Vashti was Queen of Persia and the first wife of Persian King Ahasuerus in the Book of Esther. Ahasuerus ordered his chief eunuchs to carry out his command to bring Queen Vashti to stand before his courtiers and show off her exceptional beauty. But she was refused.
Vashti Bartlett (1873–1969), American nurse who served with the American Red Cross during World War I, and in Siberia and Manchuria after the war Vashti Bunyan (born 1945), English singer-songwriter Vashti Clarke, NY based Jamaican model, actress, and entrepreneur
Vashti A queen of Persia. (biblical character) A female given name from Persian of biblical origin.
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Nov 03, 2019 · Queen Vashti of Persia, Original Feminist? King Ahasuerus holds banquets for the members of his court and subsequently for his people, too; 180 days with his peers, and another seven days with the members of his court. The text describes it at considerable length [Ch 1, 1-8].
- November 3, 2019
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Queen Vashti of Persia, Original Feminist? King Ahasuerus holds banquets for the members of his court and subsequently for his people, too; 180 days with his peers, and another seven days with the members of his court. The text describes it at considerable length [Ch 1, 1-8].
The Book of Esther is a 2013 American biblical-drama film directed by David A. R. White and starring Jen Lilley as Esther. The film portrays a Jewish girl, Esther, who is chosen as the new queen consort to King Xerxes I of Persia and her efforts to stop evil Lord Haman's plot to exterminate the Jews.
Queen Vashti was opposed to the war, desiring King Xerxes to enhance his kingdom instead. She holds her own feast in protest against the war. When the king summons her to his feast, she refuses to come, stating, "I am queen, and I will not lower my dignity. Or shame my crown by wearing it before your drunk and thinly veiled war council".
Aug 13, 2012 · English: Queen Vashti Refuses to Obey Ahasuerus’ Command (Est. 1:10-22) Русский: Царица Астинь не захотела придти по приказу царя Артаксеркса (Есф. 1:10-22) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
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The Book of Esther begins with a six-month (180 day) drinking feast given by King Ahasuerus for the army of Persia and Media and the satraps and princes of the 127 provinces of his kingdom, concluding with a seven-day drinking feast for the inhabitants of Shushan (Susa), rich and poor, and a separate drinking feast for the women organized by Queen Vashtiin the pavilion of the royal courtyard. At this feast, Ahasuerus gets thoroughly drunk, and at the prompting of his courtiers, orders his wife Vashti to display her beauty before the nobles and populace, wearing her royal crown. The rabbis of the Oral Torah interpret this to mean that he wanted her to wear only her royal crown, meaning that she would be naked. Although she would have wanted to do this, she refuses due to a skin condition. Her refusal prompts Ahasuerus to have her removed from her post. Ahasuerus then orders all young women to be presented to him, so he can choose a new queen to replace Vashti. One of these is Esther,...
The primary source relating to the origin of Purim is the Book of Esther, which became the last of the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible to be canonized by the Sages of the Great Assembly. It is dated to the 4th century BCE and according to the Talmudwas a redaction by the Great Assembly of an original text by Mordechai. The Tractate Megillah in the Mishnah (redacted c.200 CE) records the laws relating to Purim. The accompanying Tosefta (redacted in the same period) and Gemara (in the Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmud redacted c.400 CE and c.600 CE respectively) record additional contextual details such as Queen Vashti having been the daughter of Belshazzar as well as details that accord with Josephus' such as Esther having been of royal descent. Brief mention of Esther is made in Tractate Hullin (Bavli Hullin 139b) and idolatry relating to worship of Haman is discussed in Tractate Sanhedrin (Sanhedrin61b). The work Esther Rabbah is a Midrashic text divided in two parts. The first part dat...
Berossus (early 3rd century BCE) provides context for the account in that he records the introduction of idols of Anahita under Artaxerxes II Mnemonthroughout the Persian Empire. The 1st century CE historian Josephus recounts the origins of Purim in Book 11 of his Antiquities of the Jews. He follows the Hebrew Book of Esther but shows awareness of some of the additional material found in the Greek version (the Septuagint) in that he too identifies Ahasuerus as Artaxerxes and provides the text...
Modern scholarship views
Some historians of the Near East and Persia argue that Purim does not actually have a historical basis. Amnon Netzer and Shaul Shaked argue that the names "Mordecai" and "Esther" are similar to those of the Babylonian gods Marduk and Ishtar. Scholars W.S. McCullough, Muhammad Dandamayev and Shaul Shaked say that the Book of Esther (despite its accurate details of the Achaemenid court) is historical fiction. Amélie Kuhrt says the Book of Esther was composed in the Hellenistic period and it sho...
Purim has more of a national than a religious character, and its status as a holiday is on a different level than those days ordained holy by the Torah. Hallel is not recited. As such, according to some authorities, business transactions and even manual labor are allowed on Purim under certain circumstances. A special prayer ("Al ha-Nissim" – "For the Miracles") is inserted into the Amidah prayers during evening, morning and afternoon prayer services, and is also included in the Birkat Hamazon("Grace after Meals"). The four main mitzvot(obligations) of the day are: 1. Listening to the public reading, usually in synagogue, of the Book of Esther in the evening and again in the following morning (k'riat megillah) 2. Sending food gifts to friends (mishloach manot) 3. Giving charity to the poor (matanot la'evyonim) 4. Eating a festive meal (se`udat mitzvah) The three latter obligations only apply during the daytime hours of Purim.
It is common to greet one another on Purim in Hebrew with "Chag Purim Sameach", in Yiddish with "Freilichin Purim" or in Ladino with "Purim Allegre". The Hebrew greeting loosely translates to "Happy Purim Holiday" and the Yiddish and Ladino translate to "Happy Purim".
The custom of masquerading in costumes and the wearing of masks probably originated among the Italian Jews at the end of the 15th century. The concept was possibly influenced by the Roman carnival and spread across Europe. The practice was only introduced into Middle Eastern countries during the 19th century. The first Jewish codifier to mention the custom was Mahari Minz (d. 1508 at Venice). While most authorities are concerned about the possible infringement of biblical law if men don women...
Burning of Haman's effigy
As early as the 5th century, there was a custom to burn an effigy of Haman on Purim. The spectacle aroused the wrath of the early Christians who interpreted the mocking and "execution" of the Haman effigy as a disguised attempt to re-enact the death of Jesus and ridicule the Christian faith. Prohibitions were issued against such displays under the reign of Flavius Augustus Honorius (395–423) and of Theodosius II (408–450). The custom was popular during the Geonic period (9th and 10th centurie...
Shushan Purim falls on Adar 15 and is the day on which Jews in Jerusalem celebrate Purim. The day is also universally observed by omitting the Tachanunprayer and having a more elaborate meal than on ordinary days. Purim is celebrated on Adar 14 because the Jews in unwalled cities fought their enemies on Adar 13 and rested the following day. However, in Shushan, the capital city of the Persian Empire, the Jews were involved in defeating their enemies on Adar 13–14 and rested on the 15th (Esthe...
Purim Meshulash, or the three-fold Purim, is a somewhat rare calendric occurrence that affects how Purim is observed in Jerusalem (and, in theory at least, in other cities that were surrounded by a wall in ancient times). When Shushan Purim (Adar 15) falls on the Sabbath, the holiday is celebrated over a period of three days. The megilla reading and distribution of charity takes place on the Friday (Adar 14), which day is called Purim dePrazos. The Al ha-Nissim prayer is only...
During leap years on the Hebrew calendar, Purim is celebrated in the second month of Adar. (The Karaites, however, celebrate it in the first month of Adar.) The 14th of the first Adar is then called Purim Katan ("Little Purim" in Hebrew) and the 15th is Shushan Purim Katan, for which there are no set observances but it has a minor holiday aspect to it. The distinctions between the first and the second Purim in leap years are mentioned in the Mishnah.Certain prayers like Tachanun, Eil Erech Ap...
Communal and familial Purims
Historically, many Jewish communities around the world established local "Purims" to commemorate their deliverance from catastrophe or an antisemitic ruler or edict. One of the best known is Purim Vinz, traditionally celebrated in Frankfurt one week after the regular Purim. Purim Vinz commemorates the Fettmilch uprising (1616–1620), in which one Vincenz Fettmilch attempted to exterminate the Jewish community. According to some sources, the influential Rabbi Moses Sofer (the Chasam Sofer), who...
Adolf Hitler banned and forbade the observance of Purim. In a speech made on 10 November 1938 (the day after Kristallnacht), the Nazi politician and prominent anti-Semite Julius Streichersurmised that just as "the Jew butchered 75,000 Persians" in one night, the same fate would have befallen the German people had the Jews succeeded in inciting a war against Germany; the "Jews would have instituted a new Purim festival in Germany". Nazi attacks against Jews were often coordinated with Jewish festivals. On Purim 1942, ten Jews were hanged in Zduńska Wola to "avenge" the hanging of Haman's ten sons. In a similar incident in 1943, the Nazis shot ten Jews from the Piotrków ghetto. On Purim eve that same year, over 100 Jewish doctors and their families were shot by the Nazis in Częstochowa. The following day, Jewish doctors were taken from Radom and shot nearby in Szydłowiec.In 1942, on Purim, the Nazis murdered over 5000 Jews, mostly children, in the Minsk Ghetto. All of the victims were...
The 1960 20th Century-Fox film Esther and the King stars Joan Collins as Esther and Richard Egan as Ahasuerus. It was filmed in Italy by director Raoul Walsh. The 2006 movie One Night with the Kingchronicles the life of the young Jewish girl, Hadassah, who goes on to become the Biblical Esther, the Queen of Persia, and saves the Jewish nation from annihilation at the hands of its arch enemy while winning the heart of the fiercely handsome King Xerxes. The 2006 comedy film For Your Consideration employs a film-within-a-film device in which the fictitious film being produced is titled Home for Purim, and is about a Southern Jewish family's Purim celebration. However, once the film receives Oscar buzz, studio executives feel it is "too Jewish" and force the film to be renamed Home for Thanksgiving.