- In 1832, Dutrochet showed that gas exchange in plants was via minute openings (stomata) on the surface of leaves and the deep cavities with which they communicate. He further demonstrated that only cells containing chlorophyll can fix carbon and thus transform light energy into chemical energy.
Jun 11, 2022 · Probability theory by Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal in the seventeenth century (with Gerolamo Cardano and Christiaan Huygens). Vernier scale by Pierre Vernier in 1631. Spirit level by Melchisédech Thévenot in 1661. Roberval Balance by Gilles de Roberval in 1669. Réaumur scale by René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur in 1730.