Adventures from the Book of Virtues is an American animated children's television series based on the books The Book of Virtues: A Treasury of Great Moral Stories, and The Children's Book of Virtues, both by William Bennett, who served as Secretary of Education under President Ronald Reagan.
2017 Diamond League. The 2017 Diamond League was the eighth season of the annual series of outdoor track and field meetings, organised by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). It is the first to feature the new championship-style system in which overall event winners are determined only by the results of the final meet.
- 5 May – 1 September
LaWanda Page (born Alberta Peal; October 19, 1920 – September 14, 2002) was an American actress, comedian, and dancer whose career spanned six decades.Crowned "The Queen of Comedy" or "The Black Queen of Comedy", Page melded blue humor, signifyin', and observational comedy to joke about sexuality, race relations, African-American culture, and religion.
- Purim Narrative
- Scriptural and Rabbinical Sources
- Historical Views
- in Jerusalem
- Other Purims
- in Recent History
- in The Media
- See Also
The Book of Esther begins with a six-month (180-day) drinking feast given by King Ahasuerus for the army of Persia and Media and the satraps and princes of the 127 provinces of his kingdom, concluding with a seven-day drinking feast for the inhabitants of Shushan (Susa), rich and poor, and a separate drinking feast for the women organized by Queen Vashti in the pavilion of the royal courtyard. At this feast Ahasuerus gets thoroughly drunk, and at the prompting of his courtiers, orders his wife Vashti to display her beauty before the nobles and populace, wearing her royal crown (the Rabbis of the Oral Torah understand this that he wanted her to only be wearing her royal crown, meaning she would be naked, something she would have wanted to do, but due to a skin condition she refuses to do). Her refusal prompts Ahasuerus to have her removed from her post. Ahasuerus then orders all young women to be presented to him, so he can choose a new queen to replace Vashti. One of these is Esther...
The primary source relating to the origin of Purim is the Book of Esther, which became the last of the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible to be canonized by the Sages of the Great Assembly. It is dated to the fourth century BCE and according to the Talmudwas a redaction by the Great Assembly of an original text by Mordechai. The Tractate Megillah in the Mishnah (redacted c. 200 CE) records the laws relating to Purim. The accompanying Tosefta (redacted in the same period) and Gemara (in the Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmud redacted c. 400 CE and c. 600 CE respectively) record additional contextual details such as Queen Vashti having been the daughter of Belshazzar as well as details that accord with Josephus' such as Esther having been of royal descent. Brief mention of Esther is made in Tractate Hullin (Bavli Hullin 139b) and idolatry relating to worship of Haman is discussed in Tractate Sanhedrin (Sanhedrin61b). The work Esther Rabbah is a Midrashic text divided in two parts. The first pa...
Berossus (early third century BCE) provides context for the account in that he records the introduction of idols of Anahita under Artaxerxes II Mnemonthroughout the Persian Empire. The first-century CE historian Josephus recounts the origins of Purim in Book 11 of his Antiquities of the Jews. He follows the Hebrew Book of Esther but shows awareness of some of the additional material found in the Greek version (the Septuagint) in that he too identifies Ahasuerus as Artaxerxes and provides the...
Modern scholarship views
Some historians of the Near East and Persia argue that Purim does not actually have a historical basis. Amnon Netzer and Shaul Shaked argue that the names "Mordecai" and "Esther" are similar to those of the Babylonian gods Marduk and Ishtar. Scholars W.S. McCullough, Muhammad Dandamayev and Shaul Shaked say that the Book of Esther (despite its accurate details of the Achaemenid court) is historical fiction. Amélie Kuhrt says the Book of Esther was composed in the Hellenistic...
Purim has more of a national than a religious character, and its status as a holiday is on a different level than those days ordained holy by the Torah. Hallel is not recited. As such, according to some authorities, business transactions and even manual labor are allowed on Purim under certain circumstances. A special prayer ("Al ha-Nissim" – "For the Miracles") is inserted into the Amidah prayers during evening, morning and afternoon prayer services, and is also included in the Birkat Hamazon("Grace after Meals.") The four main mitzvot(obligations) of the day are: 1. Listening to the public reading, usually in synagogue, of the Book of Esther in the evening and again in the following morning (k'riat megillah) 2. Sending food gifts to friends (mishloach manot) 3. Giving charity to the poor (matanot la'evyonim) 4. Eating a festive meal (se`udat mitzvah) The three latter obligations only apply during the daytime hours of Purim.
It is common to greet one another on Purim in Hebrew Chag Purim Sameach, Freilichin Purim(in Yiddish) or "Purim Allegre" (in Ladino). The Hebrew greeting loosely translates to "Happy Purim Holiday" and the Yiddish and Ladino translate to "Happy Purim".
The custom of masquerading in costumes and the wearing of masks probably originated among the Italian Jews at the end of the 15th century. The concept was possibly influenced by the Roman carnival and spread across Europe. The practice was only introduced into Middle Eastern countries during the 19th century. The first Jewish codifier to mention the custom was Mahari Minz (d. 1508 at Venice). While most authorities are concerned about the possible infringement of biblical law if men don women...
Burning of Haman's effigy
As early as the fifth century, there was a custom to burn an effigy of Haman on Purim. The spectacle aroused the wrath of the early Christians who interpreted the mocking and "execution" of the Haman effigy as a disguised attempt to re-enact the death of Jesus and ridicule the Christian faith. Prohibitions were issued against such displays under the reign of Flavius Augustus Honorius (395–423) and of Theodosius II (408–450). The custom was popular during the Geonic period (ninth and tenth cen...
Shushan Purim falls on Adar 15 and is the day on which Jews in Jerusalem celebrate Purim. The day is also universally observed by omitting the Tachanunprayer and having a more elaborate meal than on ordinary days. Purim is celebrated on Adar 14 because the Jews in unwalled cities fought their enemies on Adar 13 and rested the following day. However, in Shushan, the capital city of the Persian Empire, the Jews were involved in defeating their enemies on Adar 13–14 and rested on the 15th (Esthe...
Purim Meshulash, or the three-fold Purim, is a somewhat rare calendric occurrence that affects how Purim is observed in Jerusalem (and, in theory at least, in other cities that were surrounded by a wall in ancient times). When Shushan Purim (Adar 15) falls on Sabbath, the holiday is celebrated over a period of three days. The megilla reading and distribution of charity takes place on the Friday (Adar 14), which day is called Purim dePrazos. The Al ha-Nissim prayer is only recited on Sabbath (...
During leap years on the Hebrew calendar, Purim is celebrated in the second month of Adar. (The Karaites, however, celebrate it in the first month of Adar.) The 14th of the first Adar is then called Purim Katan ("Little Purim" in Hebrew) and the 15th is Shushan Purim Katan, for which there are no set observances but it has a minor holiday aspect to it. The distinctions between the first and the second Purim in leap years are mentioned in the Mishnah.Certain prayers like Tachanun, Eil Erech Ap...
Communal and familial Purims
Historically, many Jewish communities around the world established local "Purims" to commemorate their deliverance from catastrophe or an antisemitic ruler or edict. One of the best known is Purim Vinz, traditionally celebrated in Frankfurt one week after the regular Purim. Purim Vinz commemorates the Fettmilch uprising (1616–1620), in which one Vincenz Fettmilch attempted to exterminate the Jewish community. According to some sources, the influential Rabbi Moses Sofer (the Chasam Sofer), who...
Adolf Hitler banned and forbade the observance of Purim. In a speech made on November 10, 1938 (the day after Kristallnacht), Julius Streichersurmised that just as "the Jew butchered 75,000 Persians" in one night, the same fate would have befallen the German people had the Jews succeeded in inciting a war against Germany; the "Jews would have instituted a new Purim festival in Germany". Nazi attacks against Jews were often coordinated with Jewish festivals. On Purim 1942, ten Jews were hanged in Zduńska Wola to "avenge" the hanging of Haman's ten sons. In a similar incident in 1943, the Nazis shot ten Jews from the Piotrków ghetto. On Purim eve that same year, over 100 Jewish doctors and their families were shot by the Nazis in Częstochowa. The following day, Jewish doctors were taken from Radom and shot nearby in Szydłowiec.In 1942, on Purim, the Nazis murdered over 5000 Jews, mostly children, in the Minsk Ghetto. All of the victims were shot and buried alive by the Nazis. In an ap...
The 1960 20th Century-Fox film Esther and the King stars Joan Collins as Esther and Richard Egan as Ahasuerus. It was filmed in Italy by director Raoul Walsh. The 2006 movie One Night with the Kingchronicles the life of the young Jewish girl, Hadassah, who goes on to become the Biblical Esther, the Queen of Persia, and saves the Jewish nation from annihilation at the hands of its arch enemy while winning the heart of the fiercely handsome King Xerxes. The 2006 comedy film For Your Consideration employs a film-within-a-film device in which the fictitious film being produced is titled Home for Purim, and is about a Southern Jewish family's Purim celebration. However, once the film receives Oscar buzz, studio executives feel it is "too Jewish" and force the film to be renamed Home for Thanksgiving.
- Early Life
- Personal Life
- External Links
Muti was born in Rome as Francesca Romana Rivelli, to a Neapolitan journalist father and Ilse Renate Krause, a Baltic German sculptor from Estonia. Her maternal grandparents emigrated from Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg, Russia) to Estonia.She has an older sister, Claudia (born 1950).
Muti modeled as a teenager and made her film debut in 1970 in La moglie più bella (aka The Most Beautiful Wife). She has primarily worked in Italian films but she made her English-speaking film debut as Princess Aura in Flash Gordon in 1980. American movies she appeared in include Love and Money (1982), Casanova (1987), Wait Until Spring, Bandini (1989), A Season of Giants (1990), Oscar (1991), Once Upon a Crime (1992), Somewhere in the City (1998) and To Rome with Love(2012). She is mostly known to the French for appearing in a television commercial of Giovanni Panzani pasta. She was voted "The Most Beautiful Woman in the World" in 1994 by a worldwide poll of readers of the magazine Class. In 2008, Muti introduced her own line of jewelry. She opened new shops in Paris, Milan, Rome, Riga, Moscow and Almaty.[when?] She reportedly insured her breasts for $350,000.[when?]
Muti has been married twice, first to Alessio Orano (a fellow actor in The Most Beautiful Wife), from 1975 to 1981. She was married, secondly, to Federico Fachinetti, from 1988 to 1996. Muti has three children: Naike Rivelli(born 1974), a fashion model, singer, and actress (whose father was believed to be Spanish film producer José Luis Bermúdez de Castro Acaso); a son, Andrea, and a second daughter, Carolina, both from her marriage to Fachinetti.Ornella Muti at IMDbOrnella Muti at the TCM Movie DatabaseOrnella Muti at AllMovie
- Alessio Orano, (m. 1975; div. 1981), Federico Facchinetti, (m. 1988; div. 1996)
- Francesca Romana Rivelli, 9 March 1955 (age 66), Rome, Italy
Loretta Devine is an American actress and singer.. Devine is known for numerous roles across stage and screen. Her most high profile roles include Lorrell Robinson in the original Broadway production of Dreamgirls, the long-suffering Gloria Matthews in the film Waiting to Exhale, and her recurring role as Adele Webber on the medical drama Grey's Anatomy, for which she won a Primetime Emmy ...
©Vashti Harrison 2017. About. Contac . The story of Queen Vashti: The Queen Who Said 'NO' Vi skulle vilja visa dig en beskrivning här men webbplatsen du tittar på tillåter inte detta ; Se Vashti R.s profil på LinkedIn, världens största yrkesnätverk. Vashti har angett 4 jobb i sin profil.