- Roman Catholicism (often simply Catholicism) is a branch of Christianity founded on Earth in the 1st century, C.E. It is distinct from the other main branches of the Christian faith, Protestantism and Orthodox. The Roman Catholic Church is headquartered in Vatican City, an independent polity in Rome, European Alliance.
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The Catholic Church, sometimes referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2018. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution,  it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western ...
From the 17th century, "Roman Catholic Church" has been used as a synonym for the Catholic Church by some Anglicans and other Protestants in English-speaking countries. Formulations such as the "Holy Roman Church" or the "Roman Catholic Church" have occurred by officials of the Catholic Church before and after the Reformation.
Catholicism is the traditions and beliefs of Catholic Churches. It refers to their theology, liturgy, morals and spirituality. The term usually refers to churches, both western and eastern, that are in full communion with the Holy See. In 2012, there were more than 1.1 billion Catholics worldwide. This makes up more than 17% of the world population. The word "Catholicism" comes from the Greek word catholikismos. This means "according to the whole".
The Catholic Church is "the Catholic Communion of Churches, both Roman and Eastern, or Oriental, that are in full communion with the Bishop of Rome." The church is also known by members as the People of God, the Body of Christ, the "Temple of the Holy Spirit", among other names. According to Vatican II's Gaudium et spes, the "church has but one sole purpose–that the kingdom of God may come and the salvation of the human race may be accomplished." This communion of churches comprises the ...CountryTotal population% CatholicCatholic totalAfghanistan (details)29,928,9870.0003%100Albania (details)3,020,00010%302,000Algeria (details)32,531,8530.14%45,000Andorra (details)70,00088.2%61,740
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Catholicism as the official religion of the Holy Roman Empire Ecclesiastical provinces and episcopal sees in Central Europe, A.D. 1500 In medieval times, Catholicism was the only official religion within the Holy Roman Empire .
- Criticism of Roman Catholic Beliefs
- Criticism of Roman Catholic Prayer and Worship
- Criticism of Roman Catholic Organization
- Criticism of Roman Catholic Actions in History
- See Also
Opposition to teaching on Biblical grounds
Some Protestants charge that many Catholic teachings are unbiblical.
Catholics have venerated Mary and other saints for supplication, or requested help of some sort. Some Protestant Christians argued that in order for Mary and the saints to actually hear all the prayers directed to them, they would by necessity be required to possess the attributes of omniscience and omnipresence, thus allowing them to know all the requests made by either ultimate knowledge or by actually being present with each supplicant simultaneously. Many Protestant churches have not trad...
1. For the critics of the traditional role of women in Latin America, see: Marianismo. Dr. R. Albert Mohler, Jr., president of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, asserted "The issue of Mary remains one of the hottest debates on the Protestant/Roman Catholic divide, and new proposals for Marian doctrines are likely to ignite a theological conflagration. At stake is not only the biblical understanding of Mary, but the integrity of the work of Christ."
Use of Latin
Before the reforms from Vatican II in the late 1960s the Roman Catholic Church was best known outside the church for the Tridentine mass, said mostly in Latin with a few sentences in Ancient Greek and Hebrew. During the Reformation the Protestants almost totally rejected the use of Latin as "hocus pocus". The French Catholic Church in the 18th century adapted vernacular missals in some dioceses. In 1794 the Synod of Pistoia, firmly influenced by Jansenism, rejected the use of Latin and demand...
In Roman Catholic theology, Papal infallibility was the dogma that the Pope is preserved from error when he solemnly promulgated, or declared, to the Church solely on faith or morals. This doctrine has a long history, but was not defined dogmatically until the First Vatican Councilof 1870. In Catholic theology, papal infallibility was one of the channels of the Infallibility of the Church. Papal infallibility does not signify that the Pope was divinely inspired or that he was specially exempt...
The Roman Catholic Church's discipline of mandatory celibacy for Latin-Rite priests (while allowing very limited individual exceptions) is criticized for differing from Christian traditions issuing from the Protestant Reformation, which apply no limitations, and even from the practice of the ancient Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, which, while requiring celibacy for bishops and priestmonks and excluding marriage by priests after ordination, do allow married men to be ordained...
1. For the critics of the traditional role of women in Latin America, see: Marianismo. The Church had been praised by many historians[who?] as having raised the dignity of women relative to their treatment in pagan societies (e.g. the Roman paterfamiliashad at least theoretical legal authority over women in his family). Women were treated by medieval knights as ladies, a custom characterized by gentleness and reverence inspired by the Roman Catholic Church's veneration for a woman, Mary, as t...
This section, organized chronologically, covers historical actions for which the Western church and the Roman Catholic Church, have been criticised.Anti-CatholicismRoman Catholicism's links with political authoritiesKing-James-Only MovementAnti-Protestantism
The Catholic Church in France is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope in Rome. Established in the 2nd century in unbroken communion with the bishop of Rome, it is sometimes called the "eldest daughter of the church" ( French: fille aînée de l'Église). Catholic Church in France.