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  1. The Republic of Florence, officially the Florentine Republic, was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany. The republic originated in 1115, when the Florentine people rebelled against the Margraviate of Tuscany upon the death of Matilda of Tuscany, who controlled vast territories that included Florence. The Florentines formed a commune in her successors' place. The republic was ruled by a council known as the Signoria of Florence. The signor Read More

    Republic of Florence - Wikipedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Florence
  2. Republic of Florence - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Florence

    The Republic of Florence, officially the Florentine Republic, was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany. The republic originated in 1115, when the Florentine people rebelled against the Margraviate of Tuscany upon the death of Matilda of Tuscany, who controlled vast territories that included Florence. The Florentines formed a commune in her successors' place. The republic was ruled by a council known as the Signoria of Florence. The signor

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  3. Florence was founded as a Roman military colony about the 1st century bce, and during its long history it has been a republic, a seat of the duchy of Tuscany, and a capital (1865–70) of Italy. During the 14th–16th century Florence achieved preeminence in commerce and finance, learning, and especially the arts.

  4. Republic of Florence | Familypedia | Fandom

    familypedia.wikia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Florence
    • Background
    • Early Years
    • Florentine Banking, The Black Death and The Rise of The Medici
    • The Medicis' Florence
    • Savonarola’s Florence
    • 1498–1512
    • 1512–1533
    • Government
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The city of Florence was established in 59 B.C. by Julius Caesar. The city had been part of the Marquisate of Tuscany before the death of the aforementioned Margravine. The city had constituted a republic just before her death. The first official mention of the republic was in 1138, when several cities around Tuscany formed a league against Henry X of Bavaria. The country was nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire....

    Tuscany’s rule restored

    Florence prospered in the 12th century, trading extensively with foreign countries. This, in turn, provided a platform for demographic growth of the city. The growth of Florence's population mirrored the rate of construction, many churches and palazzi were built. This prosperity was shattered when Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa invaded the Italian peninsula in 1185. The Margraves of Tuscany re-acquired Florence and its townlads. The Florentines re-asserted their independence when Holy Roman E...

    The 13th century

    Florence’s population continued to grow into the 12th century, reaching 30,000 inhabitants. As has been said the extra inhabitants supported the city's trade and vice versa. Several new bridges and churches were built, most prominently the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, in 1294. The buildings from the era serve as Florence’s best example of Gothic Architecture. Politically, Florence was barely able to maintain peace between factions. The precarious peace that existed at the beginning of...

    The golden florin of the Republic of Florence was the first European gold coin struck in sufficient quantities to play a significant commercial role since the seventh century. As many Florentine banks were international companies with branches across Europe, the florin quickly became the dominant trade coin of Western Europe for large scale transactions, replacing silver bars in multiples of the mark (a weight unitequal to eight ounces). In fact, with the collapse of the Bonsignori family, several new banking families sprang up in Florence: the Bardis, Peruzzis and the Acciaioli. The friction between the Guelphs and the Ghibelliens did not cease, authority still passed between the two frequently. Florence's reign as the foremost banking city of Europe did not last long; the aforesaid families were bankrupt in 1340, largely because of Edward III of England’s refusal to pay his debts and a Europe-wide economic recession. The same year double-entry bookkeeping was invented. While the b...

    The founding of a dynasty

    The son of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, Cosimo de' Medici succeeded his father as the head of the Medici Bank. He played a prominent role in the government of Florence until his exile in 1433, after a disastrous war with Tuscany’s neighbour, the Republic of Lucca.Cosimo's exile in Venice lasted for less than a year, when the people of Florence overturned Cosimo’s exile in a democratic vote. Cosimo returned to the acclaim of his people and the banishment of the Albizzi family, who had exiled...

    Cosimo’s reign (1434–1464)

    The Renaissance began during Cosimo’s de facto rule of Florence, the seeds of which had arguably been laid before the Black Death tore through Europe. Niccolò Niccoli was the leading Florence humanist scholar of the time. He appointed the first Professor of Greek, Manuel Chrysolarus (the founder of Hellenic studies in Italy), at the University of Florence in 1397. Niccoli was a keen collector of ancient manuscripts, which he bequeathed to Cosimo upon his death in 1437. Bracciolini succeeded N...

    Piero the Gouty (1416–1469)

    Piero the Gouty was the eldest son of Cosimo. Piero, as his sobriquet the gouty implies, suffered from gout and did not enjoy good health. Lorenzo the Magnificent was Piero’s eldest son by his wife Lucrezia Tornabuoni. Piero’s reign furthered the always fractious political divisions of Florence. Cosimo had called up huge debts owed to the Medici Bank. These debts were owed primarily by a Florentine nobleman, Luca Pitti. Lucca called for an armed insurrection against Piero, but a co-conspirato...

    After the fall of the Medici, Girolamo Savonarola ruled the state. Savonarola was a priest from Ferrara, who came to Florence in the 1480s, and had won the people to his cause by his vigorous preaching, and his predictions. Savonarola’s new government ushered in democratic reforms. It allowed many exiles back into Florence, who were banished by the Medici. Savonarola had a secret scheme. The preacher intended to transform Florence into a hyper-religious “city of god”. Florentines stopped wearing garish colours, and many women took oaths to become nuns. Savonarola became most famous for his “Bonfire of the Vanities”, where he ordered all “vanities” to be gathered and burned. These included wigs, perfume, paintings, and ancient manuscripts.Savonarola’s Florence collapsed a year later. He was excommunicated by Pope Alexander VI in late 1497. In the same year, Florence embarked on a war with Pisa, who had been de factoindependent since Charles VIII’s invasion. The endeavour failed miser...

    The city was in tatters by the time Savonarola was deposed. The state was now presided over by Piero Soderini, who was elected ruler for life. This period saw a democracy in Florence, which had very little corruption. The republican government succeeded where Savonarola failed, when Secretary of War, Niccolò Machiavelli, achieved in capturing Pisa. It was at this time, that Machiavelli introduced a standing army for Florence, replacing the traditional use of hired mercenaries. Soderini was repudiated in September 1512, when Cardinal Giovanni de Medici captured Florence with Papal troops, during the War of the League of Cambrai, restoring Medici rule to the Italian city-state.

    Soon after arriving back in Florence, Cardinal Giovanni de Medici was beckoned to Rome. Julius II had just died, and he needed to be present for the ensuing Papal conclave. Giovanni was elected Pope, taking the name Leo X. This effectively brought the Papal States and Florence into a personal union.Leo X ruled Florence by proxy, appointing his brother Giuliano de Medici, to rule in his place. Giuliano ruled Florence until his death in 1516, and was succeeded by Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino. He fathered Catherine de' Medici. Lorenzo died from syphilis in 1519, just after the birth of his only child. The Medici channelled all their energy on the Papacy, which Leo X held from 1513–1521. Upon Leo’s death, the Papacy passed to Adrian VI, who ruled until 1523. Then Cardinal Giulio de' Medici was elected Pope Clement VII. Florence at the time was being ruled by Ippolito de' Medici and Alessandro de' Medici, under the guardianship of Cardinal Passerini. Ippolito was the son of Giuliano de Medici...

    Florence was governed by a council called the signoria, which consisted of nine men. The head of the signoria was the gonfaloniere, who was chosen every two months in a lottery, as was his signoria. To be eligible, one had to have sound finances, no arrears or bankruptcies, he had to be older than thirty, had to be a member of Florence's seven main guilds (merchant traders, bankers, two clothe guilds, and judges). The lottery was often pre-determined, and the results were usually favourable to influential families.The roster of names in the lottery were replaced every five years. The main organs of government were known as the tre maggiori. They were: the twelve good men, the standard bearers of the gonfaloniere, and the signoria. The first two debated and ratified proposed legislation, but could not introduce it. The gonfaloniere’s initial two month-term in office was expanded upon the fall of Savonarola in 1498, to life, much like that of the Venetian doge. The signoria held meeti...

    Duchy of Florence
    Grand Duchy of Tuscany
    History of Florence
  5. THE REPUBLIC OF FLORENCE - worldhistorybook.com

    www.worldhistorybook.com/post/the-republic-of...

    With this post I will start with an analysis of the Renaissance, which started in Florence, Italy. Based on the Roman model, Florence adopted a democratic form of government. The great humanist and historian Leonardo Bruni is quoted here celebrating the system: What city, therefore, can be more excellent, more noble? W

  6. Republic of Florence - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core

    infogalactic.com/info/Republic_of_Florence
    • Background
    • Early Years
    • The 14th Century
    • The Medici's Florence
    • Savonarola's Florence
    • 1498–1512
    • 1512–1533
    • Government
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The city of Florence was established in 59 B.C. by Julius Caesar. The city had been part of the Marquisate of Tuscany before the death of Margravine Matilda in 1115. The city did not submit readily to her successor, Rabodo, who was killed in a dispute with the city. The first official mention of the republic was in 1138, when several cities around Tuscany formed a league against Henry X of Bavaria. The country was nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire.

    Tuscany's rule restored

    Florence prospered in the 12th century, trading extensively with foreign countries. This, in turn, provided a platform for demographic growth of the city. The growth of Florence's population mirrored the rate of construction, many churches and palazzi were built. This prosperity was shattered when Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa invaded the Italian peninsula in 1185. The Margraves of Tuscany re-acquired Florence and its townlands. The Florentines re-asserted their independence when Holy Roman...

    The 13th century

    Florence's population continued to grow into the 13th century, reaching 30,000 inhabitants. As has been said the extra inhabitants supported the city's trade and vice versa. Several new bridges and churches were built, most prominently the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, in 1294. The buildings from the era serve as Florence's best example of Gothic Architecture. Politically, Florence was barely able to maintain peace between factions. The precarious peace that existed at the beginning of...

    Florentine banking, the Black Death and the rise of the Medici

    The golden florin of the Republic of Florence was the first European gold coin struck in sufficient quantities to play a significant commercial role since the 7th century. As many Florentine banks were international companies with branches across Europe, the florin quickly became the dominant trade coin of Western Europe for large scale transactions, replacing silver bars in multiples of the mark (a weight unitequal to eight ounces). In fact, with the collapse of the Bonsignori family, severa...

    Milan wars

    Beginning in 1389's Gian Galeazzo Visconti expanded his dominions into the Veneto, Piedmont, Emily and Tuscany. During this period Florence under the leadership of Maso degli Albizzi and Nicolo da Uzzano was involved in three wars with Milan (1390–92, 1397–98, 1400–02). Florentine army commanded by John Hawkwood contained the Milanese during the first war. The second war started in March 1397. Milanese troops devastated the Florentine contado, but were checked in August of that year. The war...

    Early 15th century

    The Visconti domains were divided between three heirs. Gabriele Maria Visconti sold Pisa to the Republic of Florence for 200,000 florins. Since the Pisans did not intend to voluntarily submit to their long-time rivals, the army under Maso degli Albizzitook Pisa on 9 October 1406 after a long siege, that was accompanied by numerous atrocities. The state authorities had been approached by the Duchy of Milan in 1422, with a treaty, that prohibited Florence's interference with Milan's impending w...

    The founding of a dynasty

    The son of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, Cosimo de' Medici succeeded his father as the head of the Medici Bank. He played a prominent role in the government of Florence until his exile in 1433, after a disastrous war with Tuscany's neighbour, the Republic of Lucca.Cosimo's exile in Venice lasted for less than a year, when the people of Florence overturned Cosimo's exile in a democratic vote. Cosimo returned to the acclaim of his people and the banishment of the Albizzi family, who had exiled...

    Cosimo's domination

    The Renaissance began during Cosimo's de facto rule of Florence, the seeds of which had arguably been laid before the Black Death tore through Europe. Niccolò Niccoli was the leading Florence humanist scholar of the time. He appointed the first Professor of Greek, Manuel Chrysoloras (the founder of Hellenic studies in Italy), at the University of Florence in 1397. Niccoli was a keen collector of ancient manuscripts, which he bequeathed to Cosimo upon his death in 1437. Poggio Bracciolini succ...

    After the fall of the Medici, Girolamo Savonarola ruled the state. Savonarola was a priest from Ferrara, who came to Florence in the 1480s, and had won the people to his cause by his vigorous preaching, and his predictions. Savonarola's new government ushered in democratic reforms. It allowed many exiles back into Florence, who were banished by the Medici. Savonarola's ulterior goal, however, was to transform Florence into a "city of god". Florentines stopped wearing garish colours, and many women took oaths to become nuns. Savonarola became most famous for his "Bonfire of the Vanities", where he ordered all "vanities" to be gathered and burned. These included wigs, perfume, paintings, and ancient manuscripts. Savonarola's Florence collapsed a year later. He was excommunicated by Pope Alexander VI in late 1497. In the same year, Florence embarked on a war with Pisa, which had been de facto independent since Charles VIII's invasion. The endeavour failed miserably, and this led to foo...

    The city was in tatters by the time Savonarola was deposed. The state was now presided over by Piero Soderini, who was elected ruler for life. This period saw a democracy in Florence, which had very little corruption. The republican government succeeded where Savonarola failed, when the Secretary of War, Niccolò Machiavelli, captured Pisa. It was at this time that Machiavelli introduced a standing army in Florence, replacing the traditional use of hired mercenaries. Soderini was repudiated in September 1512, when Cardinal Giovanni de Medici captured Florence with Papal troops during the War of the League of Cambrai. The Medici rule of Florence was thus restored.

    Soon after arriving back in Florence, Cardinal Giovanni de Medici was called to Rome. Pope Julius II had just died, and he needed to be present for the ensuing Papal conclave. Giovanni was elected Pope, taking the name Leo X. This effectively brought the Papal States and Florence into a personal union. Leo X ruled Florence by proxy, appointing his brother Giuliano de Medici, to rule in his place. Giuliano ruled Florence until his death in 1516, and was succeeded by Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino. He fathered Catherine de' Medici. Lorenzo died from syphilis in 1519, just after the birth of his only child. The Medici channelled all their energy on the Papacy, which Leo X held from 1513–1521. Upon Leo's death, the Papacy passed to Adrian VI, who ruled until 1523. Then Cardinal Giulio de' Medici was elected Pope Clement VII. Florence at the time was being ruled by Ippolito de' Medici and Alessandro de' Medici, under the guardianship of Cardinal Passerini. Ippolito was the son of Giuliano de Me...

    Florence was governed by a council called the signoria, which consisted of nine men. The head of the signoria was the gonfaloniere, who was chosen every two months in a lottery, as was his signoria. To be eligible, one had to have sound finances, no arrears or bankruptcies, he had to be older than thirty, had to be a member of Florence's seven main guilds (merchant traders, bankers, two cloth guilds, and judges). The lottery was often pre-determined, and the results were usually favourable to influential families.The roster of names in the lottery were replaced every five years. The main organs of government were known as the tre maggiori. They were: the twelve good men, the standard bearers of the gonfaloniere, and the signoria. The first two debated and ratified proposed legislation, but could not introduce it. The gonfaloniere's initial two month-term in office was expanded upon the fall of Savonarola in 1498, to life, much like that of the Venetian doge. The signoria held meetin...

  7. Republic of Florence : definition of Republic of Florence and ...

    dictionary.sensagent.com/Republic of Florence/en-en
    • Background
    • Early Years
    • Florentine Banking, The Black Death and The Rise of The Medici
    • The Medicis' Florence
    • Savonarola's Florence
    • 1498–1512
    • 1512–1533
    • Government
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The city of Florence was established in 59 B.C. by Julius Caesar. The city had been part of the Marquisate of Tuscany before the death of Margravine Matilda. The city had constituted a republic just before her death. The first official mention of the republic was in 1138, when several cities around Tuscany formed a league against Henry X of Bavaria. The country was nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire.[1]

    Tuscany's rule restored

    Florence prospered in the 12th century, trading extensively with foreign countries. This, in turn, provided a platform for demographic growth of the city. The growth of Florence's population mirrored the rate of construction, many churches and palazzi were built. This prosperity was shattered when Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa invaded the Italian peninsula in 1185. The Margraves of Tuscany re-acquired Florence and its townlands. The Florentines re-asserted their independence when Holy Roman...

    The 13th century

    Florence's population continued to grow into the 12th century, reaching 30,000 inhabitants. As has been said the extra inhabitants supported the city's trade and vice versa. Several new bridges and churches were built, most prominently the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, in 1294. The buildings from the era serve as Florence's best example of Gothic Architecture. Politically, Florence was barely able to maintain peace between factions. The precarious peace that existed at the beginning of...

    The golden florin of the Republic of Florence was the first European gold coin struck in sufficient quantities to play a significant commercial role since the seventh century. As many Florentine banks were international companies with branches across Europe, the florin quickly became the dominant trade coin of Western Europe for large scale transactions, replacing silver bars in multiples of the mark (a weight unitequal to eight ounces). In fact, with the collapse of the Bonsignori family, several new banking families sprang up in Florence: the Bardis, Peruzzis and the Acciaioli.[3] The friction between the Guelphs and the Ghibelliens did not cease, authority still passed between the two frequently. Florence's reign as the foremost banking city of Europe did not last long; the aforesaid families were bankrupt in 1340, largely because of Edward III of England's refusal to pay his debts and a Europe-wide economic recession. While the banks perished, Florentine literature flourished, a...

    The founding of a dynasty

    The son of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, Cosimo de' Medici succeeded his father as the head of the Medici Bank. He played a prominent role in the government of Florence until his exile in 1433, after a disastrous war with Tuscany's neighbour, the Republic of Lucca.[10]Cosimo's exile in Venice lasted for less than a year, when the people of Florence overturned Cosimo's exile in a democratic vote. Cosimo returned to the acclaim of his people and the banishment of the Albizzi family, who had exi...

    Cosimo's reign

    The Renaissance began during Cosimo's de facto rule of Florence, the seeds of which had arguably been laid before the Black Death tore through Europe. Niccolò Niccoli was the leading Florence humanist scholar of the time. He appointed the first Professor of Greek, Manuel Chrysoloras (the founder of Hellenic studies in Italy), at the University of Florence in 1397.[11] Niccoli was a keen collector of ancient manuscripts, which he bequeathed to Cosimo upon his death in 1437.[12] Bracciolini suc...

    Piero the Gouty

    Piero the Gouty was the eldest son of Cosimo. Piero, as his sobriquet the gouty implies, suffered from gout and did not enjoy good health. Lorenzo the Magnificent was Piero's eldest son by his wife Lucrezia Tornabuoni.[19] Piero's reign furthered the always fractious political divisions of Florence. Cosimo had called up huge debts owed to the Medici Bank. These debts were owed primarily by a Florentine nobleman, Luca Pitti.[20] Lucca called for an armed insurrection against Piero, but a co-co...

    After the fall of the Medici, Girolamo Savonarola ruled the state.[29] Savonarola was a priest from Ferrara, who came to Florence in the 1480s, and had won the people to his cause by his vigorous preaching, and his predictions. Savonarola's new government ushered in democratic reforms. It allowed many exiles back into Florence, who were banished by the Medici. Savonarola had a secret scheme. The preacher intended to transform Florence into a hyper-religious "city of god".[29] Florentines stopped wearing garish colours, and many women took oaths to become nuns.[30] Savonarola became most famous for his "Bonfire of the Vanities", where he ordered all "vanities" to be gathered and burned. These included wigs, perfume, paintings, and ancient manuscripts.[31] Savonarola's Florence collapsed a year later. He was excommunicated by Pope Alexander VI in late 1497. In the same year, Florence embarked on a war with Pisa, which had been de facto independent since Charles VIII's invasion. The en...

    The city was in tatters by the time Savonarola was deposed. The state was now presided over by Piero Soderini, who was elected ruler for life.[33] This period saw a democracy in Florence, which had very little corruption. The republican government succeeded where Savonarola failed, when the Secretary of War, Niccolò Machiavelli, captured Pisa. It was at this time that Machiavelli introduced a standing army in Florence, replacing the traditional use of hired mercenaries.[34] Soderini was repudiated in September 1512, when Cardinal Giovanni de Medici captured Florence with Papal troops during the War of the League of Cambrai. The Medici rule of Florence was thus restored.[35]

    Soon after arriving back in Florence, Cardinal Giovanni de Medici was beckoned to Rome. Julius II had just died, and he needed to be present for the ensuing Papal conclave. Giovanni was elected Pope, taking the name Leo X. This effectively brought the Papal States and Florence into a personal union.[36]Leo X ruled Florence by proxy, appointing his brother Giuliano de Medici, to rule in his place. Giuliano ruled Florence until his death in 1516, and was succeeded by Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino.[37][38] He fathered Catherine de' Medici. Lorenzo died from syphilis in 1519, just after the birth of his only child. The Medici channelled all their energy on the Papacy, which Leo X held from 1513–1521. Upon Leo's death, the Papacy passed to Adrian VI, who ruled until 1523. Then Cardinal Giulio de' Medici was elected Pope Clement VII.[39] Florence at the time was being ruled by Ippolito de' Medici and Alessandro de' Medici, under the guardianship of Cardinal Passerini. Ippolito was the son of Gi...

    Florence was governed by a council called the signoria, which consisted of nine men. The head of the signoria was the gonfaloniere, who was chosen every two months in a lottery, as was his signoria. To be eligible, one had to have sound finances, no arrears or bankruptcies, he had to be older than thirty, had to be a member of Florence's seven main guilds (merchant traders, bankers, two clothe guilds, and judges). The lottery was often pre-determined, and the results were usually favourable to influential families.[43] The roster of names in the lottery were replaced every five years.[44] The main organs of government were known as the tre maggiori. They were: the twelve good men, the standard bearers of the gonfaloniere, and the signoria. The first two debated and ratified proposed legislation, but could not introduce it. The gonfaloniere's initial two month-term in office was expanded upon the fall of Savonarola in 1498, to life, much like that of the Venetian doge.[45] The signor...

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  9. The Republic of Florence (from the twelfth to the sixteenth ...

    www.cairn-int.info/article-E_RFSP_646_1055--the...

    Consequently, the Republic of Florence and its political experiments are largely overlooked by French political scientists, and are likewise absent from public debate – despite the fact that Florence, and Italian comuni in general, could and should be a second pillar of political science research on the history of republican and democratic politics prior to the revolutions of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, alongside the well-known examples of Greek and Roman Antiquity.

    • Jean Boutier, Yves Sintomer, Sarah-Louise Raillard
    • 2014
  10. Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance . Renaissance ...

    www.pbs.org/empires/medici/renaissance/republic.html

    Florence in 1400 was extremely unusual. With no king, prince or duke, the city was an independent republic, run by the people, for the people It was not a perfect democracy but it worked and was ...

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