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  1. Jan 13, 2022 · 蜂窝织炎是一种常见的潜在严重细菌性皮肤感染。. 受影响的皮肤肿胀和发红,通常会疼痛和触感温热。. 蜂窝织炎通常会影响小腿的皮肤,但也会出现在面部、手臂和其他部位。. 当您的皮肤裂缝或裂口让细菌进入时,就会发生感染。. 如果不治疗,这种感染会 ...

    • Overview
    • Symptoms
    • Causes
    • Risk Factors
    • Complications

    Primary sclerosing (skluh-ROHS-ing) cholangitis (koh-lan-JIE-tis) is a disease of the bile ducts. Bile ducts carry the digestive liquid bile from your liver to your small intestine. In primary sclerosing cholangitis, inflammation causes scars within the bile ducts. These scars make the ducts hard and narrow and gradually cause serious liver damage. A majority of people with primary sclerosing cholangitis also have inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. In most people with primary sclerosing cholangitis, the disease progresses slowly. It can eventually lead to liver failure, repeated infections, and tumors of the bile duct or liver. A liver transplant is the only known cure for advanced primary sclerosing cholangitis, but the disease may recur in the transplanted liver in a small number of patients. Care for primary sclerosing cholangitis focuses on monitoring liver function, managing symptoms and, when possible, doing procedures that temporarily o...

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is often diagnosed before symptoms appear when a routine blood test or an X-ray taken for an unrelated condition shows liver abnormalities. Early signs and symptoms often include: 1. Fatigue 2. Itching 3. Yellow eyes and skin (jaundice) 4. Abdominal pain Many people diagnosed with primary sclerosing cholangitis before they have symptoms continue to feel generally well for several years. But there's no reliable way to predict how quickly or slowly the disease will progress for any individual. Signs and symptoms that may appear as the disease progresses include: 1. Fever 2. Chills 3. Night sweats 4. Enlarged liver 5. Enlarged spleen 6. Weight loss

    It's not clear what causes primary sclerosing cholangitis. An immune system reaction to an infection or toxin may trigger the disease in people who are genetically predisposed to it. A large proportion of people with primary sclerosing cholangitis also have inflammatory bowel disease, an umbrella term that includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease don't always appear at the same time, though. In some cases, primary sclerosing cholangitis is present for years before inflammatory bowel disease occurs. If primary sclerosing cholangitis is diagnosed, it's important to look for inflammatory bowel disease because there is a greater risk of colon cancer. Somewhat less often, people being treated for inflammatory bowel disease turn out to have primary sclerosing cholangitis as well. And rarely, people with primary sclerosing cholangitis develop inflammatory bowel disease only after having a liver transplant.

    Factors that may increase the risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis include: 1. Age.Primary sclerosing cholangitis can occur at any age, but it's most often diagnosed between the ages of 30 and 40. 2. Sex.Primary sclerosing cholangitis occurs more often in men. 3. Inflammatory bowel disease.A large proportion of people with primary sclerosing cholangitis also have inflammatory bowel disease. 4. Geographical location.People with Northern European heritage have a higher risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Complications of primary sclerosing cholangitis may include: 1. Liver disease and failure.Chronic inflammation of the bile ducts throughout your liver can lead to tissue scarring (cirrhosis), liver cell death and, eventually, loss of liver function. 2. Repeated infections.If scarring of the bile ducts slows or stops the flow of bile out of the liver, you may experience frequent infections in the bile ducts. The risk of infection is particularly high after you've had a surgical procedure to expand a badly scarred bile duct or remove a stone blocking a bile duct. 3. Portal hypertension. Your portal vein is the major route for blood flowing from your digestive system into your liver. Portal hypertension refers to high blood pressure in this vein. Portal hypertension can cause fluid from the liver to leak into your abdominal cavity (ascites). It can also divert blood from the portal vein to other veins, causing these veins to become swollen (varices). Varices are weak veins and tend to...

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    What are the signs and symptoms of an abscess?

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  3. Jan 21, 2022 · Even the most telltale symptom of lupus, the so-called butterfly rash that can show up across both of your cheeks, doesn’t happen in everyone, according to the Mayo Clinic. Plus, symptoms can ...

    • Abscess Symptoms
    • Causes
    • Diagnosis
    • Treatment
    • Prevention

    An abscess looks like a little bump or a pimple that can grow into an inflamed, fluid-filled cyst. The skin surrounding an abscess is often painful and warm to the touch. In some cases, an abscess can be extremely hard and firm (indurated).3 Depending on the cause, the appearance of an abscess may be accompanied by fever, nausea, or swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy).

    Abscesses are most often caused by a bacteria, called Staphylococcus aureus, which normally exists on the skin and inside the nose. It can enter the body through a cut, abrasion, puncture, or even an insect bite.4 Other factors can increase the risk of S. aureus infection, including: 1. A chronic skin condition such as acne or eczema 2. Diabetes 3. A weakened immune system 4. Coming into close contact with an infected person 5. Poor hygiene4 Another condition called folliculitiscan cause an abscess to form within a hair follicle. Infection begins when a hair is trapped beneath the surface and can't break through (a condition commonly referred to as an ingrown hair). Folliculitis can be caused by shaving (particularly in Black people) and is also associated with swimming in an improperly chlorinated pool or hot tub.5

    Diagnosis is usually made on appearance alone. While smaller abscesses can usually be treated at home, medical attention should be considered if any of the following occurs: 1. Development of an abscess on the face 2. Development of multiple abscesses 3. Worsening or extremely painful abscesses 4. Abscesses that are more than 2 inches in diameter 5. Abscesses that persist for more than two weeks 6. Abscesses that recur

    Small abscesses can be treated at home with a warm compress to relieve pain and promote drainage. A larger abscess may need to be drainedat the doctor's office to both relieve the pain and treat the infection. Depending on the cause of an abscess, a doctor may consider whether or not an antibiotic is needed.6 On the other hand, antibiotics are customarily prescribed to persons who have a weakened immune system or are experiencing whole-body symptoms like fever.7In such cases, a doctor may take a pus sample to better evaluate the cause and ensure that the bacteria is not drug-resistant.

    While abscesses are not entirely avoidable, there are a few simple measures you can take to better prevent them: 1. Always wash your hands, ideally with an antibacterial cleanser. 2. Treat any cuts with care, keeping them clean, covered, and dry until they are fully healed. 3. Do not share personal items like razors, towels, lipstick, or lip balm. 4. Avoid cutting yourself when shaving your underarms or pubic area.8

    • Family Physician
  4. Dec 31, 2021 · Step 4: Applying a new dressing. If your surgeon prescribed a topical ointment, apply a very thin layer of the ointment to the incision. Hold a clean, sterile gauze pad by a corner and place it over the incisions. (This is the gauze that you opened and set aside in step 2.) Tape all four sides of the gauze pad.

  5. Jan 14, 2022 · The different types of bruises include: Hematoma: Trauma, such as a car accident or major fall, can cause severe bruising and skin and tissue damage. A hematoma is a collection of blood outside the blood vessels that causes pain and swelling.. Purpura: This type of bruising typically involves small bleeding that occurs under the skin.

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