e. The Phrygian language ( / ˈfrɪdʒiən /) was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, spoken in Anatolia (modern Turkey ), during classical antiquity (c. 8th century BC to 5th century AD). Plato observed that some Phrygian words resembled Greek ones. Modern consensus views Phrygian to be closely related to Greek.
Phrygian is part of the centum group of Indo-European languages. However, between the 19th and the first half of the 20th century Phrygian was mostly considered a satəm language, and thus closer to Armenian and Thracian, while today it is commonly considered to be a centum language and thus closer to Greek.
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The Phrygians spoke an Indo-European language. (See Phrygian language.) Although the Phrygians adopted the alphabet originated by the Phoenicians, only a few dozen inscriptions in the Phrygian language have been found, primarily funereal, and so much of what is thought to be known of Phrygia is second-hand information from Greek sources.
- Discovery and Decipherment
- Phrygian Poetry
- See Also
Ancient authors like Herodotus and Hesychius have provided us with a few dozen words assumed to be Phrygian, so-called glosses. In modern times the first monument with a Phrygian text, found at Ortaköy (classical Orcistus), was described in 1752. In 1800 at Yazılıkaya (classical Nakoleia) two more inscriptions were discovered. On one of them the word ΜΙΔΑΙ, 'to Midas', could be read, which prompted the idea that they were part of a building, possibly the grave, of the legendary Phrygian king Midas. Later, when Western Orientalists and Bible scholars began to travel through Anatolia to become acquainted with the geographical background of Homer's world and the New Testament, more monuments were discovered. By 1862 sixteen Phrygian inscriptions were known, among them a few Greek-Phrygian bilinguals. This allowed German scholar Andreas David Mordtmann to undertake the first serious attempt to decipher the script, though he overstressed the parallels of Phrygian to Armenian, which led t...
Phrygian is a member of the Indo-European linguistic family, but because of the fragmentary evidence, its exact position within that family is uncertain. Phrygian shares important features with Greek and Armenian. Between the 19th and the first half of the 20th century Phrygian was mostly considered a satəm language, and thus closer to Armenian and Thracian, while today it is commonly considered to be a centum language and thus closer to Greek. The reason that in the past Phrygian had the guise of a satəm language was due to two secondary processes that affected it. Namely, Phrygian merged the old labiovelar with the plain velar, and secondly, when in contact with palatal vowels /e/ and /i/, especially in initial position, some consonants became palatalized. Furthermore, Kortlandt (1988) presented common sound changes of Thracian and Armenian and their separation from Phrygian and the rest of the palaeo-Balkan languagesfrom an early stage. Modern consensus views Greek as the closest...
The Phrygian epigraphical material is divided into two distinct subcorpora, Old Phrygian and New Phrygian. These attest different stages of the Phrygian language; are written with different alphabets and upon different materials; and have different geographical distributions. Old Phrygian is attested in 395 inscriptions in Anatolia and beyond. They were written in the Phrygian alphabet between 800 and 330 BCE. The Corpus des inscriptions paléo-phrygiennes (CIPPh) and its supplements contain most known Old Phrygian inscriptions, though a few graffiti are not included. The oldest inscriptions - mid-8th century BCE - have been found on silver, bronze, and alabaster objects in tumuli (grave mounds) at Gordion (Yassıhüyük, the so-called "Midas Mound") and Bayındır (East Lycia). New Phrygian is attested in 117 funerary inscriptions, mostly curses against desecrators added after a Greek epitaph. New Phrygian was written in the Greek alphabet between the 1st and 3rd centuries CE and is rest...
From ca. 800 till 300 BCE Phrygians used the Old-Phrygian alphabet of nineteen letters derived from the Phoenician alphabet. This script was usually written from left to right ("dextroverse"). The signs of this script are: About 15 percent of the inscriptions are written from right to left ("sinistroverse"), like Phoenician; in those cases the signs are drawn mirrored: ... etc. instead of BΓ.... A few dozen inscriptions are written in alternating directions (boustrophedon). From ca. 300 BCE this script was replaced by the Greek alphabet. A single inscription dates from ca. 300 BCE (sometimes called "Middle-Phrygian"), all other texts are much later, from the 1st till 3rd centuries CE (New-Phrygian). The Greek letters Θ, Ξ, Φ, Χ, and Ψ were rarely used — mainly for Greek names and loanwords (Κλευμαχοι, to Kleomakhos; θαλαμει, funerary chamber).
It has long been claimed that Phrygian exhibits a sound change of stop consonants, similar to Grimm's Law in Germanic and, more to the point, sound laws found in Proto-Armenian; i.e., voicing of PIE aspirates, devoicing of PIE voiced stops and aspiration of voiceless stops. This hypothesis was rejected by Lejeune (1979) and Brixhe (1984) but revived by Lubotsky (2004) and Woodhouse (2006), who argue that there is evidence of a partial shift of obstruent series; i.e., voicing of PIE aspirates (*bʱ > b) and devoicing of PIE voiced stops (*d > t). The affricates ts and dz may have developed from velars before front vowels.
The grammatical structure of Phrygian, what can be recovered of it, was typically Indo-European. Declensions and verbal conjugations are strikingly similar to ancient Greek.
Phrygian is attested fragmentarily, known only from a comparatively small corpus of inscriptions. A few hundred Phrygian words are attested; however, the meaning and etymologies of many of these remain unknown. A famous Phrygian word is bekos, meaning 'bread'. According to Herodotus (Histories 2.2) Pharaoh Psammetichus I wanted to determine the oldest nation and establish the world's original language. For this purpose, he ordered two children to be reared by a shepherd, forbidding him to let them hear a single word, and charging him to report the children's first utterance. After two years, the shepherd reported that on entering their chamber, the children came up to him, extending their hands, calling bekos. Upon enquiry, the pharaoh discovered that this was the Phrygian word for 'wheat bread', after which the Egyptians conceded that the Phrygian nation was older than theirs. The word bekos is also attested several times in Palaeo-Phrygian inscriptions on funerary stelae. It may b...
Phrygian poetry is rare. The only examples date from after Alexander the Great's conquest of Asia Minor (334 BCE), and they probably originated in imitation of Greek metrical epitaphs. The clearest example is the so-called "Middle Phrygian" inscription mentioned above, which consists of six dactylic hexameter lines. Also, as Lubotsky has proposed, the traditional Phrygian damnation formula on grave monuments may have been slightly reformulated to fit into a two-line hexametric shape (the stress accents, or ictus, on the first syllable of each dactylusare in boldface): 1. ιος νι σε μουν κνουμα νει κακουν αδδακετ αινι τε αμας 2. με ζεμε λως κε δε ως κε Τι η τιτε τικμενος ειτου. 2.1. Whoever to this tomb harm does, or to the grave, 2.2. among humans and gods by Zeus accursed let him be. Alliteration ('b-, b-, b-') may be intended in a peculiar clause found on two New-Phrygian grave monuments from Erten (near Yazılıkaya) and Güney: 1. [ If someone damages this grave, then...] 2. ... Βας...Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2.Obrador-Cursach, Bartomeu (2018). Lexicon of the Phrygian Inscriptions (PDF). University of Barcelona - Faculty of Philology - Department of Classical, Romance and Semitic Philology.Obrador-Cursach, Bartomeu (9 April 2020). "On the place of Phrygian among the Indo-European languages". Journal of Language Relationship. 17 (3–4). doi:10.31826/jlr-2019-173-407. S2CID 215769896.Woodhouse, Robert (2009). "An overview of research on Phrygian from the nineteenth century to the present day". Studia Linguistica Universitatis Iagellonicae Cracoviensis. 126 (1). ISSN 2083-4624.
- Phrygian Sentences
- Ent Changes by 18.104.22.168
- Removed Unsourced Matterial
- Vocabulary List
There is no mention yet of its centum or satem classification (which from what I remember is still debated). I know that Greek chamai ("on the earth") has a Phrygian cognate beginning with 'z' (zama or something, don't remember), and there is also zamelon (slave; meaning "earth-bound" roughly; if that's the right spelling). Decius00:56, 23 Mar 2005 (UTC)
What are we saying regarding the relation of Phrygian and Armenian? Sadly, not enough of Phrygian is known to be sure, and Armenian made some weird changes, between 600 BC and 400 AD. But Phrygian may be, as it were, the missing link between Greek and Armenian. I am particularly intrigued by the gunai(k)- stem. In Armenian gunay-k, the k is a desinence, while in Greek/Phrygian it is completely irregular. dab (ᛏ)28 June 2005 07:09 (UTC) 1. The article continues to state "Ancient historians and myth did associate it with Thracian and maybe Armenian, on grounds of classical sources.". What assiociation was made by "ancient historians" of connections with Thracian, and, especially, with Armenian? I avoid applying those little tags, but this does need a source. --Wetman01:07, 20 September 2006 (UTC)
Okay, I admit I am not aware of any ancient record that records that Phrygians migrated from Thrace around 1200 BC---what record is this? Is this merely from a classical author? I'm aware that some classical sources (namely, Herodotus) indicate such a migration, but I don't know of any non-Greek record that does.Decius2 July 2005 09:23 (UTC) 1. I think it's generally accepted as probable, although no definite proof exists, of course. We could mention that the assuption is that the immigration was connected with the repercussions of the collapse of the Hittite Empire (it's always the same, as soon as an empire collapses, neighboring barbarians immigrate/invade) dab (ᛏ)2 July 2005 09:32 (UTC) Yeah, I think the Phrygians did migrate from Thrace ca 1200 BC, but we should leave the question more open in the article, unless conclusive evidence exists. Decius2 July 2005 09:36 (UTC) 1. sure, I'm fine with "probably". dab (ᛏ)2 July 2005 09:38 (UTC) I'm trying to go back to the records themse...
no, no 'Mysian' is a purely geographical term here, since that's where these inscriptions were found, they are still Phrygian, just in another dialect, "Mysian Phrygian", if you like. dab (ᛏ)9 July 2005 13:00 (UTC) Thanks for the disambig, I didn't know whether scholars were claiming geographically Mysian or ethnically Mysian. Herodotus was probably right then. Decius9 July 2005 13:05 (UTC)
Next thing to do would be to add some (transliterated) Phrygian sentences into the article. I'm going to dig through Lubotsky and find something. Decius19:53, 13 July 2005 (UTC) I'm going to place some Phrygian sentences here as I decide which to include: 1. 1.1. 1.1.1. Pinke (five) tas (those) dakeres (parts) onomaniais (named) mirou (in the monument) ik (for the) knaiken (wife) edaes(made).---"He has made those five parts named in the monument for the wife." 1. 1.1. 1.1.1. Ios ni semon knoumane kakon daket aini manka.-----"Whoever may afflict harm to this grave or stele." Phrygian kakon (harm) pretty much identical to Ancient Greek kakôn (ill, evil). Aini means 'or, and'. Knoumane means "grave", daket means "does" (PIE *dhe-, 'to set, put'), manka means stele. Etc. 1. 1.1. 1.1.1. Dakaren paterais eukin argou.-----"The parents have erected because of a vow." Dakaren because, since. Decius...
Albanian bukë 'bread; meal, meal-time' was listed as a cognate for Phrygian bekos 'bread', but the Albanian word is a borrowing from Latin bucca 'cheek'. so, i have removed it. i also added a large number of cognates for the words in the short glossary.Flibjib802:30, 7 August 2006 (UTC)
These changes by 22.214.171.124 look destructive and there is no discussion on the talk page that suggests why these changes are happening. John Vandenberg23:27, 31 January 2007 (UTC) 1. They are made by a sockpuppet of an indef blocked user: see User:Ararat_arev.--Ευπάτωρ Talk!!23:28, 31 January 2007 (UTC)
Herodotus only mentioned that the Phrygians originated from Thrace and moved in Asia Minor. He also mentioned that the Armenians were Phrygians colonists. And that is already mentioned! The paragraph that the "In the Herodotus' History they are known to live together with the ancient Macedonian population." is not cited and I don’t personally know such a paragraph! Can someone provide more information? Till then I temporarily removing itSeleukosa12:45, 22 September 2007 (UTC) Further more the Phrygians were people of Asia Minor. They were not people of the Balkan Peninsula! Herodotus mention that the Asia Minor Phrygians were of Thrace origin but that doesn’t make the Phrygians "people of the Balkan Peninsula".Was known and it is already mentioned in the article is that the Phrygians, according to Herodotus were of Thracian descent. And that is all that it should be mentioned.12:59, 22 September 2007 (UTC)
Is the Phrygian word attagos perhaps related to the Greek word for goat — aíx (αἴξ), aigós (αἰγός)? Hspstudent (talk) 18:31, 30 November 2009 (UTC) 1. I am not an expert or anything, but I would guess it is. --15lsoucy (talk) 22:26, 30 November 2009 (UTC) I'm afraid that on this word there are distant if not irrelevant examples. How come as 15lsoucy said αιγός (aigós) is not included? In Greek you have also τράγος (tragos) which is the male goat. Instead we have Ziege (German), dhi (Albanian) and dec (Ishkashmi)?!?!?!?! --fkitselis —Preceding undatedcomment added 13:22, 16 February 2010 (UTC).
cut from article:(snip) first, this list is unreferenced, inviting the clueless to add random oter entries, which means we end up with a contaminated list where some entries are valid and others aren't Second, what's with the listing of random IE cognates? I can understand Greek and Armenian cognates, to illustrate the proximity of Phrygian to these languages, but why would anyone list Persian or Latin, let alone Albanian or Romanian?? Third, it isn't usual to grace languages articles with "lists of words". Wikipedia articles aren't dictionaries. Those of the above entries that can be substantiated with a reference should be transwikied to wiktionary. --dab (𒁳)06:43, 13 April 2010 (UTC) Dab, if you give me some time I could give dig up exact references for all the words. I've got the analysis for many Phrygian inscriptions published by various scholars on the field. It is pity not to have a list of words. I agree though we cannot put random IE cognates and that's what I wrote earli...
Languages in Indonesia are classified into nine categories: national language, locally used indigenous languages, regional lingua francas, foreign and additional languages, heritage languages, languages in the religious domain, English as a lingua franca, and sign languages. Of these, Javanese is the largest language by the number of native ...