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- Reasons For The Attack
- U.S. Capitol
- White House
- Other Property in Washington
- A Hurricane and Tornado Put Out The Fires and Drove Out The British
- Further Reading
The British government, absorbed in a life-or-death struggle with Napoleonic France, adopted a defensive strategy against the United States when the Americans declared war in 1812. Re-inforcements were held back from Canada and reliance was instead made on local militias and native allies to bolster the British Army in the Canadas. However, after the defeat and exile of Napoleon Bonaparte in April, 1814, Britain was able to use its now available troops and ships to prosecute the war with the United States. In addition to reinforcements sent to Canada, the Earl of Bathurst, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, dispatched an army Brigade and additional naval vessels to Bermuda, from where a blockade of the American coast and even the occupation of some coastal islands had been overseen throughout the war. It was decided to use these forces in raids along the Atlantic seaboard to draw American forces away from Canada. The commanders were under strict orders, however, not to car...
President James Madison and members of the military and his government fled the city in the wake of the British victory at the Battle of Bladensburg. They eventually found refuge for the night in Brookeville, a small town in Montgomery County, Maryland, which is known today as the United States Capital for a Day. President Madison spent the night in the house of Caleb Bentley, a Quaker who lived and worked in Brookeville. Bentley's house, known today as the Madison House, still stands in Brookeville. Captain Blanshard of the Corps of Royal Engineers with his company of Sappers and Miners was employed in burning the principle buildings. He reported that it seemed that the American President was so sure that the attacking force would be made prisoners that a handsome entertainment had been prepared. Blanshard and his sappers enjoyed the feast.:358
The Capitol was, according to some contemporary travelers, the only building in Washington "worthy to be noticed." Thus, it was a prime target for the invaders, both for its aesthetic and symbolic value. After looting the building, the British found it difficult to set the structure on fire, owing to its sturdy stone construction. Soldiers eventually gathered furniture into a heap and ignited it with rocket powder, which successfully set the building ablaze. Among the casualties of the destruction of the Capitol was the Library of Congress, the entire 3,000 volume collection of which was destroyed. Several surrounding buildings in Capitol Heights also caught fire. After the war, Thomas Jeffersonsold his own personal library to the government in order to pay personal debts, re-establishing the Library of Congress.
After burning the Capitol, the troops turned northwest up Pennsylvania Avenue toward the White House. After US government officials and President Madison fled the city, the First Lady Dolley Madison received a letter from her husband, urging her to be prepared to leave Washington at a moment's notice. Dolley organized the slaves and staff to save valuables from the British. James Madison's personal slave, the fifteen-year-old boy Paul Jennings, was an eyewitness.After later buying his freedom from the widow Dolley Madison, Jennings published his memoir in 1865, considered the first from the White House: Jennings said the people who saved the painting and removed the objects actually were: The soldiers burned the president's house, and fuel was added to the fires that night to ensure they would continue burning into the next day. In 2009, President Barack Obama held a ceremony at the White House to honor Jennings as a representative of his contributions to saving the Gilbert Stuart p...
The day after the destruction of the White House, Rear Admiral Cockburn entered the building of the D.C. newspaper, the National Intelligencer, intending to burn it down. However, several women persuaded him not to because they were afraid the fire would spread to their neighboring houses. Cockburn wanted to destroy the newspaper because its reporters had written so negatively about him, branding him as "The Ruffian." Instead, he ordered his troops to tear the building down brick by brick, ordering all the "C" type destroyed "so that the rascals can have no further means of abusing my name." The British sought out the United States Treasury in hopes of finding money or items of worth, but the British Army only found old records. The British burned the United States Treasury and other public buildings. The United States Department of War building was also burned-however the War and State Department files had been removed-all books and records had been saved; the only records of the W...
Less than a day after the attack began, a sudden very heavy thunderstorm - possibly a hurricane - put out the fires. It also spun off a tornado that passed through the center of the capital, setting down on Constitution Avenue lifting two cannons before dropping them several yards away and killing British troops and American civilians alike. The storm spooked the British troops and forced them to return to their ships, many of which were badly damaged. The British occupation of Washington lasted only about 26 hours. Despite this, the "Storm that saved Washington"as it became known, did the opposite according to some. The rains sizzled and cracked the already charred walls of the White House and ripped away at structures the British had no plans to destroy (such as the Patent Office). The storm may have exacerbated an already dire situation for Washington DC. An encounter was noted between Sir George Cockburn 10th Baronet and a female resident of Washington. "Dear God! Is this the we...
Most contemporary American observers, including newspapers representing anti-war Federalists, condemned the destruction of the public buildings as needless vandalism. Many of the British public were shocked by the burning of the Capitol and other buildings at Washington; such actions were denounced by most leaders of continental Europe. According to The Annual Register, the burning had "...brought a heavy censure on the British character," with some members of Parliament, including the anti-establishment MP Samuel Whitbread,joining in the criticism. The majority of British opinion believed that the burnings were justified following the damage that United States forces had done with its incursions into Canada. In addition, they noted that the United States had been the aggressor, declaring war and initiating it. Several commentators regarded the damages as just revenge for the American destruction of the Parliament buildings and other public buildings in York, the provincial capital...
The thick sandstone walls of the White House and Capitol survived, although scarred with smoke and scorch marks. There was a strong movement in Congress to relocate the nation's capital with many northern Congressmen pushing for a city north of the Mason–Dixon line. Philadelphia was quick to volunteer as a temporary home as did Georgetown, where Mayor Thomas Corcoran offered Georgetown College as a temporary home for Congress. Ultimately, a bill to relocate the capital was defeated in Congress and Washington remained the seat of government. Fearful that there might be pressure to relocate the capital altogether, Washington businessmen financed the construction of the Old Brick Capitol, where Congress met while the Capitol was reconstructed from 1815 to 1819. Madison resided in The Octagon House for the remainder of his term. Reconstruction of the White House began in early 1815 and was finished in time for President James Monroe's inauguration in 1817.
1. Adams, George R.; Christian, Ralph, eds. (November 1, 1975). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory — Nomination Form" (PDF). National Park Service. pp. 1&ndas, 18. Retrieved July 17, 2009. 2. Crawford, Michael J. (Ed) (2002). The Naval War of 1812: A Documentary History, Vol. 3. Washington: United States Department of Defense. ISBN 9780160512247 3. Cruikshank, Ernest (2006) . The Documentary History of th...Latimer, Jon. 1812: War with America, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007. ISBN 0-674-02584-9Martin, John. "The British Are Coming: Historian Anthony Pitch Describes Washington Ablaze," LC Information Bulletin, September 1998Pack, A. James. The Man Who Burned The White House, Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1987. ISBN 0-87021-420-9Phelan, Mary Kay. The Burning of Washington: August 1814, Ty Crowell Co, 1975. ISBN 0-690-00486-9
1 day ago · Cleveland liegt im Nordosten von Ohio am Südufer des Eriesees, 150 km Luftlinie von Toledo am westlichen und 280 km von Buffalo am östlichen Ende des Sees entfernt sowie rund 145 km südöstlich von Detroit und knapp 100 km westlich der Grenze von Ohio zu Pennsylvania.
- Lower Court Background
- Supreme Court
- Non-Party Involvement
- Post-Ruling Impacts
- See Also
- External Links
In 2002, Robert A. Levy, a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute, began vetting plaintiffs with Clark M. Neily III, for a planned Second Amendment lawsuit that he would personally finance. Although he himself had never owned a gun, as a Constitutional scholar he had an academic interest in the subject and wanted to model his campaign after the legal strategies of Thurgood Marshall, who had successfully led the challenges that overturned school segregation.They aimed for a group that would be diverse in terms of gender, race, economic background, and age, and selected six plaintiffs from their mid-20s to early 60s, three men and three women, four white and two black: Shelly Parker 1. A software designer and former nurse who had been active in trying to rid her neighborhood of drugs. Parker is a single woman whose life had been threatened on numerous occasions by drug dealers who had sometimes tried to break into her house. Tom G. Palmer 1. A colleague of Robert A. Levy at the Cato Inst...
The defendants petitioned the United States Supreme Court to hear the case. The Supreme Court granted certiorari on November 20, 2007.The court rephrased the question to be decided as follows: This represented the first time since the 1939 case United States v. Millerthat the Supreme Court had directly addressed the scope of the Second Amendment.
National Rifle Association
Attorney Alan Gura, in a 2003 filing, used the term "sham litigation" to describe the NRA's attempts to have Parker (aka Heller) consolidated with its own case challenging the D.C. law. Gura also stated that "the NRA was adamant about not wanting the Supreme Court to hear the case". These concerns were based on NRA lawyers' assessment that the justices at the time the case was filed might reach an unfavorable decision. Cato Institute senior fellow Robert Levy, co-counsel to the Parker plainti...
Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence
The Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence opposed the arguments made by the plaintiffs in Parker, and filed amicus curiaeagainst those arguments in both the District and Circuit courts. Paul Helmke, the president of the Brady Campaign, suggested to D.C. before the Court granted certiorari that it modify its gun laws rather than appeal to the Supreme Court.Helmke has written that if the Supreme Court upholds the Circuit court ruling, it "could lead to all current and proposed firearms laws be...
To the lower court rulings
Various experts expressed opinions on the D.C. Circuit's decision. Harvard Law School professor Laurence Tribe contended that the Second Amendment protects an individual right, and predicted that if Parker is reviewed by the Supreme Court "there's a really quite decent chance that it will be affirmed."However, Professor Tribe has also argued that the District's ban on one class of weapons does not violate the Second Amendment even under an individual rights view. Erwin Chemerinsky, then of Du...
To the Supreme Court rulings
Cato Institute senior fellow Robert Levy, co-counsel to the Parkerplaintiffs, agreed with the court's ruling but describes that his interpretation of the Second Amendment would not preclude all governmental regulation of private ownership of weapons: Clark Neily, an attorney for Dick Heller in this case, has said regarding Heller: Richard Posner, judge for the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, compares Heller to Roe v. Wade, stating that it created a federal constitution...
Since the June 2008 ruling, over 80 different cases have been heard in lower federal courts on the constitutionality of a wide variety of gun control laws. These courts have heard lawsuits in regard to bans of firearm possession by felons, drug addicts, illegal aliens, and individuals convicted of domestic violence misdemeanors.Also, cases have been heard on the constitutionality of laws prohibiting certain types of weapons, such as machine guns, sawed-off shotguns and/or specific types of weapons attachments. In addition, courts have heard challenges to laws barring guns in post offices and near schools and laws outlawing "straw" purchases, carrying of concealed weapons, types of ammunition and possession of unregistered firearms. The courts have upheld most of these laws as being constitutional.The basis for the lower court rulings is the dicta in the paragraph near the end of the Heller ruling that states: Consistently since the Heller ruling, the lower federal courts have ruled...
Initial reaction has deemed the Heller ruling to be of great significance, although it remains too soon to tell what the long-term effects may be. Sanford Levinson has written that he is inclined to believe that the Hellerdecision will be relatively insignificant to the practice of law in the long run but that it will have significance to other groups interested in cultural literacy and constitutional designers. In 2009, both Levinson and Mark Tushnet speculated that it is quite unlikely that the case would be studied as part of casebooks of future law schools. As was predicted, a large surge of court cases was seen in lower federal courts in the aftermath of the 2008 ruling. As of March 2009[update], over 80 cases had been filed seeking to overturn existing gun laws.[needs update] The decision in McDonald v. City of Chicago, which was brought in response to Heller and decided in 2010, did invalidate much of Chicago's gun purchase and registration laws, and has called into question...
1. Doherty, Brian (2009-02-25). Gun Control on Trial: Inside the Supreme Court Battle over the Second Amendment. Cato Institute. ISBN 978-1-933995-25-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) 2. Heller Opinion, "District of Columbia, et al., v. Dick Anthony Heller. 554 U.S. 570 (2008)" (PDF). United States Supreme Court. 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2010-02-19. 3. Parker Opinion, "Shelly Parker, et al. v. District of Columbia and Adrian M. Fenty, Mayor of the District of Columbia, Case No. 04-7041" (PDF). United...Works related to District of Columbia v. Hellerat WikisourceText of District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008) is available from: CornellCourtListenerGoogle ScholarJustiaSupreme Court (slip opinion)United States Department of Justice Solicitor General 1-11-2008 amicus curiaebrief
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