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  1. 15 hours ago · West Side Story is a musical conceived by Jerome Robbins with music by Leonard Bernstein, lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, and a book by Arthur Laurents.. Inspired by William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet, the story is set in the mid-1950s in the Upper West Side of New York City, then a multiracial, blue-collar neighborhood.

  2. 15 hours ago · Academy Award for Best Original Score. The Academy Award for Best Original Score is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to the best substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically for the film by the submitting composer. Some pre-existing music is allowed ...

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    • Alain Boublil, Claude-Michel Schönberg
    • Alain Boublil, Jean-Marc Natel
  4. 15 hours ago · Stephen Joshua Sondheim (/ ˈ s ɒ n d h aɪ m / SOND-hyme; March 22, 1930 – November 26, 2021) was an American composer and lyricist.Among the most important figures in 20th-century musical theater, Sondheim was praised for having "reinvented the American musical" with shows that tackled "unexpected themes that range far beyond the [genre's] traditional subjects" with "music and lyrics of ...

  5. › wiki › Scott_JoplinScott Joplin - Wikipedia

    • Early Life
    • Life in The Southern States and Chicago
    • Life in Missouri
    • Later Years and Death
    • Works
    • Legacy
    • Revival
    • Other Awards and Recognition
    • Bibliography
    • Further Reading

    Joplin was the second of six children born to Giles Joplin, a former slave from North Carolina, and Florence Givens, a freeborn African-American woman from Kentucky. His birth date was accepted by early biographers Rudi Blesh and James Haskins as November 24, 1868, although later biographer Edward Berlin showed this was "almost certainly incorrect". There is disagreement over his exact place of birth in Texas, with Blesh identifying Texarkana,and Berlin showing the earliest record of Joplin being the June 1870 census which locates him in Linden, as a two-year-old. By 1880, the Joplins moved to Texarkana, Arkansas, where Giles worked as a railroad laborer and Florence as a cleaner. As Joplin's father had played the violin for plantation parties in North Carolina and his mother sang and played the banjo,Joplin was given a rudimentary musical education by his family, and from the age of seven he was allowed to play the piano while his mother cleaned. At some point in the early 1880s, G...

    In the late 1880s, having performed at various local events as a teenager, Joplin gave up his job as a railroad laborer and left Texarkana to become a traveling musician. Little is known about his movements at this time, although he is recorded in Texarkana in July 1891 as a member of the Texarkana Minstrels, who were raising money for a monument to Jefferson Davis, president of the former Confederate States of America. However, Joplin soon learned that there were few opportunities for Black pianists. Churches and brothels were among the few options for steady work. Joplin played pre-ragtime "jig-piano" in various red-light districts throughout the mid-South, and some claim he was in Sedalia and St. Louis, Missouri, during this time. In 1893, while in Chicago for the World's Fair, Joplin formed a band in which he played cornet and also arranged the band's music. Although the World's Fair minimized the involvement of African-Americans, Black performers still came to the saloons, café...

    In 1894, Joplin arrived in Sedalia, Missouri. At first, Joplin stayed with the family of Arthur Marshall. At the time, Marshall was a 13-year-old boy, but he later became one of Joplin's students and a ragtime composer in his own right.There is no record of Joplin having a permanent residence in the town until 1904, as Joplin was making a living as a touring musician. There is little precise evidence known about Joplin's activities at this time, although he performed as a solo musician at dances and at the major black clubs in Sedalia, the Black 400 Club and the Maple Leaf Club. He performed in the Queen City Cornet Band and his own six-piece dance orchestra. A tour with his own singing group, the Texas Medley Quartet, gave him his first opportunity to publish his own compositions, and it is known that he went to Syracuse, New York, and Texas. Two businessmen from New York published Joplin's first two works, the songs "Please Say You Will" and "A Picture of Her Face", in 1895. Jopli...

    In 1907, Joplin moved to New York City, which he believed was the best place to find a producer for a new opera. After his move to New York, Joplin met Lottie Stokes, whom he married in 1909. In 1911, unable to find a publisher, Joplin undertook the financial burden of publishing Treemonisha himself in piano-vocal format. In 1915, as a last-ditch effort to see it performed, he invited a small audience to hear it at a rehearsal hall in Harlem. Poorly staged and with only Joplin on piano accompaniment, it was "a miserable failure" to a public not ready for "crude" Black musical forms—so different from the European grand opera of that time. The audience, including potential backers, was indifferent and walked out. Scott writes that "after a disastrous single performance...Joplin suffered a breakdown. He was bankrupt, discouraged, and worn out." He concludes that few American artists of his generation faced such obstacles: "Treemonisha went unnoticed and unreviewed, largely because Jopl...

    The combination of classical music, the musical atmosphere present around Texarkana (including work songs, gospel hymns, spirituals and dance music) and Joplin's natural ability have been cited as contributing significantly to the invention of a new style that blended African-American musical styles with European forms and melodies and first became celebrated in the 1890s: ragtime. When Joplin was learning the piano, serious musical circles condemned ragtime because of its association with the vulgar and inane songs "cranked out by the tune-smiths of Tin Pan Alley." As a composer, Joplin refined ragtime, elevating it above the low and unrefined form played by the "wandering honky-tonk pianists...playing mere dance music" of popular imagination. This new art form, the classic rag, combined Afro-American folk music's syncopation and 19th-century European romanticism, with its harmonic schemes and its march-like tempos. In the words of one critic: "Ragtime was Afro-Ameri...

    Joplin and his fellow ragtime composers rejuvenated American popular music, fostering an appreciation for African-American music among European-Americans by creating exhilarating and liberating dance tunes. "Its syncopation and rhythmic drive gave it a vitality and freshness attractive to young urban audiences indifferent to Victorian proprieties...Joplin's ragtime expressed the intensity and energy of a modern urban America." Joshua Rifkin, a leading Joplin recording artist, wrote, "A pervasive sense of lyricism infuses his work, and even at his most high-spirited, he cannot repress a hint of melancholy or adversity...He had little in common with the fast and flashy school of ragtime that grew up after him." Joplin historian Bill Ryerson adds that "In the hands of authentic practitioners like Joplin, ragtime was a disciplined form capable of astonishing variety and subtlety...Joplin did for the rag what Chopin did for the mazurka. His style ranged from tones of torment to stunning...

    After his death in 1917, Joplin's music and ragtime in general waned in popularity as new forms of musical styles, such as jazz and novelty piano, emerged. Even so, jazz bands and recording artists such as Tommy Dorsey in 1936, Jelly Roll Morton in 1939 and J. Russel Robinson in 1947 released recordings of Joplin compositions. "Maple Leaf Rag" was the Joplin piece found most often on 78 rpmrecords. In the 1960s, a small-scale reawakening of interest in classical ragtime was underway among some American music scholars, such as Trebor Tichenor, William Bolcom, William Albright and Rudi Blesh. Audiophile Records released a two-record set, The Complete Piano Works of Scott Joplin, The Greatest of Ragtime Composers, performed by Knocky Parker, in 1970. In 1968, Bolcom and Albright interested Joshua Rifkin, a young musicologist, in the body of Joplin's work. Together, they hosted an occasional ragtime-and-early-jazz evening on WBAI radio. In November 1970, Rifkin released a recording call...

    1970: Joplin was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame by the National Academy of Popular Music.
    1976: Joplin was awarded a special Pulitzer Prize"bestowed posthumously in this Bicentennial Year, for his contributions to American music."
    1977: Motown Productions produced Scott Joplin, a biographical film starring Billy Dee Williams as Joplin, released by Universal Pictures.
    1983: the United States Postal Serviceissued a stamp of the composer as part of its Black Heritage commemorative series.


    1. Blesh, Rudi (1981). "Scott Joplin: Black-American Classicist". In Lawrence, Vera Brodsky (ed.). Scott Joplin – Complete Piano Works. New York Public Library. ISBN 0-87104-272-X. 2. Berlin, Edward A. (1994). King of Ragtime: Scott Joplin and His Era. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510108-1. 3. Crawford, Richard (2001). America's Musical Life: A History. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-04810-1. 4. Curtis, Susan (1999). Christensen, Lawrence O (ed.). Dictionary of Missouri Biography. Univer...


    1. Berlin, Edward A. (1998). "A Biography of Scott Joplin". The Scott Joplin International Ragtime Foundation. Archived from the original on February 24, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2009. 2. Berlin, Edward A. (2012). "Scott Joplin: Brief Biographical Sketch". Edward A. Berlin. Retrieved April 3, 2012. 3. Edwards, "Perfessor" Bill (2008). "Rags & Pieces by Scott Joplin, 1895–1905". Archived from the original on June 6, 2009. Retrieved November 14, 2009. 4. Edwards, "Perfessor" Bill (2010). ""...


    1. Albrecht, Theodore (1979). Julius Weiss: Scott Joplin's First Piano Teacher. 19. Case Western University College Music Symposium. pp. 89–105. 2. Anon. (1974a). "Best Selling Classical LPs". Billboard (September 28, 1974): 61. Retrieved July 29, 2011. 3. Anon. (1974b). "Hot 100". Billboard (May 18, 1974): 64. Retrieved August 5, 2011. 4. Rich, Alan (1979). "Music". New York Magazine. New York Media LLC (December 24, 1979): 81. Retrieved August 5, 2011.

    Due, Tananarive (2005). Joplin's Ghost. New York: Artria Books. ISBN 0-743-44904-5.
    Gioia, Ted (1997). The History of Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509081-0.
    MaGee, Jeffrey (1998). "Ragtime and Early Jazz". In David Nicholls (ed.). The Cambridge History of American Music. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45429-8.
    Palmer, Tony (1976). All You Need Is Love /The Story Of Popular Music. Book Club Associates. ISBN 978-0-670-11448-1.
    • Composer, pianist, music teacher
    • November 24 c. 1868, Texas, U.S.
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