ancient Macedonian languages).

  6. Tuwana - Wikipedia

    Tuwana. in Trevor Bryce, The Routledge Handbook of The People and Places of Ancient Western Asia. The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the fall of the Persians Empire. Routledge, Abingdon 2009, ISBN 978-1-134-15908-6, p. 726 (on Google Books).

  7. Translation of the Phrygian language - Maravot

    While linguists have identified the Phrygian language as Luwian, related to Hittite, my work on the Phrygian grammar shows that it is more closely related to Latin. Linguists believe that Celtic and Latin were once one branch of the Indo-European languages.

  8. Siguiriyas - Wikipedia

    Siguiriyas (Spanish pronunciation: [seɣiˈɾiʝas]; also seguiriyas, siguerillas, siguirillas, seguidilla gitana, etc.) is a form of flamenco music belonging to the cante jondo category. Its deep, expressive style is among the most important in flamenco.

  9. Phrygians, ancestors of the Kurds | COGNIARCHAE
    • Do Kurds Have European Gens?
    • Kurdish and Balkan Gorani
    • Phrygian Migrations
    • Kurds, People from Gordium?

    One thing that grabbed my attention, and made me research more on Kurdish origins is the fact that Kurds seem to have an extremely high percentage of haplogroup I2 (20%). This is a haplogroup characteristic for Southern Europe. Here is the data from This haplogroup is Mesolithic and belongs to ancient Europeans. Its current distribution looks like this: Even though its epicenter is in the countries of ex-Yugoslavia and Sardinia, there is a certain presence of I2 haplogroup in northern parts of Turkey. However, this percentage gets “watered down” in the statistics of the whole country. Turkey in total ends up with only an insignificant 4% of I2a1.

    The presence of I2 in Turkey has to be a result of some ancient migration. I found a possible clue in one of the Kurdish groups called Gorani. According to Wikipedia, their name comes from the Avestan *gairi – mountain. But there is another group of people with the same name living in Balkans. They are located within the triangle between Albania, Kosovo, and Macedonia. For this “Balkan”Gorani, the Wikipedia also says: “highlanders, from the Slavic *gora – hill, mountain“ A strange coincidence? The next step was to look at the Kurdish dictionaries available online. Sure enough, I was able to notice many similarities with Balkan languages. A common Indo-European origin can explain these connections to some extent, but not in all cases. For example, the pronoun “I” is “Az” in Kurdish, and the only existing parallel survives in modern Bulgarian “Az”, and somewhat Macedonian “Jas”. Origins of this word are Thracian – and Thracians were ancient people of Balkans whose dominant haplogroup...

    The question is, is there any historical evidence of the ancient migration of the Balkan population to this part of the world. And the answer is yes. It appears already in the 5th century BC writings of Herodotus (Hdt. 7.73). He claims that Phrygians were the neighbors of the Macedonians in the Balkans and that their name was “Briges”. They changed it to Phrygians after they migrated to Asia. Herodotus believed that Phrygians were once neighbors of Macedonians, just like the Balkan Gorani people are today. He also states that they were called “Brigi”. This word may be related to the word “breg”, meaning hill – just another synonym for the word “gora”. Truth be told, there are historians who support this claim of Herodotus, as well as those who oppose it. But it is interesting that the map of ancient Phrygia matches almost perfectly a current distribution of I2 in Turkey, pictured above. And not only that, as we can see in the article on the Phrygian language, a famous Phrygian word...

    Well, to me this seems like a pretty good reason for migration. But can we really relate it to Kurds? Maybe we can. It is hypothesized that the word “Kurd” could originate from the Persian word “gord”, because the Arabic script lacks a symbol corresponding uniquely to g (گ). In this case, Kurds would simply be “people from Gordium”. Moreover, some theories also relate the etymology to toponym Corduene, (also written as “Gordyene”) mentioned by Xenophon. This time Gordyene appears right on the territory of Armenia. In other words, it is matching the account of Herodotus. This is also the general area where Kurds are present today. Map of the Armenian Empire of Tigranes Could it be just a coincidence that Gordium fell in 696 BC, while Kurds take 612 BC as the birth of their nation? Also, Kurds relate themselves to people known as Mitanni. Midas was the name of at least three Phrygian kings, including the last one. (in Assyrian sources spelled Mita). So there you go. Phrygian migration...

  10. Cyaxares - Wikipedia

    Cyaxares was born in the Median capital of Ecbatana.His father Phraortes was killed in a battle against the Assyrians, led by Ashurbanipal, the king of Assyria.After Phraortes' demise, the Scythians overran Media and controlled the area for a period of twenty-eight years.

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