The Phrygian language (/ ˈ f r ɪ dʒ i ə n /) was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, spoken in Anatolia (modern Turkey), during classical antiquity (c. 8th century BC to 5th century AD). Plato observed that some Phrygian words resembled Greek ones. 
Phrygian is part of the centum group of Indo-European languages. However, between the 19th and the first half of the 20th century Phrygian was mostly considered a satəm language, and thus closer to Armenian and Thracian, while today it is commonly considered to be a centum language and thus closer to Greek.
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- Phrygian Sentences
- Ent Changes by 184.108.40.206
- Removed Unsourced Matterial
- Vocabulary List
There is no mention yet of its centum or satem classification (which from what I remember is still debated). I know that Greek chamai ("on the earth") has a Phrygian cognate beginning with 'z' (zama or something, don't remember), and there is also zamelon (slave; meaning "earth-bound" roughly; if that's the right spelling). Decius00:56, 23 Mar 2005 (UTC)
What are we saying regarding the relation of Phrygian and Armenian? Sadly, not enough of Phrygian is known to be sure, and Armenian made some weird changes, between 600 BC and 400 AD. But Phrygian may be, as it were, the missing link between Greek and Armenian. I am particularly intrigued by the gunai(k)- stem. In Armenian gunay-k, the k is a desinence, while in Greek/Phrygian it is completely irregular. dab (ᛏ)28 June 2005 07:09 (UTC) 1. The article continues to state "Ancient historians and myth did associate it with Thracian and maybe Armenian, on grounds of classical sources.". What assiociation was made by "ancient historians" of connections with Thracian, and, especially, with Armenian? I avoid applying those little tags, but this does need a source. --Wetman01:07, 20 September 2006 (UTC)
Okay, I admit I am not aware of any ancient record that records that Phrygians migrated from Thrace around 1200 BC---what record is this? Is this merely from a classical author? I'm aware that some classical sources (namely, Herodotus) indicate such a migration, but I don't know of any non-Greek record that does.Decius2 July 2005 09:23 (UTC) 1. I think it's generally accepted as probable, although no definite proof exists, of course. We could mention that the assuption is that the immigration was connected with the repercussions of the collapse of the Hittite Empire (it's always the same, as soon as an empire collapses, neighboring barbarians immigrate/invade) dab (ᛏ)2 July 2005 09:32 (UTC) Yeah, I think the Phrygians did migrate from Thrace ca 1200 BC, but we should leave the question more open in the article, unless conclusive evidence exists. Decius2 July 2005 09:36 (UTC) 1. sure, I'm fine with "probably". dab (ᛏ)2 July 2005 09:38 (UTC) I'm trying to go back to the records themse...
no, no 'Mysian' is a purely geographical term here, since that's where these inscriptions were found, they are still Phrygian, just in another dialect, "Mysian Phrygian", if you like. dab (ᛏ)9 July 2005 13:00 (UTC) Thanks for the disambig, I didn't know whether scholars were claiming geographically Mysian or ethnically Mysian. Herodotus was probably right then. Decius9 July 2005 13:05 (UTC)
Next thing to do would be to add some (transliterated) Phrygian sentences into the article. I'm going to dig through Lubotsky and find something. Decius19:53, 13 July 2005 (UTC) I'm going to place some Phrygian sentences here as I decide which to include: 1. 1.1. 1.1.1. Pinke (five) tas (those) dakeres (parts) onomaniais (named) mirou (in the monument) ik (for the) knaiken (wife) edaes(made).---"He has made those five parts named in the monument for the wife." 1. 1.1. 1.1.1. Ios ni semon knoumane kakon daket aini manka.-----"Whoever may afflict harm to this grave or stele." Phrygian kakon (harm) pretty much identical to Ancient Greek kakôn (ill, evil). Aini means 'or, and'. Knoumane means "grave", daket means "does" (PIE *dhe-, 'to set, put'), manka means stele. Etc. 1. 1.1. 1.1.1. Dakaren paterais eukin argou.-----"The parents have erected because of a vow." Dakaren because, since. Decius...
Albanian bukë 'bread; meal, meal-time' was listed as a cognate for Phrygian bekos 'bread', but the Albanian word is a borrowing from Latin bucca 'cheek'. so, i have removed it. i also added a large number of cognates for the words in the short glossary.Flibjib802:30, 7 August 2006 (UTC)
These changes by 220.127.116.11 look destructive and there is no discussion on the talk page that suggests why these changes are happening. John Vandenberg23:27, 31 January 2007 (UTC) 1. They are made by a sockpuppet of an indef blocked user: see User:Ararat_arev.--Ευπάτωρ Talk!!23:28, 31 January 2007 (UTC)
Herodotus only mentioned that the Phrygians originated from Thrace and moved in Asia Minor. He also mentioned that the Armenians were Phrygians colonists. And that is already mentioned! The paragraph that the "In the Herodotus' History they are known to live together with the ancient Macedonian population." is not cited and I don’t personally know such a paragraph! Can someone provide more information? Till then I temporarily removing itSeleukosa12:45, 22 September 2007 (UTC) Further more the Phrygians were people of Asia Minor. They were not people of the Balkan Peninsula! Herodotus mention that the Asia Minor Phrygians were of Thrace origin but that doesn’t make the Phrygians "people of the Balkan Peninsula".Was known and it is already mentioned in the article is that the Phrygians, according to Herodotus were of Thracian descent. And that is all that it should be mentioned.12:59, 22 September 2007 (UTC)
Is the Phrygian word attagos perhaps related to the Greek word for goat — aíx (αἴξ), aigós (αἰγός)? Hspstudent (talk) 18:31, 30 November 2009 (UTC) 1. I am not an expert or anything, but I would guess it is. --15lsoucy (talk) 22:26, 30 November 2009 (UTC) I'm afraid that on this word there are distant if not irrelevant examples. How come as 15lsoucy said αιγός (aigós) is not included? In Greek you have also τράγος (tragos) which is the male goat. Instead we have Ziege (German), dhi (Albanian) and dec (Ishkashmi)?!?!?!?! --fkitselis —Preceding undatedcomment added 13:22, 16 February 2010 (UTC).
cut from article:(snip) first, this list is unreferenced, inviting the clueless to add random oter entries, which means we end up with a contaminated list where some entries are valid and others aren't Second, what's with the listing of random IE cognates? I can understand Greek and Armenian cognates, to illustrate the proximity of Phrygian to these languages, but why would anyone list Persian or Latin, let alone Albanian or Romanian?? Third, it isn't usual to grace languages articles with "lists of words". Wikipedia articles aren't dictionaries. Those of the above entries that can be substantiated with a reference should be transwikied to wiktionary. --dab (𒁳)06:43, 13 April 2010 (UTC) Dab, if you give me some time I could give dig up exact references for all the words. I've got the analysis for many Phrygian inscriptions published by various scholars on the field. It is pity not to have a list of words. I agree though we cannot put random IE cognates and that's what I wrote earli...
The Phrygians spoke an Indo-European language. (See Phrygian language.) Although the Phrygians adopted the alphabet originated by the Phoenicians, only a few dozen inscriptions in the Phrygian language have been found, primarily funereal, and so much of what is thought to be known of Phrygia is second-hand information from Greek sources.
The name Armeno-Phrygian is used for a hypothetical language branch, which would include the languages spoken by the Phrygians and the Armenians, and would be a branch of the Indo-European language family, or a sub-branch of either the proposed "Graeco-Armeno-Aryan" or "Armeno-Aryan" branches.
- Geographic Distribution
- Remnants of The Thracian Language
- Fate of The Thracians and Their Language
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
The Thracian language or languages were spoken in what is now Bulgaria, Romania, North Macedonia, Northern Greece, European Turkey and in parts of Bithynia(North-Western Asiatic Turkey). Modern-day Eastern Serbia is usually considered by paleolinguists to have been a Daco-Moesian language area. Moesian (after Vladimir Georgiev et al.) is grouped with the Dacian language.
Little is known for certain about the Thracian languages, since no phrase beyond a few words in length has been satisfactorily deciphered, and the sounder decipherments given for the shorter phrases may not be completely accurate. Some of the longer inscriptions may indeed be Thracian in origin but they may not reflect actual Thracian language sentences, but rather jumbles of names or magical formulas. Enough Thracian lexical items have survived to show that Thracian was a member of the Indo-European language family and that it was a satemized language by the time it is attested.Besides the aforementioned inscriptions, Thracian is attested through personal names, toponyms, hydronyms, phytonyms, divine names, etc. and by a small number of words cited in Ancient Greek texts as being specifically Thracian. Other ancient Greek lexical items were not specifically identified as Thracian by the ancient Greeks but are hypothesized by paleolinguists as being or probably being of Thracian ori...
The following are the longest inscriptions preserved. The remaining ones are mostly single words or names on vessels and other artifacts.
The Thracian language in linguistic textbooks is usually treated either as its own branch of Indo-European, or is grouped with Dacian, together forming a Daco-Thracian branch of IE. Older textbooks often grouped it also with Illyrian or Phrygian. The belief that Thracian was close to Phrygian is no longer popular and has mostly been discarded. The Thraco-Illyrian grouping has also been called into question. Daco-Thracian or Thraco-Dacian is the main hypothesis. No definite evidence has yet been found that demonstrates that Thracian or Daco-Thracian belonged on the same branch as Albanian or Baltic or Balto-Slavic or Greco-Macedonian or Phrygian or any other IE branch. For this reason textbooks still treat Thracian as its own branch of Indo-European, or as a Daco-Thracian/Thraco-Dacian branch. The generally accepted clades branched from the Proto-Indo-European language are, in alphabetical order, the Proto-Albanian language, Proto-Anatolian language,...
According to Skordelis, when Thracians were subjected by Alexander the Great they finally assimilated to Greek culture and became as Greek as Spartans and Athenians, although he considered the Thracian language as a form of Greek. According to Crampton (1997) most Thracians were eventually Hellenized or Romanized, with the last remnants surviving in remote areas until the 5th century. According to Marinov the Thracians were likely completely Romanized and Hellenized after the last contemporary references to them of the 6th century. This theory holds the Christianization of the Roman Empireas the main factor of immediate assimilation. A quick extinction would intensely contrast the avoidance of Hellenization at least by Albaniantill the present, possibly with the help of isolated mountainous areas. Another author considers that the interior of Thrace have never been Romanized or Hellenized (Trever, 1939). This was followed also by Slavonization. According to Weithmann (1978) when the...V.I. Georgiev, Introduction to the History of the Indo-European Languages, Sofia (1981).Georgiev, Vladimir (July 1966). "The Genesis of the Balkan Peoples". The Slavonic and East European Review. 44 (103): 285–297. ISSN 0037-6795. JSTOR 4205776. Retrieved 31 May 2021.I.I. Russu, Limba Traco-Dacilor / Die Sprache der Thrako-Daker, Bucharest (1967, 1969).Kretschmer, Paul. "Die Erste Thrakische Inschrift". In: Glotta 6, no. 1 (1914): 74-79. Accessed July 7, 2021. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40264867.[full citation needed]