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Physics was known as natural philosophy until the late 18th century. By the 19th century, physics was realized as a discipline distinct from philosophy and the other sciences. Physics, as with the rest of science, relies on philosophy of science and its "scientific method" to advance our knowledge of the physical world.
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Astronomy is the oldest natural science. The Sumerians, and Ancient Egyptians studied the stars, mostly with a view to prediction and religion. The first Babylonian star maps date from about 1200 BC. That astronomical events are periodic also dates back to the Babylonians. Their understanding was not scientific, but their observations influenced later astronomy. Much astronomy came from Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Ancient Egypt, and Ancient Greece. Astronomers from Egypt built monuments that show...
Natural philosophy started in Greece around 650 BC when a movement of philosophers replaced superstition with naturalism, which refuted the spiritual. Leucippus and his student Democritus suggested the idea of the atomaround this period.
Physics in the medieval Islamic world
Islamic scholars continued to study Aristotelian physics during the Islamic Golden Age. One main contribution was to observational astronomy. Some, like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna, worked on optics and vision. In The Book of Optics, Ibn al-Haytham rejected previous Greek ideas concerning vision and proposed a new theory. He studied how light enters the eye, and developed the camera obscura. European scientists later built eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telesco...
Physics is the study of energy and matter in space and time and how they are related to each other. Physicists assume the existence of mass, length, time and electric current and then define (give the meaning of) all other physical quantities in terms of these basic units. Mass, length, time, and electric current are never defined but the standard units used to measure them are always defined. In the International System of Units (abbreviated SI from the French Système International), the kilogram is the basic unit of mass, the metre is the basic unit of length, the second is the basic unit of time, and the ampere is the basic unit of electric current.In addition to these four units, there are three other ones: the mole, which is the unit of the quantity of matter, the candela which measures the luminous intensity (the power of lighting) and the kelvin, the unit of temperature. Physics studies how things move, and the forces that make them move. For example, velocity and acceleratio...
Physics is a quantitative science because it is based on measuring with numbers. Mathematics is used in physics to make models that try to predict what will happen in nature. These predictions are compared to the way the real worldworks. Physicists are always working to make their models of the world better.
Classical mechanics contains major topics such as Newton's laws of motion, Lagrangian mechanics, Hamiltonian mechanics, kinematics, statics, dynamics, chaos theory, acoustics, fluid dynamics, continuum mechanics. Classical mechanics is all about forces acting on a body in nature, balancing forces, maintaining equlibrium state, etc . Electromagnetism is study of charges on a particular body. It contains subtopics such as Electrostatics, electrodynamics, electricity, magnetism, magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations, optics . Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are related with temperature. It includes main topics such as Heat engine, kinetic theory. It uses terms such as heat(Q), work(W), and internal energy (U). First law of thermodynamics gives us the relation them by the following equation (ΔU = Q − W) Quantum mechanics is the study of particle at the atomic level taking into consideration the atomic model. It includes subtopics Path integral formulation, scattering theory, Schr...
Physics is the science of matter and how matter interacts. Matter is any physical material in the universe. Everything is made of matter. Physics is used to describe the physical universe around us, and to predict how it will behave. Physics is the science concerned with the discovery and characterization of the universal laws which govern matter, movement and forces, and space and time, and other features of the natural world.
Breadth and goals of physics
The sweep of physics is broad, from the smallest components of matter and the forces that hold it together, to galaxies and even larger things. There are only four forces that appear to operate over this whole range. However, even these four forces (gravity, electromagnetism, the weak force associated with radioactivity, and the strong force which holds protons and neutrons in an atomtogether) are believed to be different parts of a single force. Physics is mainly focused on the goal of makin...
Physics uses the scientific method
Physics uses the scientific method. That is, data from experiments and observations are collected. Theories which attempt to explain these data are produced. Physics uses these theories to not only describe physical phenomena, but to model physical systems and predict how these physical systems will behave. Physicists then compare these predictions to observations or experimental evidence to show whether the theory is right or wrong. The theories that are well supported by data and are especi...
History of physics. Physics is a branch of science whose primary objects of study are matter and energy. Discoveries of physics find applications throughout the natural sciences and in technology. Physics today may be divided loosely into classical physics and modern physics .
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Pages in category "Physics" The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 201 total. (previous page) ()
Pages in category "History of physics" The following 86 pages are in this category, out of 86 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().
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Atomic physics always considers atoms in isolation. Atomic models will consist of a single nucleus that may be surrounded by one or more bound electrons. It is not concerned with the formation of molecules (although much of the physics is identical), nor does it examine atoms in a solid state as condensed matter. It is concerned with processes such as ionization and excitationby photons or collisions with atomic particles. While modelling atoms in isolation may not seem realistic, if one considers atoms in a gas or plasma then the time-scales for atom-atom interactions are huge in comparison to the atomic processes that are generally considered. This means that the individual atoms can be treated as if each were in isolation, as the vast majority of the time they are. By this consideration atomic physics provides the underlying theory in plasma physics and atmospheric physics, even though both deal with very large numbers of atoms.
Electrons form notional shells around the nucleus. These are naturally in a ground state but can be excitedby the absorption of energy from light (photons), magnetic fields, or interaction with a colliding particle (typically other electrons). Electrons that populate a shell are said to be in a bound state. The energy necessary to remove an electron from its shell (taking it to infinity) is called the binding energy. Any quantity of energy absorbed by the electron in excess of this amount is converted to kinetic energy according to the conservation of energy. The atom is said to have undergone the process of ionization. In the event the electron absorbs a quantity of energy less than the binding energy, it will transition to an excited state. After a statistically sufficient quantity of time, an electron in an excited state will undergo a transition to a lower state. The change in energy between the two energy levels must be accounted for (conservation of energy). In a neutral atom,...
The majority of fields in physics can be divided between theoretical work and experimental work,and atomic physics is no exception. It is usually the case, but not always, that progress goesin alternate cycles from an experimental observation, through to a theoretical explanationfollowed by some predictions that may or may not be confirmed by experiment, and so on. Of course, the current state of technology at any given time can put limitations on what can be achieved experimentally and theoretically so it may take considerable time for theory to be refined. One of the earliest steps towards atomic physics was the recognition that matter was composedof atoms, in the modern sense of the basic unit of a chemical element. This theory was developed by the British chemist and physicist John Dalton in the 18th century. At this stage, it wasn't clear what atoms were although they could be described and classified by their properties (in bulk) in a periodic table. The true beginning of atom...Bransden, BH; Joachain, CJ (2002). Physics of Atoms and Molecules (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-582-35692-X.Foot, CJ (2004). Atomic Physics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850696-1.Herzberg, Gerhard (1979) . Atomic Spectra and Atomic Structure. New York: Dover. ISBN 0-486-60115-3. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)Condon, E.U. and Shortley, G.H. (1935). The Theory of Atomic Spectra. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09209-4.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)JILA (Atomic Physics) Archived 2012-03-05 at the Wayback Machine