A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the head of state .
- Semi-Presidential System
A semi-presidential system, or dual executive system, is a...
In a full-fledged presidential system, a politician is...
- Semi-Presidential System
- Electing A President
- Power of A President
- Related Pages
The President of the United States is elected by the electoral college. Some other countries choose a president this way. In some, the Parliament does it. Some countries have direct elections to choose a president. Many countries have a monarchinstead of a president and some have neither. Companies have presidents. They are elected by the people who own part of the company. In some companies, the people who are workers for the company elect (vote for) their company president.
The president of a country is not the same thing as a prime minister. A prime minister is part of a parliament, but a president is not. In some countries, (such as the United States or France), the president has more power and responsibility than anyone else. Such a president is often called the nation's chief executive. As chief executive, the president must take an active role in all phases of government. In other countries (such as India, Israel or the Republic of Ireland), to be president is more of an honor or a symbol, and the position has no real power. This kind of president is often called "head of state". Most countries that have a King or Queen as their monarchhave no president. The American President is restricted by the written United States Constitution, which was written to make sure that the American executive never became as powerful as in the British system. The British Prime Minister is part of both the Legislature and Executive, whereas the American President is...
The Paraguayan Constitution in effect is based on the U.S. Constitution, but due to prolonged presidential dictatorship, the Constitution was drafted in 1992 gives greater powers to parliament, which is the only body that judges the other state bodies, in fact nowhere mentioned the "presidential system" is the system of government in the ...
- Subnational Governments of The World
- Criticism and Disadvantages
- Differences from A Parliamentary System
- See Also
- External Links
In a full-fledged presidential system, a politician is chosen directly by the public or indirectly by the winning party to be the head of government. Except for Belarus and Kazakhstan, this head of government is also the head of state, and is therefore called president. The post of prime minister (also called premier) may also exist in a presidential system, but unlike in semi-presidentialor parliamentary systems, the prime minister answers to the president and not to the legislature. The following characteristics apply generally for the numerous presidential governments across the world: 1. The executive can veto legislative acts and, in turn, a supermajority of lawmakers may override the veto. The veto is generally derived from the British tradition of royal assent in which an act of parliament can only be enacted with the assent of the monarch. 2. The president has a fixed term of office. Elections are held at regular tim...
Subnational governments, usually states, may be structured as presidential systems. All of the state governments in the United States use the presidential system, even though this is not constitutionally required. On a local level, many cities use council-manager government, which is equivalent to a parliamentary system, although the post of a city manager is normally a non-political position. Some countries without a presidential system at the national level use a form of this system at a subnational or local level. One example is Japan, where the national government uses the parliamentary system, but the prefectural and municipal governmentshave governors and mayors elected independently from local assemblies and councils.
Supporters generally claim four basic advantages for presidential systems: 1. Direct elections— in a presidential system, the president is often elected directly by the people. This makes the president's power more legitimate than that of a leader appointed indirectly. However, this is not a necessary feature of a presidential system. Some presidential states have an indirectly elected head of state. 2. Separation of powers— a presidential system establishes the presidency and the legislature as two parallel structures. This allows each structure to monitor and check the other, preventing abuses of power. 3. Speed and decisiveness— A president with strong powers can usually enact changes quickly. However, the separation of powers can also slow the system down. 4. Stability— a president, by virtue of a fixed term, may provide more stability than a prime minister, who can be dismissed at any time.
Critics generally claim three basic disadvantages for presidential systems: 1. Tendency towards authoritarianism– some political scientists say presidentialism raises the stakes of elections, exacerbates their polarization and can lead to authoritarianism (Linz). 2. Political gridlock – the separation of powers of a presidential system establishes the presidency and the legislature as two parallel structures. Critics argue that this can create an undesirable and long-term political gridlockwhenever the president and the legislative majority are from different parties, which is common because the electorate usually expects more rapid results from new policies than are possible (Linz, Mainwaring and Shugart). In addition, this reduces accountability by allowing the president and the legislature to shift blame to each other. 3. Impediments to leadership change– presidential systems often make it difficult to remove a president from office early, for example after taking actio...
A number of key theoretical differences exist between a presidential and a parliamentary system: 1. In a presidential system, the central principle is that the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government are separate. This leads to the separate election of president, who is elected to office for a fixed term, and only removable for gross misdemeanor by impeachment and dismissal. By contrast, in parliamentarianism, the executive branch is led by a council of ministers, headed by a Prime Minister, who are directly accountable to the legislature and often have their background in the legislature (regardless of whether it is called a "parliament", an "assembly", a "diet", or a "chamber"). 2. As with the president's set term of office, the legislature also exists for a set term of office and cannot be dissolved ahead of schedule. By contrast, in parliamentary systems, the prime minister needs to survive a vote of confidence otherwise a new election must be c...
- Division of Powers
- See Also
- External Links
There are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism: premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism. Under premier-presidentialism, the prime minister and cabinet are exclusively accountable to the assembly majority, where the president chooses the prime minister and cabinet and the parliament remove am from office with the vote of no confidence or the presidential dismiss which can include the dissolution of parliament. This subtype is used in France, Portugal, Mali, Sri Lanka, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Romania, Poland, Georgia (from 2013), Mongolia, Macedonia, Lithuania, Niger, Bulgaria, Madagascar, and Ukraineafter 2005. Under president-parliamentarism, the prime minister and cabinet are dually accountable to the president and the assembly majority, where the president chooses the prime minister and the cabinet but must have the confirmation of the assembly. To remove the prime minister or the cabinet the president can dismiss either or the assembly can remove am via the...
The powers that are divided between president and prime minister can vary greatly between countries. In France, for example, in case of cohabitation when the president and the prime minister come from opposing parties, the president is responsible for foreign policy and the prime minister for domestic policy. In this case, the division of powers between the prime minister and the president is not explicitly stated in the constitution, but has evolved as the political convention. On the other hand, whenever the president is from the same party as the party that leads the cabinet, he often (if not usually) exercises de facto control over domestic policy in addition to his de jurecontrol of foreign policy. In Finland, by contrast, the assignment of responsibility foreign policy was explicitly stated in the constitutionuntil 2000: "foreign policy is led by the president in cooperation with the cabinet".
Semi-presidential systems may sometimes experience periods in which the President and the Prime Minister are from differing political parties. This is called "cohabitation", the term which originated in France when the situation first arose in the 1980s. Cohabitation can create an effective system of checks and balances or the period of bitter and tense stonewalling, depending on the attitudes of the two leaders, the ideologies of air parties, or the demands of air constituencies. In most cases, cohabitation results from the system in which the two executives are not elected at the same time or for the same term. For example, in 1981, France elected both the Socialist president and legislature, which yielded the Socialist premier. But whereas the president's term of office was for seven years, the National Assembly only served for five. When, in the 1986 legislative election, the French people elected the right-centre Assembly, Socialist President Mitterrandwas forced into cohabitat...
It is noteworthy that some scholars in People's Republic of China claim that the country's system of government is a "Semi-presidential system combining party and government in actual operation". Under China's constitution , the Chinese President is a largely ceremonial office with limited power. NameConstitutional formHead of stateBasis of executive legitimacyRepublicExecutivePresidency is independent of legislatureRepublicCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary ...RepublicExecutivePresidency independent of legislature;Constitutional monarchyCeremonialMinistry is subject to parliamentary ...
A balanced relationship between the executive and the legislature in a parliamentary system is called responsible government . The separation of powers between the executive and law making branches is not as obvious as it is in a presidential system. There are different ways of balancing power between the three branches which govern the country ...
Aug 30, 2012 · INTRODUCTION• A presidential system is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides separately from the legislature, to which it is not responsible and which cannot, in normal circumstances, dismiss it.• National presidents are "figurehead" heads of state.
In a presidential system, the legislature and the president have equal mandates from the public. Conflicts between the branches of government might not be reconciled. When president and legislature disagree and government is not working effectively, there is a strong incentive to use extra-constitutional measures to break the deadlock.
- related to: presidential system wikipedia