23 hours ago · Oświęcim (Polish pronunciation: [ɔɕˈfjɛɲtɕim] (); German: Auschwitz [ˈaʊʃvɪts]; Yiddish: אָשפּיצין , romanized: Oshpitzin) is a town in the Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska) province of southern Poland, situated 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of Kraków, near the confluence of the Vistula (Wisła) and Soła rivers.
4 days ago · At least 70,000 ethnic Poles who were not Jewish were murdered by Nazi Germany in the Auschwitz concentration camp alone. After the German invasion, Poland, in contrast to cases such as Vichy France, experienced direct German administration rather than an indigenous puppet government.
May 03, 2021 · Ceremonial name. The name of the Kingdom in its ceremonial form, in English: Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the Grand Duchy of Kraków with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, existed in all languages spoken there including German: Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien mit dem Großherzogtum Krakau und den Herzogtümern Auschwitz und Zator; Polish: Królestwo Galicji i Lodomerii wraz z ...
May 07, 2021 · FILE- In this file photo taken Jan. 27, 2020, people are seen arriving at the site of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi German death camp, where more than 1.1 million were murdered, in Oswiecim, Poland ...
May 03, 2021 · Most of them were transferred from the Auschwitz concentration camp. The documents allow identification of 8,995 prisoners. All of them were Jews, about seventy per cent from Hungary, the rest from Poland, Greece, Romania, Czechoslovakia, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany.
4 days ago · Katowice is a center of commerce, business, transportation, and culture in southern Poland, with numerous public companies headquartered in the city or in its suburbs, important cultural institutions such as Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra, award-winning music festivals such as Off Festival and Tauron New Music, and transportation ...
- Origin of Term
- Other Participants
- Death Toll
- Functionalism vs Intentionalism
- See Also
The term Holocaust ("burnt offering; sacrifice by fire") came into widespread usage during the mid-1970s after it was popularized in writings and through a TV miniseries of the same name. It had been known in Hebrew as the Shoah ("catastrophe") since it happened in the 1940s. The term "final solution" or "Hitler's final solution" also refers to the Holocaust and was widely used before Holocaust became the best-known term for it.
The Holocaust was initially carried out by military death squads (Einsatzgruppen or "task forces") sweeping through newly-occupied Polish and, later, Soviet territory during World War II. These squads would round up the Jewish population and shoot them. This was eventually regarded as wasteful of military resources, damaging to the soldiers' morale, and inefficient, leading to innovations such as gassing in mobile vans and concentration camps. The largest and most infamous was the Auschwitz camp near the town of Oświęcim in Poland, although Treblinka (also in Poland) and Bergen-Belsen (Germany) are also well known. It involved systematic use of gas chambers using either carbon monoxide or the gas Zyklon B (a form of the poison cyanide) as the most common means of mass murder. These camps are also sometimes called extermination camps. There were also widespread deaths in them from systematic starvation and from disease exacerbated by a system of forced labor intended to wring the las...
The Nazis began setting up concentration camps as early as 1933, such as the Dachau camp in southern Germany. At the time they were used for forced labor and imprisonment of political dissidents and other "undesirables." Death tolls from starvation, disease, exposure, and the guards' cruelty were high (and similar to those in similar camps set up by the British during the Boer War, when the term concentration camp was coined), but initially there was no systematized programme of extermination carried out there, and some inmates were released. Some of those original concentration camps did switch over to being used as extermination camps. During this period many Jews, homosexuals, Roma and others were sent to the camps. The large-scale systematic relocation of Jews and others to the camps for mass extermination in gas chambers began about 1942 and lasted until the camps were liberated by Soviet and Allied forces at the end of World War II in 1945. The scope and scale of this genocide...
The Nazis found that the local citizenry in parts of eastern Europe such as Lithuania and the Ukraine were quite willing to aid in the extermination of local Jews. In Croatia the Ustaše party, which ruled under Axis protection between 1941 and 1945, carried out its own extermination campaign against Serbs, Jews, Roma and others, including Muslim dissidents, in conjunction with the Nazis, doing so on their own initiative. Vichy France also actively collaborated with the Nazis in rounding up Jews. Other Axis-aligned countries, however, (Japan, Italy, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria) did not comply except in a few cases when they were compelled to by their Nazi allies.
Among the number of people killed are counted 6 million Jews, nearly 3 million non-Jewish Poles, 600,000 Serbs and close to 500,000 Roma (Gypsies). Further groups of victims include 1-1.5 million political activists and opponents of the Nazi regime (including communists, social democrats, socialists, trade unionists and anarchists), 3 million Soviet POWs, 7,000-16,000 Spanish POWs, 80,000-200,000 Freemasons, 75,000-250,000 disabled and 2,500-5,000 Jehovah's Witnesses. In addition, 5,000-15,000 gay men were gathered in concentration camps with an estimated death rate around 60%. All in all, this accounts for about 14 million deaths.An estimated one million died at Auschwitz alone. A broader definition of the Holocaust would include up to 17 million deaths.
Flashbacks are common in Holocaust survivors, and can unfortunately have several extremely common triggers, including crowded trains, uniforms, medical exams, showers, discarded bread, or the German language. Chronic depression, sleep and memory impairments, and survivor's guilt are all common. Higher rates of PTSD have been shown in the children of survivors. These conditions are not unique to the Holocaust and are found in the families of those affected by other genocides. Survivors living in Israelhave been shown on average to have higher reported well-being than those living in other countries. In 1961 Milgram's obedience studysought to determine the role of social compliance in the millions who perpetrated the Holocaust. The questions of many adolescents in Israel were answered with silence, until the Eichmann trial; however one of the few outlets of information was the fictitious pornographic novel, House of Dolls. Sexually sensationalized written and drawn accounts of the Hol...
A major debate in the study of the Holocaust is that between functionalism and intentionalism. Neither of these interpretations are Holocaust denial, though the controversy might be abused by Holocaust deniers. Intentionalists believe that the Holocaust was planned, ordered and directed by Hitler — that he devised it and put it into place, and had even been secretly planning it before he came to power. Functionalists believe that the Holocaust was not directly planned but organically evolved in response to bureaucratic pressures within the Nazi state. Intentionalists believe that Hitler personally ordered the murder of millions of Jews — although, we are lacking the "smoking gun" of a direct order or plan from him stating the same. For example, intentionalists believe that Hitler ordered the deportation of Jews to Eastern Europe as a prelude to killing them, and that his cryptic phrase "the final solution of the Jewish question" was code for extermination. Functionalists believe tha...
4 days ago · Rudolf "Rudi" Vrba (born Walter Rosenberg; 11 September 1924 – 27 March 2006) was a Slovak-Jewish biochemist who, as a teenager in 1942, was deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp in German-occupied Poland.
May 03, 2021 · Stalag VIII-B Lamsdorf was a German Army prisoner of war camp, later renumbered Stalag-344, located near the village of Lamsdorf (now Łambinowice) in Silesia. The camp initially occupied barracks built to house British and French prisoners in World War I .
3 days ago · After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte and the Congress of Vienna, the area was incorporated into the Congress Poland ("Russian Poland"). The status of a powiat capital was briefly withdrawn, but it was reintroduced on January 16, 1816, when the Augustów Voivodeship was created and its government was gradually moved to Suwałki.