Canadian federalism (French: fédéralisme canadien) involves the current nature and historical development of the federal system in Canada. Canada is a federation with eleven components: the national Government of Canada and ten provincial governments .
Is the ideology opposed to a series of things, the second of which is "proponent of Quebec independence"? Or is an -ism now to be considered an anthropomorphic proponent of Quebec independence? The rest of the sentence is similarly confusing. I would fix it as a simple run-on sentence (or a series of run-on sentences) if I knew what its intent was.
The New Democratic Party of Quebec is a federalist and social-democratic provincial political party in Quebec, Canada. The party is a revival of the comparable Nouveau Parti Démocratique du Québec, which existed in various forms as the federal New Democratic Party (NDP)'s provincial affiliate in Quebec from 1963 to 1991. The current party, however, is not affiliated with the federal NDP. The modern party was registered on 30 January 2014.
- Raphaël Fortin
- 30 January 2014; 7 years ago
- Mona Belleau
Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government that combines a general government with regional governments in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, first embodied in the Constitution of the United States of 1789, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established. It can thus be defined as a form of government in which powers are divided between two levels of government of equal status. Federalism differs from confederalism, in which the general lev
The Conservative Party of Quebec is a provincial political party in Quebec, Canada. It was authorized on March 25, 2009 by the Chief Electoral Officer of Quebec. The Conservative Party of Quebec ran twenty-seven candidates in the 2012 general election. On February 23, 2013, industrialist Adrien D. Pouliot was elected as the new leader of the party and as a result immediately implemented more of a centre-right vision. He replaced the party's social conservative stance, replacing it with a social
- March 25, 2009
- Patrice Raza
- Patrice Raza
- Adrien D. Pouliot (outgoing)
The New Democratic Party of Quebec (French: Nouveau Parti démocratique du Québec; NPDQ) is a federalist and social-democratic provincial political party in Quebec, Canada. The party is a revival of the comparable Nouveau Parti Démocratique du Québec, which existed in various forms as the federal New Democratic Party (NDP)'s provincial affiliate in Quebec from 1963 to 1991. The current ...
- Reasons For Sovereignty
- Arguments Against Sovereignty
- Allies and Opponents
- Sovereignist Organizations
- Sovereignist Media
In practice, "separatist" and "sovereignist" are terms used to describe individuals wanting the province of Quebec to separate from Canada to become a country of its own; supporters of the movement generally prefer the latter term. The term "independentist" is preferred by some supporters. Also in practice, the term "Federalist" was used to define people who stood with and agreed with confederation in other words agreeing that Quebec should not be an independent country.
Justifications for Quebec's sovereignty are historically nationalistic in character, claiming the unique culture and French-speaking majority (78% of the provincial population) are threatened with assimilation by either the rest of Canada or, as in Metropolitan France, by Anglophone culture more generally, and that the best way to preserve language, identity and culture is via the creation of an independent political entity.Other distinguishing factors, such as religious differences (given the Catholic majority in Quebec), are also used to justify either separation or nationalist social policies advocated by the Parti Québécois. The historical justification is that Quebec should be independent by virtue of New France having been conquered by the British in 1763 and subsequently relinquished to the British in exchange for Guadeloupe. It argues that the people of Quebec are the descendant...
Tension between the francophone, Catholic population of Quebec and the largely anglophone, Protestant population of the rest of Canada has been a central theme of Canadian history, shaping the early territorial and cultural divisions of the country that persist to this day. Supporters of sovereignty for Quebec believe that the current relationship between Quebec and the rest of Canada does not reflect Quebec's best social, political and economic d...
Perhaps the most significant basis of support for Quebec's sovereignty movement lies in more recent political events. For practical purposes, many political pundits use the political career and efforts of René Lévesque as a marker for the beginnings of what is now considered the contemporary movement, although more broadly accepted consensus appears on the contemporary movement finding its origins in a period called the Quiet Revolution. René Lé...
Legal and constitutional issues
It has been argued by Jeremy Webber and Robert Andrew Young that, as the office is the core of authority in the province, the secession of Quebec from Confederation would first require the abolition or transformation of the post of Lieutenant Governor of Quebec; such an amendment to the constitution of Canada could not be achieved without, according to Section 41 of the Constitution Act, 1982, the approval of the federal parliament and all other provinc...
In a series of letters throughout the 1990s, Stéphane Dion(the federal Intergovernmental Affairs Minister at the time) laid out an argument against sovereignty. It has also been argued by prominent Quebecers (sovereignists and ex-sovereignists, including former Quebec premier Lucien Bouchard) that sovereignty politics has distracted Quebecers from the real economic problems of Quebec, and that sovereignty by itself cannot solve those problems. In 2005 they published their position statement, "Pour un Québec lucide", ("For a lucid Quebec") which details the problems facing Quebec. Many federalists oppose the Quebec sovereignty movement for economic and political reasons but many also oppose sovereignty on other grounds. For example, since the 1995 referendum, in regards to the declaration of Jacques Parizeau who blamed the loss on "money and ethnic votes", many federalists considered the sovereign...
The history of the relations between French and British descendants in Canada has been marked by periodic tension. After colonizing Canada from 1608 onward, France lost it to Great Britain at the conclusion of the Seven Years' War in 1763, in which France ceded control of New France (except for the two small islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon) to Great Britain, which returned some of France's West Indian islands, in the Treaty of Paris. Under British rule, French Canadians struggled to maintain their culture, notably outside of Quebec (where they became a minority) but within the province as well, as much of the province's economy was dominated by British settlers. The cause of Québécois nationalism, which waxed and waned over two centuries, gained prominence from the 1960s onward. The use of the word "sovereignty" and many of the ideas of this movement originated in the 1967 Mouvement Souveraineté-Associationof René Lévesque....
Precursor ideas and events
Sovereigntism and sovereignty are terms that refer to the modern movement in favour of the political independence of Quebec. However, the roots of Quebec's desire for self-determination can be traced back as far as the Patriotes Rebellion, the Alliance Laurentienne of 1957, the writings of Lionel Groulx in the 1920s, the Francoeur Motion of 1917, and Honoré Mercier's flirtation with this idea (especially in his historic speech of 1893).
The Quiet Revolution in Quebec brought widespread change in the 1960s. Among other changes, support for Quebec independence began to form and grow in some circles. The first organization dedicated to the independence of Quebec was the Alliance Laurentienne, founded by Raymond Barbeauon January 25, 1957. On September 10, 1960, the Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale (RIN) was founded, with Pierre Bourgault quickly becoming its leader. On August 9...
The early years of the Parti Québécois
Jacques Parizeau joined the party on September 19, 1969, and Jérôme Proulx of the Union Nationalejoined on November 11 of the same year. In the 1970 provincial election, the PQ won its first seven seats in the National Assembly. René Lévesque was defeated in Mont-Royal by the Liberal André Marchand.
"Sovereignty-Association" is nowadays more often referred to simply as "sovereignty". However, in the 1995 Quebec referendum, in which the sovereignty option was narrowly rejected, the notion of some form of economic association with the rest of Canada was still envisaged (continuing use of the Canadian dollar and military, for example) and was referred to as "Sovereignty-Partnership" (French: souveraineté-partenariat). It remains a part of th...
The separatist movement draws from the left and right spectrum; a sizeable minority of more conservative Quebecers supporting the PQ's political agenda because of the sovereignty issue, despite reservations about its social democraticpolitical agenda. Right and Left must be interpreted within the provincial context; Liberal Party politics generally coincide with those of other liberal parties, while PQ politics are more social democratic in...
Rest of Canada
The other nine provinces of Canada have generally been opposed to Quebec sovereignty. Aside from marginal movements, the only major secessionist movement in English Canada has been the Maritimes Anti-Confederation movementimmediately after Confederation occurred. In general, francophones outside Quebec oppose sovereignty or any form of national recognition for Quebec, while non-francophones, particularly the anglophone minority in Montreal, a...
In France, although openness and support is found on both sides of the political spectrum, the French political right has traditionally been warmer to sovereignists (like President Charles de Gaulle, who shouted his support of independence in Montreal in 1967) than the French left (like former President François Mitterrand). This used to be a paradoxical phenomenon because of the Parti Québécois and most sovereignists being to the politi...
1. Parti Québécois 1.1. SPQ Libre 2. Bloc Québécois 3. Communist Party of Canada 4. Québec solidaire 5. Option nationale 6. Parti indépendantiste 7. Marxist–Leninist Party of Quebec
1. Mouvement pour une Élection sur la Souveraineté 2. Mouvement de libération nationale du Québec 3. Conseil de la Souveraineté du Québec 4. Réseau de Résistance du Québécois
1. Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale(RIN) 2. Front de libération du Québec(FLQ) 3. Parti nationaliste chrétien(PNC) 4. Parti nationaliste du Québec 5. Parti indépendantiste (1985) 6. Union Populaire 7. Nouvelle Alliance Québec-Canada 8. Action démocratique du Québec- was originally sovereigntist, but later abandoned in favour of considerable autonomy
- European vs. American Federalism
- Examples of Federalism
- Federalism and Localism in Anarchist Political Theory
- Christian Church
- Constitutional Structure
- Federalism as A Political Philosophy
- Federalism as A Conflict Reducing Device
- External Links
The terms 'federalism' and 'confederalism' both have a root in the Latin word foedus, meaning "treaty, pact or covenant." Their common meaning until the late eighteenth century was a simple league or inter-governmental relationship among sovereign states based upon a treaty. They were therefore initially synonyms. It was in this sense that James Madison in Federalist 39 had referred to the new US Constitution as 'neither a national nor a federal Constitution, but a composition of both' (i.e. neither constituting a single large unitary state nor a league/confederation among several small states, but a hybrid of the two). In the course of the nineteenth century the meaning of federalism would come to shift, strengthening to refer uniquely to the novel compound political form established, while the meaning of confederalism would remain at a league of states.Thus, this article relates to the modern usage of the word 'federalism'. Modern federalism is a system based upon democratic rules...
In Europe, "Federalist" is sometimes used to describe those who favor a common federal government, with distributed power at regional, national and supranational levels. Most European federalists want this development to continue within the European Union. European federalism originated in post-war Europe; one of the more important initiatives was Winston Churchill's speech in Zürichin 1946. In the United States, federalism originally referred to belief in a stronger central government. When the U.S. Constitution was being drafted, the Federalist Party supported a stronger central government, while "Anti-Federalists" wanted a weaker central government. This is very different from the modern usage of "federalism" in Europe and the United States. The distinction stems from the fact that "federalism" is situated in the middle of the political spectrum between a confederacy and a unitary state. The U.S. Constitution was written as a reaction to the Articles of Confedera...
On the 1st of January 1901 the nation-state of Australia officially came into existence as a federation. The Australian continent was colonised by the United Kingdom in 1788, which subsequently established six, eventually self-governing, colonies there. In the 1890s the governments of these colonies all held referendums on becoming the unified, self-governing "Commonwealth of Australia" within the British Empire. When all the colonies voted in favour of federation, the Federation of Australia...
In Brazil, the fall of the monarchy in 1889 by a military coup d'état led to the rise of the presidential system, headed by Deodoro da Fonseca. Aided by well-known jurist Ruy Barbosa, Fonseca established federalism in Brazil by decree, but this system of government would be confirmed by every Brazilian constitution since 1891, although some of them would distort some of the federalist principles. The 1937 federal government had the authority to appoint State Governors (called intervenors) at...
In Canada the system of federalism is described by the division of powers between the federal parliament and the country's provincial governments. Under the Constitution Act (previously known as the British North America Act) of 1867, specific powers of legislation are allotted. Section 91 of the constitution gives rise to federal authority for legislation, whereas section 92 gives rise to provincial powers. For matters not directly dealt with in the constitution, the federal government retai...
Anarchists are against the State but are not against political organization or "governance"—so long as it is self-governance utilizing direct democracy. The mode of political organization preferred by anarchists, in general, is federalism or confederalism. However, the anarchist definition of federalism tends to differ from the definition of federalism assumed by pro-state political scientists. The following is a brief description of federalism from section I.5 of An Anarchist FAQ: 1. "The social and political structure of anarchy is similar to that of the economic structure, i.e., it is based on a voluntary federation of decentralized, directly democratic policy-making bodies. These are the neighborhood and community assemblies and their confederations. In these grassroots political units, the concept of "self-management" becomes that of "self-government", a form of municipal organisation in which people take back control of their living places from the bureaucratic state and the c...
Federalism also finds expression in ecclesiology (the doctrine of the church). For example, presbyterian church governance resembles parliamentary republicanism (a form of political federalism) to a large extent. In Presbyterian denominations, the local church is ruled by elected elders, some of which are ministerial. Each church then sends representatives or commissioners to presbyteries and further to a general assembly. Each greater level of assembly has ruling authority over its constituent members. In this governmental structure, each component has some level of sovereignty over itself. As in political federalism, in presbyterian ecclesiology there is shared sovereignty. Other ecclesiologies also have significant representational and federalistic components, including the more anarchic congregational ecclesiology, and even in more hierarchical episcopal ecclesiology. Some Christians argue that the earliest source of political federalism (or federalism in human institutions; in...
Division of powers
In a federation, the division of power between federal and regional governments is usually outlined in the constitution. Almost every country allows some degree of regional self-government, in federations the right to self-government of the component states is constitutionally entrenched. Component states often also possess their own constitutions which they may amend as they see fit, although in the event of conflict the federal constitution usually takes precedence. In almost all federation...
The structures of most federal governments incorporate mechanisms to protect the rights of component states. One method, known as 'intrastate federalism', is to directly represent the governments of component states in federal political institutions. Where a federation has a bicameral legislature the upper house is often used to represent the component states while the lower house represents the people of the nation as a whole. A federal upper house may be based on a special scheme of apporti...
In Canada, the provincial governments represent regional interests and negotiate directly with the central government. A First Ministers conference of the prime minister and the provincial premiers is the de factohighest political forum in the land, although it is not mentioned in the constitution.
The meaning of federalism, as a political movement, and of what constitutes a 'federalist', varies with country and historical context. Movements associated with the establishment or development of federations can exhibit either centralising or decentralising trends.For example, at the time those nations were being established, factions known as "federalists" in the United States and Australia advocated the formation of strong central government. Similarly, in European Union politics, federalists mostly seek greater EU integration. In contrast, in Spain and in post-war Germany, federal movements have sought decentralisation: the transfer of power from central authorities to local units. In Canada, where Quebec separatism has been a political force for several decades, the "federalist" impulse aims to keep Quebec inside Canada.
Federalism, and other forms of territorial autonomy, is generally seen as a useful way to structure political systems in order to prevent violence among different groups within countries because it allows certain groups to legislate at the subnational level. Some scholars have suggested, however, that federalism can divide countries and result in state collapse because it creates proto-states.Still others have shown that federalism is only divisive when it lacks mechanisms that encourage political parties to compete across regional boundaries.
- The Origins of Québécois Nationalism
- La Survivance
- The Quiet Revolution
- Federal Government’S Responses
- Future Uncertainties
In this blog, I will therefore trace the origins of Québécois nationalism as well as elaborate upon its two different and distinct forms- the inward (la survivance) and outward (Quiet Revolution) nationalisms- to argue that its emergence was rooted in the Anglo-French tensionsaround different views espoused by English- and French-speaking Canadians on what constitutes Canadian Confederation. This blog will also address the ways the federal government of Canada tried to respond to Québec’s separatist demands. I will explain that the various mega- constitutional reforms, such as official bilingualism, the Meech Lake and Charlottetown Accords, which were implemented before 1995 and inspired by Pierre Trudeau’s centralist views, only widened the gap between the French- and English- Canadians. This has stimulated the Government to search for a different strategy, which now involved the non-constitutional reforms, such as asymmetric federalism and decentralized ‘open federalism’, which ev...
The country created by the 1867 British North America (BNA) Actwas “less a new nation than an irregular and multiform assemblage that granted some recognition and autonomy to preexisting nations.” However, different understandings of BNA Act’s interpretation of what constitutes Canadian Confederationbecame main sources of tensions between English- and French-Canadians. 1. The formerpromoted the idea of a united Canadian nation and viewed the Francophones’ beliefs of Quebec’s distinctiveness as an existential threat to Canada. 2. For the latter, on the other hand, the new federation had dualistor binational foundations and was “an arrangement that acknowledged the existence of a self-governing capacity of their own nation.” Since the federal system’s members are obliged to maintain different loyalties, besides a national, they also have a regional identity as well as a sociological sense of belonging to their communities. These factors influence different perceptions among Canadians...
The widespread historical mistreatment of the French language and culture by the Anglophones turned French-Canadians inward and forced them to adopt the nationalism of ‘survival’ (la survivance) as a self-protecting measure. The ideology of la survivanceportrayed Quebec as being dominated by English Canada through its involvement in various political and economic institutions of Quebec which, in turn, infringed upon and discriminated against the French language and culture. This ideology was promoted by the Roman Catholic Churchwhich served as an object of collective allegiance and preached against the involvement in the ‘evil’ capitalist economy and politics and in favor of serving the God by retaining the humble farmer’s lifestyle. Therefore, dominated by the corrupt and patronage-run Union Nationale under Maurice Duplessis (1936-39, 1944- 60), the economically poor and alienated Quebec ignored Ottawa by solely focusing on its own provincial developments and by avoiding careers in...
The Quiet Revolution“transferred national devotion from the church to the state of Quebec.” After the death of Duplessis in 1959 many of the functions previously administered by the Church and English business elites, such as education and economic development, were taken over by the newly elected Liberal government of Jean Lesage (1960-66). This period marked the dramatic change in the values and behavior of Quebecers, thus transforming the province’s stance from the isolationist nationalism to an outward and vibrant nationalism.
The bitter experiences during the previous two decades revealed that Canadians were only further divided along the national lines over the innovative ideas of their leaders. For instance, per Donald Ipperciel, Trudeau’s federalist solution to the ‘Quebec question’ was to create the Charter patriotism, or the universalism of constitutional principles, to serve “as a shield against national particularisms.”His vision of a united pan-Canadian Charter of Rights represented “the commonness of all Canadians, regardless of the diversity composing the country”and portrayed the Canadian purpose to be attached to a collective entity that spreads beyond the nation. Trudeau believed that by guaranteeing the individual rights it was possible to undermine the separatists’ collective rights appeal. However, Trudeau failed to understand that while “Charter patriotism is addressed to the inalienable rights of individuals, nationalism is concerned with individuals’ participation in collective decisio...
After 2000, however, there was no need to invoke any formal constitutional negotiations on Quebec sovereignty since the separatist aspirations have significantly waned. There are three important explanations behind the curtailment of Quebec’s separatist activities: 1. The first one has to do with the social movements that shifted their focus away from Quebec’s sovereignty to social justice aimed at addressing poverty and wealth redistribution, since Quebec’s domestic economy has deteriorated due to the earlier provincial governments’ focus on the welfare state’s cuts which subsequently weakened the unions. 1.1. Moreover, on a related sociological note, the Quebec youth of 2000s became largely depoliticized and stopped identifying with the sovereignty project. 1. The second explanation behind the curtailment of separatism is the neoliberal direction taken by the federal government. The neoliberal state has facilitated co-operation between both levels of government, which, in turn, ha...
Quebec’s political future is, however, riddled with uncertainties. As of today, there are some fears about the potential reawakening of the dormant Québécois secessionist movement. In fact, it seems like the Government of Canada has now substantial reasons for being concerned about the future destiny of Quebec within the Canadian borders: during the October 2019 election the Bloc Québécois(the largest nationalist party that advocates for Quebec’s separation from Canada) has won 32 seats, making it the third largest party in the House of Commons. However, if we analyze the issue on a more deeper level, it can be seen that the BQ’s success was not due to its separatist goals. Instead, the party succeeded precisely because they put this goal on the back burner, since “Quebec’s secession is supported by [only] about 30 percent of Quebecers.” Similarly, for the first time in four decades, the sovereignty issue was also sidelined during the 2018 provincialelections in Quebec. Such surpris...Abelson , Donald, Colleen Collins , Charles Breton , Alain G. Gagnon , and Andrew Parkin . “Millennial and Gen Z Francophones Don’t Value Quebec Nationalism.” Maclean’s , August 26, 2020. https://w...Bilefsky , Dan. “The Reawakening of Quebec’s Nationalism.” The New York Times , November 1, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/01/world/canada/Bloc-Quebecois-Nationalism.html.Changfoot, Nadine, and Blair Cullen. “Why Is Quebec Separatism off the Agenda? Reducing National Unity Crisis in the Neoliberal Era.” Canadian Journal of Political Science44(4) (December 2011): 769...Cochrane, Christopher, Kelly Blidook, and Rand Dyck. Canadian Politics: Critical Approaches. 8th ed. Nelson Education, 2017.
Aug 22, 2016 · Since April 2014, Québec is once again under the iron rule of a liberal and resolutely federalist government, fundamentally hostile to any will to national liberation, which has implemented a draconian austerity program and budget cuts in social programs.