5 days ago · Dezembro de 1974, poucos dias antes do Natal... Edward Dunford, aspirante a celebridade jornalística, é escalado para cobrir um caso tenebroso: o estrangulam...
- Export Markets
- End of Production
- Continued Popularity
- Other Models – NON-FACTORY
In 1934, family-owned Michelin, as the largest creditor, took over the bankrupt Citroën company. The new management commissioned a market survey, conducted by Jacques Duclos. France at that time had a large rural population which could not yet afford cars; Citroën used the survey results to prepare a design brief for a low-priced, rugged "umbrella on four wheels" that would enable four people to transport 50 kg (110 lb) of farm goods to market at 50 km/h (30 mph), if necessary across muddy, u...
World War II
On 3 September 1939, France declared war on Germany following that country's invasion of Poland. An atmosphere of impending disaster led to the cancellation of the 1939 motor show less than a month before it was scheduled to open.The launch of the 2CV was abandoned. During the German occupation of France in World War II Boulanger personally refused to collaborate with German authorities to the point where the Gestapo listed him as an "enemy of the Reich",under constant threat of arrest and de...
Citroën unveiled the car at the Paris Salon on 7 October 1948. The car on display was nearly identical to the 2CV type A that would be sold the next year, but it lacked an electric starter, the addition of which was decided the day before the opening of the Salon, replacing the pull cord starter. The canvas roof could be rolled completely open. The Type A had one stop light, and was only available in grey. The fuel level was checked with a dipstick/measuring rod, and the speedometer was attac...
The 2CV was originally sold in France and some European markets, and went on to enjoy strong sales in Asia, South America, and Africa. During the post-war years Citroën was very focused on the home market, which had some unusual quirks, like puissance fiscale. The management of Michelin was supportive of Citroën up to a point, and with a suspension designed to use Michelin's new radial tyres the Citroën cars clearly demonstrated their superiority over their competitors' tyres. But they were not prepared to initiate the investment needed for the 2CV (or the Citroën DS for that matter) to truly compete on the global stage. Citroën was always under-capitalised until the 1970s Peugeot takeover. The 2CV sold 9 million vehicles; the Volkswagen Beetle, which was available worldwide, sold 21 million units. Production of the 2CV in Belgiumwas from 1952 to 1980.
The Citroën factory offered several high volume variants on the 2CV running gear – the Ami; the Dyane; the Acadiane; and the Méhari. Additionally, the 2CV was built in a wide variety of joint ventures, often with modified designs. The 2CV and all its variants are collectively known as the A-Series.
The level of technology in the 1948 2CV was remarkable for the era. While colours and detail specifications were modified in the ensuing 42 years, the biggest mechanical change was the addition of front disc brakes (by then already fitted for several years in the mechanically similar Citroën Dyane 6), in October 1981 (for the 1982 model year). The reliability of the car was enhanced by the minimalist simplification of the designers, being air-cooled (with an oil cooler), it had no coolant, radiator, water pump or thermostat. It had no distributor either, just a contact breaker system. Except for the brakes, there were no hydraulic parts on original models; damping was by tuned mass dampers and friction dampers. The 1948 car featured radial tyres, which had just been commercialised; front-wheel drive; rack and pinion steering mounted inside the front suspension cross-tube, away from a frontal impact; rear fender skirts (the suspension design allowed wheel changes without removing the...
The engine was designed by Walter Becchia and Lucien Gerard,[unreliable source?] with a nod to the classic BMW boxer motorcycle engine. It was an air-cooled, flat-twin, four-stroke, 375 cc engine with pushrod operated overhead valves and a hemispherical combustion chamber. The earliest model developed 9 PS (8.9 bhp; 6.6 kW) DIN. A 425 cc engine was introduced in 1955, followed in 1970 by a 602 cc one giving 28 bhp (21 kW) at 7000 rpm. With the 602 cc engine, the tax classification of the car changed so that it became a 3CV, but the name remained unchanged. A 435 cc engine was introduced at the same time to replace the 425 cc; the 435 cc engine car was named 2CV 4 while the 602 cc took the name 2CV 6 (a variant in Argentina took the name 3CV). The 602 cc engine evolved to the M28 33 bhp (25 kW) in 1970; this was the most powerful engine fitted to the 2CV. A new 602 cc giving 29 bhp (22 kW) at a slower 5,750 rpm was introduced in 1979. This engine was less powerful, and more efficient...
In relation to the 2CV's performance and acceleration, it was joked that it went "from 0–60 km/h in one day". The original 1948 model that produced 9 hp[page needed]had a 0–40 km/h (0–25 mph) time of 42.4 seconds and a top speed of 64 km/h (40 mph), far below the speeds necessary for North American highways or the German Autobahns of the day. The top speed increased with engine size to 80 km/h (50 mph) in 1955, 84 km/h (52 mph) in 1962, 100 km/h (62 mph) in 1970, and 115 km/h (71 mph) in 1981. The last evolution of the 2CV engine was the Citroën Visa flat-twin, a 652 cc featuring electronic ignition. Citroën never sold this engine in the 2CV, but some enthusiasts have converted their 2CVs to 652 engines, or even transplanted Citroën GSor GSA flat-four engines and gearboxes. In the mid-1980s Car magazine editor Steve Cropley ran and reported on a turbocharged 602cc 2CV that was developed by engineer Richard Wilsher.[unreliable source?]
The 2CV was produced for 42 years, the model finally succumbing to customer demands for speed, in which this ancient design had fallen significantly behind modern cars, and safety. Although the front of the chassis was designed to fold up, to form a crumple zone according to a 1984 Citroën brochure, in common with other small cars of its era its crashworthiness was very poor by modern standards. (The drive for improved safety in Europe happened from the 1990s onwards, and accelerated with the 1997 advent of Euro NCAP.) Its advanced underlying engineering was ignored or misunderstood by the public, being clothed in an anachronistic body. It was the butt of many a joke, famously by Jasper Carrottin the UK. Citroën had attempted to replace the ultra-utilitarian 2CV several times (with the Dyane, Visa, and the AX). Its comically antiquated appearance became an advantage to the car, and it became a niche product which sold because it was different from anything else on s...
The Chrysler CCVor Composite Concept Vehicle developed in the mid-1990s is a concept car designed to illustrate new manufacturing methods suitable for developing countries. The car is a tall, roomy four-door sedan of small dimensions. The designers at Chrysler said they were inspired to create a modernised 2CV. The company Sorevie of Lodèvewas building 2CVs until 2002. The cars were built from scratch using mostly new parts. But as the 2CV no longer complied with safety regulations, the cars were sold as second-hand cars using chassis and engine numbers from old 2CVs. The long-running 2CV circuit racingseries organized by The Classic 2CV Racing Club continues to be popular in the UK. Some English nicknames include "Flying Dustbin", "Tin Snail", "Dolly", and "Tortoise".
Various 4×4 conversions were built by independent constructors, such as Marc Voisin, near Grenoble, some from a Méhari 4×4 chassis and a 2CV body. In the UK, Louis Barber builds single-engined four-wheel-drive 2CVs. In the late 1990s, Kate Humble from BBC Top Gear tested one against a Land Rover Defenderoff-road. The 2CV won. Another very different double front-ended, four-wheel drive (but not at the same time) 2CV, the 1952 Citroën Cogolin, also known as the Bicéphale, was built for the Fren...
Some owners wished to have more luggage capacity in the 2CV sedan. Early 2CV could be fitted with a rounded aftermarket boot (trunk) lid, reminiscent of a post-war "big boot" Traction Avant.Some late model owners fitted an extension to the car's boot. This used the original boot lid and hinges, but in a horizontal position with the extension underneath.
Kit cars and specials
Examples of 2CV-based kit sports cars include the Pembleton, Blackjack Avion and the Lomax from Britain, and Burton and Patron from the Netherlands. Most are also available as three wheelers (single wheel at the rear), like an early Morgan sports car. Some have been fitted with larger air-cooled twin-cylinder motorcycle engines. The German Hoffmann 2CVis a two door convertible. For transportation purposes, some saloon models were rebuilt into vans using fibreglass reconstructions of corrugate...Bellu, René (1979). Delville, Jean-Pierre (ed.). Toutes les Citroën, des origines à nos jours. ISBN 978-2-85922-014-3.Broustail, Joël (2020). Citroën et le citroënisme : essai historique sur la passion automobile et l'innovation [Citroën and Citroenism: Essay on the History of Automobile and Innovation] (in French...Chapman, Giles (2009). Illustrated Encyclopedia of Extraordinary Automobiles. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7566-9576-7.Clarke, R. M. (2000). Citroën 2CV Ultimate Portfolio. Brooklands Books. ISBN 978-1-85520-426-3.
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