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  1. Richard of Cornwall - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard,_1st_Earl_of_Cornwall

    6 days ago · "The Charters of Richard of Cornwall for the Empire". Thirteenth Century England 12 (2009), pp. 183–92. Vincent, Nicholas. "Richard, first earl of Cornwall and king of Germany (1209–1272)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 2008 online [2004 print]. Weber, F. P.. "Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and His Coins as King of the Romans (1257 ...

  2. 1 day ago · RICHARD II (1367–1400), ‘of Bordeaux,’ king of England, was younger son of Edward, prince of Wales (‘The Black Prince’) [q. v.], and Joan, widow of Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, ‘the Fair Maid of Kent’ [q. v.] He was born in the abbey of St. Andrew at Bordeaux on 6 Jan. 1367, and was baptised in the cathedral three days later by ...

  3. Howard family - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_family

    4 days ago · The House of Howard is an English noble house founded by John Howard, who was created Duke of Norfolk (third creation) by King Richard III of England in 1483. However, John was also the eldest grandson (although maternal) of the 1st Duke of the first creation.

  4. Adolf, King of the Romans - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf,_King_of_the_Romans

    Oct 13, 2020 · Adolf (c. 1255 – 2 July 1298) was Count of Nassau from about 1276 and elected King of the Romans (King of Germany) from 1292 until his deposition by the prince-electors in 1298. He was never crowned by the Pope, which would have secured him the title of Holy Roman Emperor .

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  6. Burnham Abbey - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burnham_Abbey

    Sep 29, 2020 · The abbey was founded in 1265/6 by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, styled King of the Romans, the brother of King Henry III.Richard endowed it with several manors, including the manor of Burnham, and 'land appurtenant to the manor of Cippenham with a mill, fishery and other rights'.

  7. List of state leaders in 1260 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_state_leaders_in_1260

    Oct 05, 2020 · Holy Roman Empire – (disputed election) Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, King of the Romans (1257–1272) and Alfonso X of Castile, King of the Romans (1257–1284) County of Holland – Floris V (1256–1296) Kingdom of Hungary – Béla IV (1235–1270) Latin Empire of Constantinople – Baldwin II (1228–1273, titular after 1261)

  8. Brief History of Europe/High Middle Ages - Wikibooks, open ...

    en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Brief_History_of_Europe/...
    • States and Territories of The High Middle Ages
    • France and England
    • Holy Roman Empire
    • Christianity and The Great Schism
    • Islam and The Crusades
    • Mongol Invasions
    • Medieval Renaissances and Cultural Changes

    States and territories of the High Middle Ages included: Northern Europe 1. Britain Isles included England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. Nordic countries included Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, and lands of the Sami and Finns. Valdemar I of Denmark saw his country becoming a leading force in northern Europe. Western and Central Europe 1. Consisted of the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. Eastern Europe 1. In the Kingdom of Poland (1025–1569), Casimir III of Poland doubled the size of kingdom by the end of his reign (1333–1370) and considerably strengthened the nation. Around the Baltic Sea there were Finnic Estonians and Livonians; and Baltic Tribes, composed of Balts, including Old Prussians, Lithuanians, and Latvians. Further east was Kievan Rus' (882–1240; founded by the Rus' people), and the Novgorod Republic (1136–1478). The Balkans were dominated by five states: Hungary (which gained hegemony over Croatia, Bosnia, Slavonia, Dalmatia and Transylvania); Grand Principal...

    France

    France developed from West Francia (the Kingdom of the West Franks, 843–987), formed from the division of the Carolingian Empire under the Treaty of Verdun (843). Until 987 they were ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, Robertian dynasty, and Bosonid dynasty. From 987, France was ruled by the Capetian dynasty, beginning with Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris. The lands directly controlled and taxed by the French king were known as the domaine royal, and these would grow as the French...

    Normans

    Normans: came from Normandy, a northern region of France, and were descended from Vikings and indigenous Gallo-Romans and Franks. They gained gained political legitimacy in 911 when the Viking leader Rollo agreed to swear allegiance to King Charles III of West Francia, in exchange for ceding them lands. Culturally, they were known for their Norman architecture (also known as Romanesque architecture); they adopted a Gallo-Romance language called Norman French. From the 11th century onwards the...

    England and the Angevin Empire

    After the Norman conquest of England, which began with the Battle of Hastings (1066), England was ruled by the House of Normandy; the reign of William the Conqueror(1066–1087), was followed by that of his sons William II (1087–1100) and Henry I (1100–1135). But after the death of Henry I, a succession crisis between the Empress Matilda (Henry I's daughter), and Stephen of Blois (Henry I's nephew), brought about the Anarchy(1135–1153), a period of civil war between the claimants. The Anarchy w...

    Holy Roman Empire (962–1806), of Emperor Otto I the Great, was a union of East Francia and Italy. Otto was a Saxon, and Duke of Saxony and King of East Francia from 936; King of Italy from 961; and Holy Roman Emperor between 962–973, after a large interregnum (gap) between 924–962 (38 years). The Nazis considered it to be the first German Reich (Deutsches Reich), where reichis roughly comparable to "realm". Before their coronation as emperors, or as heir-apparents, their rulers were designated as kings, most commonly as "King of the Romans". By 947, the former Francia had divided into four kingdoms: West Francia; East Francia; Kingdom of Italy; Kingdom of Arles. East Francia and the Kingdom of Italy initially formed the Holy Roman Empire; later on Bohemia (which was never part of Francia) and the Kingdom of Arles joined. West Francia would go on to form the Kingdom of France. 1. 1.East Francia by 962 had six stem duchies: (i) Franconia; (ii) Swabia (former Alamannia); (iii) Saxony;...

    Christianity: is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the teachings of Jesus Christ as described in the New Testament. Christians, the members of the faith, believe that Jesus is the Messiah as prophesied in the Old Testament; and, apart from Nontrinitarians, that God is a Holy Trinity of the Father, the Son of God (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. Early Christianity was from its origins (c. 30–36) until the First Council of Nicaea (325); this created the Nicene Creed and was the first ecumenical council. Constantine the Great(who reigned East 306–324, and East and West 324–337) was the first Christian Roman Emperor. By the time of the 6th century, Christianity was dominate throughout Europe, but not including northern and eastern Europe, and Scandinavia. By the time of the 11th century, the majority of Europe was Christianised, with the exception of some Baltic states and eastern Scandinavia, and Islamic Iberia. Great Schism, or East–West Schism, of 1054: the Roman Cathol...

    Islam before the Mongol invasions

    The Islamic Golden Age continued into the High Middle Ages. Although the influence of the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258) would wane, they would continue to be recognized as caliphs by most Islamic dynasties, and would survive until the Mongol invasions. The Iranian Intermezzo ended with the rise of some Islamic Turkic dynasties in the Middle East; these included: 1. Ghaznavid dynasty(977–1186) was a Turkic Sunni Muslim dynasty that gained territories, including from both the Iranian Samanids an...

    Crusades and crusaders

    The crusades were a series of holy wars, predominantly Christians against Muslim-held territories. The immediate cause was the Byzantine–Seljuk wars(1048–1308), an ongoing conflict over Anatolia, and in 1095 the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos requested military aid from Pope Urban II; Urban II responded by calling for war against the Seljuk Turks in the Holy Land. The crusaders opened trade routes which enabled the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become major economic powers....

    Crusades to the Holy Land and Latin Empire

    There were nine numbered Crusades to the Holy Land (1095–1291), but there were many additional ones. The popular crusades(1096–1320) were unsanctioned by the Church, and were minor crusades which achieved very little; they included the People's Crusade (1096), Children's Crusade (1212), Shepherds' Crusade (of 1251 and 1320), and Crusade of the Poor (1309). The Seljuks held Jerusalem, from 1073–1098; before that it had been held by the Byzantines (to 638) and the Caliphates. After that, Jerusa...

    Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire in 1206; it eventually covered most of central Asia from the west to east. Mongolsoriginated from Mongolia, and spoke the Mongolian language; they were a group of steppe nomads. Khan is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongols living to the north of China. An estimated 30 to 80 million people were killed under the rule of the Mongol Empire. By c. 1294, with the death of Kublai Khan, it had fractured into independent states: 1. Golden Horde(1242–1502), a khanate in the north-west, mostly north of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. It would disintegrate to many other khanates in the fifteenth century. 2. Ilkhanate(1256–1335) a short-lived khanate in the south-west, across the Middle East and Persia. 3. Chagatai Khanate(1226–1705) in central Asia, centered on present-day Kyrgyzstan. It would decline to other dynasties. 4. Yuan dynasty(1271–1368) in the east, succeeded the Song dynasty (960–1279). Based in modern-day Beijing, it inc...

    Medieval renaissances can refer to various movements in the latter half of the Early Middle Ages, and during the High Middle Ages. 1. Carolingian renaissance, of the 8th and 9th centuries, was a period of renewed cultural and intellectual movements associated with the rise of the Carolingian Empire, and the Carolingian court. 2. Ottonian renaissance, of the 10th and 11th centuries, was a similar phenomenon associated with the Ottonian period of the Holy Roman Empire. Otto I, Otto II and Otto III ruled the culturally Germanic empire between 936–1002, and created a revival particularly in arts and architecture. 3. Renaissance of the 12th century:included social, political and economic transformations; intellectual revitalization (philosophical and scientific). It included Latin translations of Arabic sources. In the thirteenth century, Thomas Aquinas developed scholasticism (early critical thought in a religious context) with his Summa Theologica; written between 1265 and 1274, it was...

  9. Henry of Almain - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_of_Almain

    3 days ago · Henry of Almain (Anglo-Norman French: Henri d'Almayne) (2 November 1235 – 13 March 1271) was the son of Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall and his first wife Isabel Marshal. [2] [3] His surname is derived from a vowel shift in pronunciation of d'Allemagne (English: of Germany), so called by the elites of England because of his father's status as ...

  10. Henry III of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III_of_England

    1 day ago · Henry was born in Winchester Castle on 1 October 1207. He was the eldest son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême. Little is known of Henry's early life. He was initially looked after by a wet nurse called Ellen in the south of England, away from John's itinerant court, and probably had close ties to his mother.

  11. Legends of a Roman Port in Lancashire – Stories from ...

    lancashiremuseumsstories.wordpress.com/2020/10/...

    Oct 16, 2020 · For the ancient Romans these names represented tribal or ethnic identities of the peoples of Northern England who the Romans knew as ‘Brigantes’, which meant something like ‘Highlanders’. The Brigantes were the largest tribe in the province according to the Roman historian Tacitus ( Agricola 17.1).

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